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New Directions for SLN
Research: 2009-2012
                      Peter Shea
   Senior Researcher for the SUNY Learning Net...
   Where we have been – some lessons learned
   Where we are going (maybe)
   New people, research questions, methods
...
Where we have been with SLN
Research: Early results
   In the late 1990s the questions were more
    concerned with “can ...
Where we have been with SLN
Research: Early results
   Students loved online learning: reported high
    levels of satisf...
More early lessons learned
   The discipline of study did not play a big role in
    satisfaction or reported learning
 ...
Background
                  Growth in complete online courses offered




3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

 500

   0
      ...
Background
                  Growth in enrollments




50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

    0
        95-96   96-97   97...
Background
                     Growth in complete online degree programs




60
         Certificates
50
         Associa...
Learning Effectiveness
   In several surveys we asked students to compare
    their level of learning online to a compara...
Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta-
Analyses of OL vs. CI




                    Confirmed our early
                  ...
The question is “why”?
   Students report that they learn more online
   Studies of learning outcomes “confirm” that the...
Need a theory (or theories)
   In 2002 we began work on Community of Inquiry
    Theory
   Initially used Teaching Prese...
Led to additional research on CoI
   Large scale inter-institutional effort to validate the
    CoI model
   Publication...
Current directions in CoI Research
   Coding entire courses for instances of Teaching
    Presence, Social Presence, Cogn...
Some results
   Code “whole course” rather than just the threaded
    discussion
Instructor TP by In/Out of Threaded Discussion




When we coded other artifacts outside the course, we see that Instructo...
Instructor TP by Course Area




Instructor A utilized private folders as the primary means of communication while
Instruc...
Other “surprises”
   We coded for all the “presences”
   But CoI is a process model, so…
   We also coded for the Struc...
Issues with the CoI Model
   In coding “whole courses” issues arose
   Students are trying to accomplish goals that don’...
Necessary Negotiations and Remaining Disagreements in Student
         Debates

                 Course B Con 1           ...
Need more research…
   To understand circumstances under which online
    environments result in better learning outcomes...
   Getting started
   More experienced
   Jason Vickers                 Lilia Cai-Hurteau
   Sedef Uzuner                  Jerry Lin
   Suzanne Hayes         ...
   Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (in review). Understanding different learning
    outcomes in hybrid and online environments:...
   Community of Inquiry Model (Garrison et. al.)
   Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers)
   Chronotopes (time/space) (Bahkt...
   How well does CoI framework describe/explain/predict online
    learners attitudes and performance in online environme...
   Surveys
   SEM
   Data Mining
   QCA
   Text analysis
   Design experiment
   Focus group/interviews
A new model for research
   SLN research associates partner with campuses
    to investigate questions of mutual interest...
Services
Assistance with:
 Research design

 Data collection

 Analysis

 Reporting

 Publication

 Presentation opp...
Your thoughts?
   Are there questions you would like to investigate?
   Are there faculty on your campus who might like ...
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research
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Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research

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SLN SOLsummit 2010
http://slnsolsummit2010.edublogs.org
February 25, 2010

Peter Shea, Senior SLN Researcher, SUNY Albany

New Directions in SLN Research
The SLN Research Agenda is in a state of dynamic change. Following on more than a decade of survey research chronicling the rise of online learning in higher education and responding to the expressed interests of the SLN community we are now moving to new research questions and methods. This presentation will provide an overview of lessons learned and present a variety of new research approaches that investigate how people learn online (HPLO). The new HPLO framework seeks to address the changing nature of teaching and learning in technology mediated environments through the application of quantitative content analysis, action research, design experimentation and other quantitative and qualitative methods. This session will conclude with a discussion of needs for local research projects and services that can be provided including research design, data collection, analysis, reporting, publication, and presentation opportunities.

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Transcript of "Peter Shea's New Directions in SLN Research"

  1. 1. New Directions for SLN Research: 2009-2012 Peter Shea Senior Researcher for the SUNY Learning Network Educational Theory and Practice & CCI University at Albany, SUNY
  2. 2.  Where we have been – some lessons learned  Where we are going (maybe)  New people, research questions, methods  Publications/presentations  Example of current topics, questions  We need your help!
  3. 3. Where we have been with SLN Research: Early results  In the late 1990s the questions were more concerned with “can we really do this?”  Will students accept online learning?  Will faculty accept online learning?  Will it work for some disciplines and not others?  Will age, gender or other demographics play a big role?
  4. 4. Where we have been with SLN Research: Early results  Students loved online learning: reported high levels of satisfaction and learning “a great deal”  Happiest students reported highest levels of interaction with faculty and other students (quantity and quality)  Happiest students more concerned with interaction with instructors than other students.
  5. 5. More early lessons learned  The discipline of study did not play a big role in satisfaction or reported learning  Appeared that students in many different disciplines could be satisfied with online learning  Gender played a small but significant role with woman reporting somewhat higher satisfaction, fewer technical difficulties, more learning…  Looked like this thing could take off…
  6. 6. Background Growth in complete online courses offered 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 "02-03"
  7. 7. Background Growth in enrollments 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 "02-03"
  8. 8. Background Growth in complete online degree programs 60 Certificates 50 Associate 40 Baccalaureate Graduate Degree 30 20 10 0 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 "02-03"
  9. 9. Learning Effectiveness  In several surveys we asked students to compare their level of learning online to a comparable course they had taken in the classroom  We found that the majority of student reported that they learned more online than in the classroom…
  10. 10. Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta- Analyses of OL vs. CI Confirmed our early results…… 13
  11. 11. The question is “why”?  Students report that they learn more online  Studies of learning outcomes “confirm” that they do.  Why is this?
  12. 12. Need a theory (or theories)  In 2002 we began work on Community of Inquiry Theory  Initially used Teaching Presence ◦ Instructional Design, Facilitating Discourse, Direct Instruction  Students who had faculty who did teaching presence training rated their courses better on every component of that construct  Also reported learning more than students whose instructors had not taken such training
  13. 13. Led to additional research on CoI  Large scale inter-institutional effort to validate the CoI model  Publication of factor analysis of CoI survey  Development of a model that outlined the interactions of “presences” with each other
  14. 14. Current directions in CoI Research  Coding entire courses for instances of Teaching Presence, Social Presence, Cognitive Presence  Attempting to replicate research on “perceptions” of cognitive presence at individual course level and learner level  Document the process of knowledge construction  Document the outcomes of collaborative knowledge construction
  15. 15. Some results  Code “whole course” rather than just the threaded discussion
  16. 16. Instructor TP by In/Out of Threaded Discussion When we coded other artifacts outside the course, we see that Instructor B exhibited higher levels of teaching presence than the instructor who participated in the course discussion.
  17. 17. Instructor TP by Course Area Instructor A utilized private folders as the primary means of communication while Instructor B utilized email most often. Further evidence that that the majority of instructor TP will be found outside the traditionally coded area of threaded discussions.
  18. 18. Other “surprises”  We coded for all the “presences”  But CoI is a process model, so…  We also coded for the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxononmy  Students didn’t score very highly on either  Why? Difference instructional goals? Different instructional/learning metaphors?
  19. 19. Issues with the CoI Model  In coding “whole courses” issues arose  Students are trying to accomplish goals that don’t seem to fit in the model  Coders can’t agree how many of the student interactions should be coded  Evidence that there is something going on that the model doesn’t reflect
  20. 20. Necessary Negotiations and Remaining Disagreements in Student Debates Course B Con 1 Course B Con 2 Remaining Remaining Disagreeme Disagreeme PRE POST nt Change PRE POST nt Change DE-DE 0 5 +5 DE-DE 2 2 DE-NC 0 0 DE-NC 0 0 NC-DE 9 3 3 -6 NC-DE 1 1 1 FD-FD 0 0 FD-FD 4 11 +7 FD-NC 3 3 3 FD-NC 9 4 4 NC-FD 1 1 1 NC-FD 2 0 -2 DI-DI 1 3 +2 DI-DI 4 5 +1 DI-NC 0 0 DI-NC 1 0 -1 NC-DI 2 1 1 -1 NC-DI 2 0 -2 AS-AS 0 5 +5 AS-AS 0 2 +2 AS-NC 6 0 -6 AS-NC 5 3 3 -2 NC-AS 0 0 NC-AS 1 0 -1 NC-NC 20 21 +1 NC-NC 25 26 +1 42 42 8 56 54 8 Debates IRR – Course B Cohen’s Kappa Holsti’s CR Pre Post Pre Post Con 1 -0.063 0.683 0.538 0.861 Con 2 0.338 0.763 0.700 0.885
  21. 21. Need more research…  To understand circumstances under which online environments result in better learning outcomes we need more research  More and better theoretical frameworks  More people working on the question  More settings for research  More help from others
  22. 22.  Getting started  More experienced
  23. 23.  Jason Vickers Lilia Cai-Hurteau  Sedef Uzuner Jerry Lin  Suzanne Hayes Prahalad Rangan  Mary Gozza-Cohen Lenore Horowitz  Ruchi Mehta Chun-Sau Li  Anna Nolan Stacey McCall  Temi Bidjerano Asil Ozdogru  Anna Valtcheva Alexandra Pickett  Task has been to participate/contribute to an ongoing project of research and co-author a paper/presentation
  24. 24.  Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (in review). Understanding different learning outcomes in hybrid and online environments: An empirical investigation of the Community of Inquiry Framework. Journal of Interactive Learning Environments.  Shea, P., Hayes, S., Vickers, J., Uzuner, S., Gozza-Cohen, M, Mehta, R. & Valtcheva, A., Rangan, P. (in review). A quantitative content analysis of two online course: Processes, outcomes, learning, grades. British Journal of Educational Technology.  Shea, P., Hayes, S., Vickers, J., Uzuner, S., Gozza-Cohen, M, Mehta, R. & Valtcheva, A. (2010). A reexamination of the community of inquiry framework: Social network and quantitative content analysis. The Internet and Higher Education, doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.11.002.  Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster "epistemic engagement" and "cognitive presence" in online education. Computers and Education, 52 (3), 543 – 553.  Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Cognitive presence: A cluster analysis. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 21(3), 199-217.
  25. 25.  Community of Inquiry Model (Garrison et. al.)  Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers)  Chronotopes (time/space) (Bahktin)  Self Efficacy (Bandura) – Self Regulated Learning (Zimmerman, Pintrich)  Epistemic Engagement (Lareamendy-Joerns)  Need others…
  26. 26.  How well does CoI framework describe/explain/predict online learners attitudes and performance in online environments?  What factors motivate/undermine motivation of faculty to teach online?  What motivates contributors to OER initiatives?  How does LE (f2f, hybrid, online) shape quality of learning?  Gender and online learning  Language learning online  K-12 online learning: stakeholder attitudes  Interaction types: content interactions  Self regulated learning and self efficacy  Others – from you…
  27. 27.  Surveys  SEM  Data Mining  QCA  Text analysis  Design experiment  Focus group/interviews
  28. 28. A new model for research  SLN research associates partner with campuses to investigate questions of mutual interest  Design a research study collaboratively  Develop research questions  Collect data  Analyze data  Report results ◦ White papers, conferences, journals
  29. 29. Services Assistance with:  Research design  Data collection  Analysis  Reporting  Publication  Presentation opportunities  Seeking additional external funding
  30. 30. Your thoughts?  Are there questions you would like to investigate?  Are there faculty on your campus who might like to collaborate on online education research?  What topics?  What questions?  Can we expand upon current pilot projects?
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