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Improve your online course: meeting the needs of diverse learners Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Alexandra M. Pickett Assistant Director SUNY Learning Network Faculty Development & Learning Design 2001 Sloan-C Award for Excellence in ALN Faculty Development Improve Your Online Course Meeting the needs of diverse online learners
  • 2. Introduction
          • What are the characteristics of your blended/online students?
          • Who are they? What do they want? What do they like/dislike? Where are they? What do they need?
          • What makes a blended/online learning environment effective?
          • What works? What does not?
          • What is one ‘best practice’ you would share with others?
          • Share what you know!
  • 3. Introduction This workshop will provide:
    • A discussion about pedagogy, andragogy, the new millennial student, and online students.
    • - to understand the online student.
    • A theoretical framework.
      • An overview of “Teaching Presence.”
      • An overview of “Class Community.”
    • - to provide some guidelines that are effective in addressing the needs of diverse online learners.
    • An opportunity to turn theory into practice.
    • - to provide a mechanism to evaluate and suggestions to improve your online course .
    Introduction
  • 4.
    • Faculty Development:
      • Large scale and unique vantage point.
      • Opportunity to influence and share best practices across the design of all courses.
      • Research. A theoretical framework and foundation that moves theory to practice.
      • Consistent quality - effective practices.
      • SLN student satisfaction surveys: the most significant contributing factor to student satisfaction and reported learning is student/teacher interaction. Second is student to student interaction.
    Background Background
  • 5. Pedagogy Andragogy Pedagogy Andragogy Pedagogy vs. Andragogy Millennials and Adult learners = online learners Brainstorm some effective strategies for meeting the needs of diverse online learners.
  • 6. Pedagogy Andragogy !
      • According
      • to Malcolm Knowles
      • 1970’s
    A Comparison… Learning experiences should be based around experiences, since people are performance centered in their learning. Acquisition of subject matter. Curriculum organized by subjects. Orientation to learning People learn what they need to know, so that learning is organized around real life application. People learn what society expects them to. So that the curriculum is standardized. Readiness to learn Interactive. Teaching methods include discussion, problem-solving, etc. Passive. Teaching methods are didactic. The learner's experience Moves towards independence . Self-directed. Teacher encourages and nurtures this movement. Dependent. Teacher directs what, when, how a subject is learned and tests that it has been learned. The learner Andragogy Pedagogy  
  • 7. Pedagogy Andragogy Assumptions… learn best when the topic is of immediate value. approach learning as problem-solving. need to learn experientially. need to know why they need to learn something. adults children  
  • 8. Pedagogy Andragogy Today… * Adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005. Adults Content is what is important… Process is more important than content… Approach Teacher centered Self centered Focus Conventional speed Step by step Linear processing Text first Work oriented Stand alone That is all they know… Twitch speed Random access Parallel processing Graphics first Play oriented Connected Bored and disengaged by traditional educational methods and instructional design approaches. educators students Digital immigrants* Millennials/digital natives*   children
  • 9. Pedagogy Andragogy Tomorrow… Adults * Adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005. Engagement ? Approach Learner centered Still self centered Focus Twitch speed Random access Parallel processing Graphics first Play oriented Connected Exponential changes in technology/information/communication in the future… educators students Millennials/digital natives* + What is next…??   children
  • 10. Pedagogy Andragogy !
      • Three key
      • changes
      • in attitudes
      • & behaviors
      • are required!
    Digital Natives, Millennials, & Andragogy oh my...
    • How can we meet the needs of diverse online learners?
    • Create an Engaging Online Learning Environment.
    • - Put engagement above content!!
    • in part adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005.
    1
  • 11. Pedagogy Andragogy !
      • Three key
      • changes
      • in attitudes
      • & behaviors
      • are required!
    Digital Natives, Millennials, & Andragogy oh my...
    • How can we meet the needs of diverse online learners?
    • Create an Engaging Online Learning Environment.
    • - Put engagement above content!!
    • Focus on learning, not on teaching.
    • - Let the student be your guide!!
    • in part adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005.
    2 1
  • 12. Pedagogy Andragogy !
      • Three key
      • changes
      • in attitudes
      • & behaviors
      • are required!
    Digital Natives, Millennials, & Andragogy oh my...
    • How can we meet the needs of diverse online learners?
    • Create an Engaging Online Learning Environment.
    • - Put engagement above content!!
    • Focus on learning, not on teaching.
    • - Let the student be your guide!!
    • Let the students do most of the work.
    • - Step aside!!
    • in part adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005.
    3 2 1
  • 13. Pedagogy Andragogy Theory to Practice...
    • How would you do it?
    • Imagine one Engaging Online Learning activity.
    • - Put engagement above content!!
    • Imagine one activity that gives the students choice.
    • - Let the student be your guide!!
    • Imagine one activity where students do most of the work.
    • - Step aside!!
    3 2 1
  • 14. Pedagogy Andragogy
        • How can I tell if I am doing it right?
    • Ask your students!
    • Use metacognitive journaling/descriptive feedback.
    • Metrics*:
      • Would your online students tell/show/get their friends to do it?
      • Would your online students spend their own money for it?
      • Would your online students do it in their spare time?
    Engage the Learner
            • *Adapted from Marc Prensky , 2005.
  • 15. Theory Theory How people learn. Critical Inquiry in a text-based environment. The seven principles of good practice. The framework that guides us:
  • 16. Theory
    • Knowledge Centered – Outcomes oriented - knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful transfer.
    • Learner Centered – Connect to the strengths, interests, and preconceptions of learners and help them learn about themselves as learners.
    • Community Centered – Environment where students feel safe to ask questions, learn to work collaboratively, and are helped to develop lifelong learning skills.
    • Assessment Centered – Provide multiple opportunities to make students’ thinking visible so they can receive feedback and be given a chance to revise.
    • Bransford et al, 2000.
    !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are...
    How People Learn...
  • 17. Theory !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that support...
    Critical inquiry in a text-based environment...
    • Social Presence – “the ability of students to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry. ”
    • Cognitive Presence – “the extent to which students are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained discourse in a community of inquiry. ”
    • Teaching Presence – “the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes .”
    • Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
  • 18. Theory
        • The effective online course instructor...
    • Encourages student-faculty contact & interaction.
    • Encourages student cooperation and reciprocity.
    • Encourages active learning.
    • Gives prompt feedback.
    • Emphasizes time on task.
    • Communicates high expectations.
    • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
    • Adapted from The Seven Principals of good Practice in Undergraduate Education - Chickering, and Gamson 1987.
    !
      • Principles
      • of good practice in online Teaching
      • and
      • Learning
    Seven Principles...
  • 19. Theory !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are...
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000.
    An emerging framework... Community Assessment Centered Knowledge Centered Learner Centered
  • 20. Theory !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are and support...
    An emerging framework...
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000.
    • Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment - Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
    Online Learning Community Teaching Presence Assessment-Centered Social Presence Knowledge -Centered Cognitive Presence Learner/learning-Centered Setting Climate Supporting Discourse/Interaction Selecting Content
  • 21. Theory !
      • Best Practices
      • in effective online learning environment design
    An emerging framework...
    • Encourage student-faculty contact and interaction.
    • Encourage student cooperation and reciprocity.
    • Encourage active learning.
    • Give prompt feedback.
    • Emphasize time on task.
    • Communicate high expectations.
    • Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
    • The Seven Principals of good Practice in Undergraduate Education - Chickering, and Gamson 1987.
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000
    • Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment - Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
    Online Learning Community Teaching Presence Assessment-Centered Social Presence Knowledge -Centered Cognitive Presence Learner/learning-Centered Setting Climate Supporting Discourse/Interaction Selecting Content
  • 22. Improve Your Online Course Theory to Practice... How can you do that? Take the survey. - http://sln.suny.edu/teachingsurvey Small group activity: - Discuss the survey!! Group Reports. Tips to share. 3 2 1
  • 23. Teaching Presence Teaching Presence Facilitating Discourse Direct Instruction Instructional Design & Organization
    • Effective Online Teaching Presence - the facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
    • Adapted from Anderson 2001.
  • 24. . . .
    • Identifying areas of agreement and disagreement.
    • Seeking to reach consensus and understanding.
    • Encouraging, acknowledging, and reinforcing student contributions.
    • Setting the climate for learning.
    • Drawing in participants, prompting discussion/interaction.
    • Assessing the efficacy of the process.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
  • 25. . . . Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization 73% of students expressed agreement that their instructors facilitated discourse effectively. 72% of student expressed agreement that their classmates facilitated discourse effectively. These percentages correlate directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • 26. . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
    • Presenting content and questions.
    • Focusing the discussion.
    • Summarizing the discussion.
    • Confirming understanding.
    • Diagnosing misperceptions.
    • Injecting knowledge from diverse sources.
    • Responding to technical concerns.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . .
  • 27. . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . 76% of students expressed agreement that their instructors provided direct instruction effectively. 66% of student expressed agreement that their classmates provided direct instruction effectively. These percentages correlate directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • 28. . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
    • Setting the curriculum.
    • Designing methods.
    • Establishing time parameters.
    • Utilizing the medium effectively.
    • Establishing netiquette.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . .
  • 29. . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . Overall, 85% of student respondents agreed that the indicators for this category were present in their courses. This percentage correlates directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • 30. Class Community Class Community
      • Two components...
    • Connectedness
    • Learning
    • Effective Online Class Community - A rich productive online teaching and learning milieu that engenders trust, spirit, connectedness, belonging, membership and support , and that results in faculty and students that report high levels of satisfaction and learning.
    • Adapted from Rovai 2002, Wenger 1997, Scardamalia and Berieter, 1996.
  • 31. . . . C onnectedness L earning Class Community: from theory to practice. . .
    • Building social/group spirit.
    • Establishing trust.
  • 32. . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . .
    • Engaging in supportive contact and interaction.
    • Sharing educational expectations.
    C onnectedness L earning
  • 33. . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . Our research shows that there is a relationship between teaching presence and the development of community in online learning environments Courses characterized by effective teaching presence are more likely to develop a stronger sense of community on the part of the students = high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning. C onnectedness L earning
  • 34. . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . C onnectedness L earning
    • Create and provide ample opportunities for interaction.
    • Create and use activities that build a sense of class community.
    • Build/design activities that create a sense of connectedness between the students and the instructor.
    • Create a learning environment that is engaging with supportive contact and interaction.
  • 35. . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . C onnectedness L earning Online courses that are designed to promote a sense of class community, where there are ample opportunities for interaction and the social construction of knowledge, result in online teaching and learning communities of satisfied students and faculty.
  • 36. What works? Conclusion
    • To effectively meet the needs of diverse online learners you will need to engage in behaviors that are likely to result in high levels of learning and student satisfaction. To achieve this goal you will need to:
      • Create and Engaging Online Learning Environment.
      • Focus on learning, not on teaching.
      • Let the students do most of the work.
      • Create/Provide an online learning environment that:
        • Is learner/learning-centered, knowledge-centered, assessment-centered, and community-centered.
        • Incorporates the seven principles of good practice in online teaching and learning.
        • Promotes high levels of “teaching presence.”
        • Provides and fosters a strong and effective sense of online “class community.”
  • 37. ? Any questions ? Any questions
  • 38. Thank you! Thank you!
    • Alexandra M. Pickett
    • [email_address]
          • sln.suny.edu/teachingsurvey
          • sln.suny.edu/developer
          • sln.suny.edu