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Understanding Traditional and Progressive Approaches to Learner-Centered Instruction

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Understanding Traditional and Progressive Approaches to Learner-Centered Instruction – Karen Bull, Assistant Director of Distance Learning, Onondaga Community College …

Understanding Traditional and Progressive Approaches to Learner-Centered Instruction – Karen Bull, Assistant Director of Distance Learning, Onondaga Community College

SLN SOLsummit 2012
March 7-9, 21012
SUNY Global Center

Published in: Education

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  • 1. Understanding  Traditional  and   Progressive  Approaches  to  Learner-­‐Centered  Instruction     Karen  Z.  Bull,  M.Ed.   Assistant  Director  of  Distance  Learning   Onondaga  Community  College  
  • 2. Agenda  *  Current  Course  Design  *  Understanding  By  Design   *  Results   *  Evidence   *  Experiences  and  Instruction  *  6  Facets  of  Understanding  *  Conclusion   2  
  • 3. Be  Clear  Identify  Desired  Results   3  
  • 4. Should  we  put  down   what  we  think  is  right,   or  what  we  think  you   think  is  right?  Be  Specific  Determine  Acceptable  Evidence   4  
  • 5. Course  Design  *  Focus  on  a  Topic  (Racial  Prejudice)  *  Use  a  Particular  Resource  (To  Kill  A  Mockingbird)  *  Choose  Specific  Instructional  Method  (Seminar  to   discuss  the  book  and  cooperative  groups  to  analyze   stereotypical  images  in  films  and  on  television)  *  To  cause  learning  to  meet  a  giving  standard  (The   student  will  understand  the  nature  of  prejudice  and   the  difference  between  generalizations  and   stereotypes)   5  
  • 6. Road  Trip   6  
  • 7. Understanding  By  Design   “To  begin  with  the  end  in  mind  means  to  start  with  a   clear  understanding  of  your  destination.  It  means  to  know  where  you’re  going  so  that  you  better  understand   where  you  are  now  so  that  the  steps  you  take  are   always  in  the  right  direction.”     -­‐Stephen  R.  Covey   7  
  • 8. “Educational  objectives  become  the  criteria  by  which  materials  are  selected,  content  is  outlined,  instructional  procedures  are  developed,  and  tests  and  examinations  are  prepared…The  purpose  of  a  statement  of  objectives  is  to  indicate  the  kinds  of  changes  in  the  student  to  be  brought  about  so  that  instructional  activities  can  be  planned  and  developed  in  a  way  likely  to  attain  these  objectives”  (Tyler,  1949,  pp  1,  45).   8  
  • 9. Many  Hats   9  
  • 10. Rethinking  Course  Design  *  3  Main  Stages   1.  Identify  desired  results   2.  Determine  acceptable  evidence   3.  Plan  learning  experiences  and  instruction   10  
  • 11. Curricular  Priorities   11  
  • 12. Rethinking  Course  Design  *  3  Main  Stages   1.  Identify  desired  results   2.  Determine  acceptable  evidence   3.  Plan  learning  experiences  and  instruction   12  
  • 13. Assessment  Methods   13  
  • 14. Fair  Assessment  
  • 15. Assessment  Alignment  
  • 16. Proof   16  
  • 17. Specific  and  Clear   17  
  • 18. Rethinking  Course  Design  *  3  Main  Stages   1.  Identify  desired  results   2.  Determine  acceptable  evidence   3.  Plan  learning  experiences  and  instruction   18  
  • 19. 6  Facets  of  Understanding   *  Explain   *  Interpret   *  Apply   *  Perspective   *  Empathize   *  Self-­‐Knowledge   19  
  • 20. Facet  1:  Explanation  “We  see  something  moving,  hear  a  sound  expectedly,  smell  an  unusual  order,  and  we  ask;  What  is  it?...When  we  have  found  out   what  it  signifies,  a  squirrel  running,  two  persons  conversing,  an   explosion  of  gunpowder,  we  say  that  we  understand.”     (Dewey,  1933,  pp.  137,  146)  
  • 21. ...Facet  1…  *  Course  Design:   *  Assessment   *  Problem-­‐based  learning       *  Performance  tasks   *  Effective  hands-­‐on     *  Projects   *  Prompts  and  tests  that  ask   *  Effective  minds-­‐on   students  to  explain     *  Science  programs   *  Link  specific  facts  with   larger  ideas     *  Show  their  work,     *  Support  their  conclusions.   21  
  • 22. Facet  2:  Interpretation   Juzo  Itami’s  films  revealed   truths  to  the  Japanese  they   never  knew  existed  –  even   though  they  were  right   there  in  their  daily  life.    “He   could  express  the  inside   story  about  things  people   think  they  understand  but   really  don’t,”  said  film  critic   Jun  Ishiko.  (Washington  Post,  1997,  p.  A1)   22  
  • 23. ...Facet  2…  * Learner-­‐Centered  Activities   *  Invite  students  to:   * fashion  an  oral  history  out  of  disparate   interviews   * mathematical  conclusion  out  of  discrete  data   * a  story  interpretation  based  on  careful   reading   23  
  • 24. Facet  3:  Application  [By  understanding]  I  mean   simply  a  sufficient  grasp  of  concepts,  principles,  or  skills   so  that  one  can  bring  them   to  bear  on  new  problems   and  situations,  deciding  in   which  ways  one’s  present   competencies  can  suffice   and  in  which  ways  one  may   require  new  skills  or   knowledge.   (Gardner,  1991,  p.  18)   24  
  • 25. ...Facet  3…  * Learner-­‐Centered  Activities  *  Performance-­‐based  learning:     *  Authentic  tasks   *  Conventional  tests   25  
  • 26. Facet  4:  Perspective   An  important  symptom  of  an   emerging  understanding  is  the   capacity  to  represent  a   problem  in  a  number  of   different  ways  and  to  approach   its  solution  from  varied   vantage  points;  a  single,  ridge   representation  is  unlikely  to   suffice.   (Gardner,  1991,  p.  13)   26  
  • 27. Facet  5:  Empathy  To  understand  is  to  forgive.   -­‐French  proverb   27  
  • 28. Facet  6:  Self-­‐Awareness  It  is  the  duty  of  the  human   understanding  to   understand  that  there  are   things  which  it  cannot   understand,  and  what   those  things  are.   (Kierkegaard,  1959)   28  
  • 29. Thinking  like  an  Assessor   Thinking  like  an  Activity  Designer  What  would  be  sufficient  and  revealing   What  would  be  interesting  and  engaging  evidence  of  understanding?   activities  on  this  topic?  What  performance  tasks  must  anchor  the   What  resources  and  materials  are  available  unit  and  focus  the  instructional  work?   on  this  topic?  How  will  I  be  able  to  distinguish  between   What  will  students  be  doing  in  and  out  of  those  who  really  understand  and  those   class?  What  assignments  will  be  given?  who  don’t  (though  they  seem  to)?  Against  what  criteria  will  I  distinguish   How  will  I  give  students  a  grade  (and  work?   justify  it)?  What  misunderstandings  are  likely?  How   Did  the  activities  work?  Why  or  why  not?  will  I  check  for  those?  
  • 30. Criteria  for  Each  Facet  Facet  1   Facet  2   Facet  3   Facet  4   Facet  5   Facet  6  Explanation   Interpretation   Application   Perspective   Empathy   Self-­‐ Knowledge  Accurate   Meaningful   Effective   Credible   Sensitive   Self-­‐aware  Coherent   Insightful   Efficient   Revealing   Open   Reflective  Justified   Significant   Fluent   Insightful   Receptive   Wise  Systematic   Illustrative   Adaptive   Plausible   Perceptive   Self-­‐adjusting  Predictive   Illuminating   Graceful   Unusual   Tactful   Meta-­‐ Cognitive     30  
  • 31. Rethinking  Course  Design  *  3  Main  Stages   1.  Identify  desired  results   2.  Determine  acceptable  evidence   3.  Plan  learning  experiences  and  instruction   31  
  • 32. Conclusion  Americans  hold  the  notion  that  good  teaching  comes   through  artful  and  spontaneous  interactions  with   students  during  lessons…such  views  minimize  the   importance  of  planning  increasingly  effective  lessons   and  lend  credence  to  the  folk  belief  that  good   teachers  are  born,  not  made…Our  biggest  long-­‐term   problem  is  not  how  we  teach  now  but  that  we  have   no  way  of  getting  better.   (Stingler  &  Hiebert,  1997,  p.  20)   32  
  • 33. Contact   Karen  Z.  Bull,  M.Ed.  Assistant  Director  of  Distance  Learning   Onondaga  Community  College   bullk@sunyocc.edu   33  

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