Learning Presence


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Learning Presence presentation by SLN senior researcher, Dr. Peter Shea from the SLN ID RoundTable session at SUNY CIT 2010 in Plattsburgh, NY.

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Learning Presence

  1. 1. Learning Presence Peter Shea Senior Researcher – SUNY Learning Network & Associate Professor University at Albany State University of New York
  2. 2. Current Shift in US Higher Education
  3. 3. Current Shift
  4. 4. Current Shift
  5. 5. Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta- Analyses of OL vs. CI 5
  6. 6.  Though the average effect size is “small” when “time” is the mediator the size is “medium”  The mean effect size for studies with more time spent on task by online learners than learners in the control condition was +0.46 (Means, et.al., 2009)
  7. 7. Need for new theories…  Need a new theory of learning online…
  8. 8. Community of Inquiry Framework (Garrison et. al)
  9. 9. Still missing the “learner”  What do effective learners do with their time in the online space?
  10. 10.  Good (online) learners are  Strategic  Active  Reflective  Missingthis focus in Community of Inquiry Framework
  11. 11.  Overall,the available research evidence suggests that promoting self-reflection, self-regulation and self-monitoring leads to more positive online learning outcomes.  Features such as prompts for reflection, self-explanation and self-monitoring strategies have shown promise for improving online learning outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009)
  12. 12. What to regulate though?  Current theories of self regulated learning tied to earlier oral epistemology of “knowing” as memorizing  Learning online requires different self regulation  Difficult and increasingly irrelevant to document “memorization”
  13. 13.  Planning and time management  Organizing and transforming course materials (e.g. sorting/printing discussions)  Environmental structuring (e.g. working from fast internet connections)  Self-monitoring/record keeping (# posts/grades)  Help seeking (professor and other students)  Reflection (on performance/effort)  Self-efficacy/attributions for success (predicts effort) Whipp, 2004
  14. 14.  Used the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ) in Spring 2010 Consists of six subscales  environment structuring  goal setting  time management  help seeking  task strategies  self-evaluation  More than 2200 online learner respondents…
  15. 15. Learner Difficulties in Current Chronotopic Shift  Initial results suggesting learners are struggling in some areas of the transition to virtual learning environments
  16. 16.  37. Although we don’t have to attend daily classes I try to distribute my studying consistently across days in a way that gives me enough time to be successful in my online classes.  36. I try to schedule time every day or every week to study for my online courses, and I observe the schedule  41. I am persistent in getting help from my online instructor when I need it  42. I reflect on my learning in online courses to examine my understanding of what I have learned.  43. I ask myself a lot of questions about the course material when studying for an online course
  17. 17.  33. I prepare my questions before joining in online discussions  35. I allocate extra studying time for my online courses because I know its time demanding  38. I find someone who is knowledgeable in course content so that I can consult with him or her when I need help  44. I interact with my classmates to help me understand how I am doing in my online classes  39. I share my problems with my classmates online so we know what we are struggling with and how to solve our problems
  18. 18. Additional Recent Learning Presence Research Medium of Instruction Teaching Effort Presence Cognitive Self-efficacy Presence Social Presence
  19. 19. Current Results  Suggest that students in blended environments have better self efficacy  Physical presence of instructors appears to foster confidence in learners  What can we do with online instructional design to help?
  20. 20. Suggestions for Revised Community of Inquiry Framework
  21. 21. Thank You  Peter Shea  University at Albany, SUNY  pshea@uamail.albany.edu  518-442-4009