Emerging
         technologies
              for
         teaching and
           learning:
          touring the
        ...
One problem: How does academia
 tend to apprehend emerging
 technologies?
How does academia tend to apprehend
                   emerging technologies?

• Panic/siege mode
• Vendors
• Futurism met...
Five responses

• Take advantage of
  preexisting projects and
  services
• DIY
• Literacy: new media
• Scan influence
• C...
One theoretical question
What about technological determinism?


“In information ecologies, the spotlight is
  not on tech...
Alternatively:

“Out of the dialectical exchange
 between the media-technological
 ‘base’ and the discursive
 ‘superstruct...
How do information technologies change?

Janet Murray’s two-step
  argument
  1.Theater->film
  2.Printed page->Web
 (Haml...
How do information technologies
              change?
The perception of user degradation:
  “[T]his discovery of yours wil...
“…The specific which you
have discovered is an aid
not to memory, but to
reminiscence, and you give
your disciples not tru...
“… they will be hearers of
 many things and will have
 learned nothing; they will
 appear to be omniscient and
 will gener...
How do information technologies
               change?

         We see information overload:
“We have reason to fear that...
“…Unless we try to prevent this
 danger by separating those books
 which we must throw out or leave
 in oblivion from thos...
How do information technologies
                 change?
Change the format:
   the humble
   marginal
   annotation
• Glos...
New becomes old




Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Rime of the Ancient
     Mariner - second edition, 1817
              (Virgin...
Generate new content types

Another response to overload

• Cyclopedia
  (Ephraim
  Chambers, 1728)
• Encyclopedie (1751-
...
Re-see the past
Dr. Johnson the blogger:
“Of other parts of life, memory can give some
  account; at some hours I have bee...
Seeing the future
•   Extrapolation
•   Delphi
•   Scenarios
•   Futures market
•   Environmental
    scan
Apprehending the futures




               Principles of Forecasting (2001)
(http://www.forecastingprinciples.com/methodo...
Extrapolation
iPhone Apps Store downloads
1. April 2009 1.0 billion
2. July 2009 1.5 billion
3. Sept 2009 2.0 billion

-wo...
Limitations
• Trend lines vary
• Doesn’t account
  for new things
• The Black Swan
  (Taleb, 2007)
Delphi
• Assemble
  experts
• Probe for
  opinions
• Rank and distill
  ideas
• Reiterate
Example: the Horizon Report

• “[A] comprehensive review and analysis of
  research, articles, papers, blogs, and intervie...
Limitations
• Groupthink
• Information
  compression
• The Black Swan
Scenarios
Stories about futures   • Roles and times
• Event and response    • Emergent practices and
• Creativity         ...
Limitations
• Culture
• Resources
• The Black
  Swan
Futures market
Features                 Advantages
• Propositions in time   • Continuous
• Shares to be traded    • Distri...
Will 25 or more institutions be
  participating in Flickr’s Creative
Commons project by March 26, 2009?
Limitations
• Quantitative
  threshold
• Physical proximity
• Market metaphor
• The Black Swan
Scanning
• Environmental
  scanning
• Pattern
  recognition
Crowdsourcing
Different levels      • Crowd computing
• Social network      • Iterated resource feeds
Emergent future: one revolution
Mobile devices             Or ubicomp:
• Phone, WiFi, Bluetooth   • Mark Weiser, 1988ff
• ...
What it means, top-level
“A device ecology”

   -Petra Wentzel, "Wireless All the Way: Users’
  Feedback on Education thro...
What do we already use
     and know?
•   Laptops
•   Mp3 players
•   Clickers
•   Netbooks
•   Machines with IP
    addre...
Ecosystem model

•   Types of wireless
•   Multiple,
    connected devices
•   Web services

Example: iPhone
             ...
Evolving practices and issues
•   Digital layer    • Social
    over spaces        connectors
•   Expanded media   • Multi...
Evolving pedagogies
In class              Out of class:
• Quick polling       • Content delivery
     and associated   • I...
Live search and content access
“Students who have superb search skills have
  introduced useful material or questions into...
Backchannel
              Increased
                 amount and
                 variety of
                 discussion
  ...
Smartphones
Uses out of
   class:
1. Content
   delivery
2. Social
   interaction
3. Content
   capture
“The mobile phone is the primary connection
  tool for most people in the world. In 2020,
  while "one laptop per child" a...
Can we apply clicker pedagogies to
          smartphones?

In class: assessment vs
  constructivist
  approaches
Pedagogic...
Can we apply clicker pedagogies to
          smartphones?
Clickers for questions
• Binary or multiple
• Student-generated
...
Apps for .edu
• iPhone in the lead
• Campus life apps
• Development kits and forks
Smartpens
• Text scanning
  (OCR)
• Audio recording
• Web service




                                                  Mi...
Uses in class
• Discussion
  recordings
• Annotation
• Grading (UQ)
• “Pencasting”


   Professor Shawn Evans,.
Washington...
ebook readers
Advantages
•   Cost savings per book
•   Weight savings
•   Subscription updates
•   Dictionary
•   Public domain by cable
Ebook reader constraints
• Limitations of device interfaces
• Device cost
• Ebook limitations: DRM, availability,
  qualit...
Netbooks continue
Tablets 2.0
Likely uses
From Tablet 1.0:
• drawing (art)
• drawing (math)
• non-Latin characters
  foreign languages
Since 1.0:
• Mult...
Emerging stuff for
     2010
AR moves into a
   boom?
Rotterdam Market Hall;
Mondrian;
Abbey Road;
http://layar.com/layar-30-launched-
        5-cases-to-show-the-power-
      ...
Emerging stuff for   "For all its faults, the keyboard will remain the
     2010            primary text input device. Not...
Web 2.0 in 2009
-growing in scale
-growing practices




(after Schmelling,
http://www.mcsweeneys.net/2008/7/30sc
hmelling...
Universal McCann (March 2008)
• 184 million worldwide have
  started a blog | 26.4 US
• 346 million read blogs | 60.3 US
•...
David Sifry, September
     2008; ScienceBlogs
(http://technorati.com/bloggi
        ng/state-of-the-
         blogosphere...
Social images are large
• 3 billion+ photos in Flickr
• 4,230,432 - 32,170,657
  shareable




(first stat, Flickr blog, N...
• LinkedIn: 30 million users claimed

http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/02/14/as-the-economy-sours-linkedins-popularity-grows/
(eMarketer, March 2009; Scott
        Sigler, 2008)
“There are currently 2,807,974 articles in the English Wikipedia.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_of_Wikiped...
YouTube nearly youbiquitous




    Senate and House channels, January 2009
 http://www.physorg.com/news151139956.html
Facebook growth




400 million users (February 2010,
  http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics )
Realtime search
• Emerging market
• Not always useful
• No clear leader
Practices mainstreams: data mashups, Web 2.0
     as platform        • Programming staff

   • Open APIs          • Percei...
Practice: tag clouds


     Folksonomies mainstreamed




      24 hours of Twitter’s #SLNSOLSUMMIT
Classic forms developing




          Diigo
Practices: years of edublogging

Selected, documented       •   Creative writing
  practices:               •   Distribute...
External hosting reexamined
The specter of Wikipedia
Wikipedia remains
• growth and pedagogies
Web 2.0 content
   distribution models:
          Rutgers;
    University of Mary
       Washington;
http://www.journalofa...
Beyond the
     classroom

• accessCeramics,
  Lewis and Clark
  College
• 1000 images,
  February 2009
  (http://accessce...
PLE vs LMS
• Self-created        • Small pieces, loosely
• Consumer products     joined
• Personalization     • Variable l...
New forms

River of news wars: Twitter vs Facebook vs Buzz
New… things
• Google Wave, SAP
Your turn, constructivistically

What else are you        More:
  seeing?                • Understand
• Organizing stuff i...
Your turn, constructivistically

What else are you        How are you finding
  seeing?                 this stuff out?
• ...
Citations
• iCub, http://infocult.typepad.com/infocult/2009/09/robot-
  children-toddle-out-of-the-uncanny-valley.html
• P...
More citations
• NITLE Prediction Markets, http://markets.nitle.org/
• Cat and kitten, http://www.flickr.com/photos/bryana...
The ultimate links
              NITLE
         http://nitle.org

             Our blog
      http://blogs.nitle.org/

 NI...
The ultimate links
        Techne
http://blogs.nitle.org/

   Bryan on Twitter
  http://twitter.com
   /BryanAlexander
The ultimate links
NITLE prediction markets game
   http://markets.nitle.org/

            NITLE
       http://nitle.org
Bryan Alexander's: Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: a tour of the 2010 horizon
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Bryan Alexander's: Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: a tour of the 2010 horizon

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SLN SOLsummit 2010
http://slnsolsummit2010.edublogs.org
February 25, 2010

Bryan Alexander, Director of Research, National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education.

Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: a tour of the 2010 horizon

How is the landscape for teaching and learning with technology changing this year? We begin with an overview of current methods for apprehending emergent technologies, including Delphi, futures markets, networks, and scenarios. Drawing on those methods we identify a series of emerging trends, from interface changes to open content to gaming. Next we delve into several high-impact fields. Social media has already transformed the general cybercultural world, and is reshaping the academy. Mobile devices have begun to revolutionize many levels of our technological interactions.

I research and develop programs on the advanced uses of information technology in liberal arts colleges. My specialties include digital writing, weblogs, copyright and intellectual property, information literacy, wireless culture and teaching, project management, information design, and interdisciplinary collaboration. I contribute to a series of weblogs, including NITLE Tech News, MANE IT leaders, and Smartmobs, when not creating digital learning objects (like Gormenghast). I’ve taught English and information technology studies at the University of Michigan and Centenary College.

http://blogs.nitle.org/let
http://twitter.com/BryanAlexander
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Bryan Alexander's: Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: a tour of the 2010 horizon

  1. 1. Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: touring the 2010 horizon SUNY Learning Network - February 2010
  2. 2. One problem: How does academia tend to apprehend emerging technologies?
  3. 3. How does academia tend to apprehend emerging technologies? • Panic/siege mode • Vendors • Futurism methods • Networks, online and off- • Informal curricula http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/
  4. 4. Five responses • Take advantage of preexisting projects and services • DIY • Literacy: new media • Scan influence • Curriculum (pagedooley, Flickr)
  5. 5. One theoretical question What about technological determinism? “In information ecologies, the spotlight is not on technology, but on human activities that are served by technology.” -Nardi and O’Day, 1998, 1999
  6. 6. Alternatively: “Out of the dialectical exchange between the media-technological ‘base’ and the discursive ‘superstructure’ arise conflicts and tensions that sooner or late result in transformations at the level of media…” -Friedrich Kittler, 1999
  7. 7. How do information technologies change? Janet Murray’s two-step argument 1.Theater->film 2.Printed page->Web (Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge: MIT, 1997.)
  8. 8. How do information technologies change? The perception of user degradation: “[T]his discovery of yours will create forgetfulness in the learners' souls, because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external written characters and not remember of themselves. …”
  9. 9. “…The specific which you have discovered is an aid not to memory, but to reminiscence, and you give your disciples not truth, but only the semblance of truth…”
  10. 10. “… they will be hearers of many things and will have learned nothing; they will appear to be omniscient and will generally know nothing; they will be tiresome company, having the show of wisdom without the reality.” -Plato, Phaedrus (370 or so BCE) Jowett translation
  11. 11. How do information technologies change? We see information overload: “We have reason to fear that the multitude of books which grows every day in a prodigious fashion will make the following centuries fall into a state as barbarous as that of the centuries that followed the fall of the Roman Empire…”
  12. 12. “…Unless we try to prevent this danger by separating those books which we must throw out or leave in oblivion from those which one should save and within the latter between what is useful and what is not.” -Adrien Baillet, Jugemens des sçavans sur les principaux ouvrages des auteurs (Paris, 1685)
  13. 13. How do information technologies change? Change the format: the humble marginal annotation • Glossators (Franciscus Accursius, Denis Godefroi) • Then the Geneva Bible
  14. 14. New becomes old Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Rime of the Ancient Mariner - second edition, 1817 (Virginia e-text)
  15. 15. Generate new content types Another response to overload • Cyclopedia (Ephraim Chambers, 1728) • Encyclopedie (1751- 1772)
  16. 16. Re-see the past Dr. Johnson the blogger: “Of other parts of life, memory can give some account; at some hours I have been gay, and at others serious; I have sometimes mingled in conversation, and sometimes meditated in solitude; one day has been spent in consulting the ancient sages, and another in writing Adventurers.” – Adventurer #137 (February 26, 1754)
  17. 17. Seeing the future • Extrapolation • Delphi • Scenarios • Futures market • Environmental scan
  18. 18. Apprehending the futures Principles of Forecasting (2001) (http://www.forecastingprinciples.com/methodologytree.html)
  19. 19. Extrapolation iPhone Apps Store downloads 1. April 2009 1.0 billion 2. July 2009 1.5 billion 3. Sept 2009 2.0 billion -works with data sources -can lead to more data-gathering, metrics
  20. 20. Limitations • Trend lines vary • Doesn’t account for new things • The Black Swan (Taleb, 2007)
  21. 21. Delphi • Assemble experts • Probe for opinions • Rank and distill ideas • Reiterate
  22. 22. Example: the Horizon Report • “[A] comprehensive review and analysis of research, articles, papers, blogs, and interviews • [We] discussed existing applications and brainstormed new ones. • A key criterion was the potential relevance of the topics to teaching, learning, research, and creative expression. • Iteration, ranking, reiteration, reranking”
  23. 23. Limitations • Groupthink • Information compression • The Black Swan
  24. 24. Scenarios Stories about futures • Roles and times • Event and response • Emergent practices and • Creativity patterns
  25. 25. Limitations • Culture • Resources • The Black Swan
  26. 26. Futures market Features Advantages • Propositions in time • Continuous • Shares to be traded • Distributed feedback • Affordances of play
  27. 27. Will 25 or more institutions be participating in Flickr’s Creative Commons project by March 26, 2009?
  28. 28. Limitations • Quantitative threshold • Physical proximity • Market metaphor • The Black Swan
  29. 29. Scanning • Environmental scanning • Pattern recognition
  30. 30. Crowdsourcing Different levels • Crowd computing • Social network • Iterated resource feeds
  31. 31. Emergent future: one revolution Mobile devices Or ubicomp: • Phone, WiFi, Bluetooth • Mark Weiser, 1988ff • Portability • Ex: "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century" (1991) • “The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.”
  32. 32. What it means, top-level “A device ecology” -Petra Wentzel, "Wireless All the Way: Users’ Feedback on Education through Online PDAs" (presentation at the EDUCAUSE annual conferenceAnaheim, Calif., November 7, 2003).
  33. 33. What do we already use and know? • Laptops • Mp3 players • Clickers • Netbooks • Machines with IP addresses • Tablet PCs • Cameras (through • Palm Pilot Flip) • Pocket PC
  34. 34. Ecosystem model • Types of wireless • Multiple, connected devices • Web services Example: iPhone Utah State University Example: Kindle http://blogs.nitle.org/let/2009/10/0 9/anatomy-on-the-iphone/
  35. 35. Evolving practices and issues • Digital layer • Social over spaces connectors • Expanded media • Multitasking consumption  Small groups and capture  Attention index • Uneven uptake  On/off
  36. 36. Evolving pedagogies In class Out of class: • Quick polling • Content delivery and associated • Information and activities media capture • Live search • Backchannel • Backchannel
  37. 37. Live search and content access “Students who have superb search skills have introduced useful material or questions into discussion. In a few cases, I’ve had students find pertinent archival video in response to the drift of the conversation which I’ve then put up on the classroom projector.” -professor Tim Burke, Swarthmore College http://weblogs.swarthmore.edu/burke/2009/05/0 6/the-laptop-in-the-classroom/
  38. 38. Backchannel Increased amount and variety of discussion (for better and for worse) • Chat, Twitter (dotguy_az)
  39. 39. Smartphones Uses out of class: 1. Content delivery 2. Social interaction 3. Content capture
  40. 40. “The mobile phone is the primary connection tool for most people in the world. In 2020, while "one laptop per child" and other initiatives to bring networked digital communications to everyone are successful on many levels, the mobile phone—now with significant computing power—is the primary Internet connection and the only one for a majority of the people across the world, providing information in a portable, well- connected form at a relatively low price.”
  41. 41. Can we apply clicker pedagogies to smartphones? In class: assessment vs constructivist approaches Pedagogical themes • Anonymity yet universality • Aimed at large size class, often
  42. 42. Can we apply clicker pedagogies to smartphones? Clickers for questions • Binary or multiple • Student-generated Using results • Hide, reveal, or share? • Snap poll • Discussion generating
  43. 43. Apps for .edu • iPhone in the lead • Campus life apps • Development kits and forks
  44. 44. Smartpens • Text scanning (OCR) • Audio recording • Web service Michael Wesch http://mediatedcultures.net/ksudigg/?p=206
  45. 45. Uses in class • Discussion recordings • Annotation • Grading (UQ) • “Pencasting” Professor Shawn Evans,. Washington and Lee University October 2009; http://www.livescribe.com/
  46. 46. ebook readers
  47. 47. Advantages • Cost savings per book • Weight savings • Subscription updates • Dictionary • Public domain by cable
  48. 48. Ebook reader constraints • Limitations of device interfaces • Device cost • Ebook limitations: DRM, availability, quality • Annotation issues
  49. 49. Netbooks continue
  50. 50. Tablets 2.0
  51. 51. Likely uses From Tablet 1.0: • drawing (art) • drawing (math) • non-Latin characters foreign languages Since 1.0: • Multimedia consumption • Appeal of touchscreen
  52. 52. Emerging stuff for 2010 AR moves into a boom?
  53. 53. Rotterdam Market Hall; Mondrian; Abbey Road; http://layar.com/layar-30-launched- 5-cases-to-show-the-power- of-the-platform/
  54. 54. Emerging stuff for "For all its faults, the keyboard will remain the 2010 primary text input device. Nothing is easily going to replace it," he said. "But the idea of a keyboard with a mouse as a control interface is Beyond the mouse breaking down." http://blogs.nitle.org/archive/2008/07/22/ move_over_mouse_gartner/
  55. 55. Web 2.0 in 2009 -growing in scale -growing practices (after Schmelling, http://www.mcsweeneys.net/2008/7/30sc hmelling.html)
  56. 56. Universal McCann (March 2008) • 184 million worldwide have started a blog | 26.4 US • 346 million read blogs | 60.3 US • 77% of active Internet users read blogs comScore MediaMetrix (August 2008) • Blogs: 77.7 million unique visitors in the US… • Total internet audience 188.9 million eMarketer (May 2008) o 94.1 million US blog readers in 2007 (50% of Internet users) o 22.6 million US bloggers in 2007 (12%) David Sifry, September 2008; Juan Cole on the Colbert Report (http://technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere/)
  57. 57. David Sifry, September 2008; ScienceBlogs (http://technorati.com/bloggi ng/state-of-the- blogosphere/)
  58. 58. Social images are large • 3 billion+ photos in Flickr • 4,230,432 - 32,170,657 shareable (first stat, Flickr blog, November 2008 http://blog.flickr.net/en/2008/11/03/3-billion/; Second stat, Flickr CC search page, March 2009, http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/ )
  59. 59. • LinkedIn: 30 million users claimed http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/02/14/as-the-economy-sours-linkedins-popularity-grows/
  60. 60. (eMarketer, March 2009; Scott Sigler, 2008)
  61. 61. “There are currently 2,807,974 articles in the English Wikipedia.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_of_Wikipedia , March 2009)
  62. 62. YouTube nearly youbiquitous Senate and House channels, January 2009 http://www.physorg.com/news151139956.html
  63. 63. Facebook growth 400 million users (February 2010, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics )
  64. 64. Realtime search • Emerging market • Not always useful • No clear leader
  65. 65. Practices mainstreams: data mashups, Web 2.0 as platform • Programming staff • Open APIs • Perceived recognition • Access to data • “Mashup” (AccessCeramics project, Lewis and Clark College)
  66. 66. Practice: tag clouds Folksonomies mainstreamed 24 hours of Twitter’s #SLNSOLSUMMIT
  67. 67. Classic forms developing Diigo
  68. 68. Practices: years of edublogging Selected, documented • Creative writing practices: • Distributed seminars • Publish syllabus • Campus organizations • Publish student papers • Prospective students • Discussion • Library collections • Journaling • Alumni relations • Project blogs • Project management • Public scholarship • Liveblogging
  69. 69. External hosting reexamined
  70. 70. The specter of Wikipedia Wikipedia remains • growth and pedagogies
  71. 71. Web 2.0 content distribution models: Rutgers; University of Mary Washington; http://www.journalofameri canhistory.org/podcast/
  72. 72. Beyond the classroom • accessCeramics, Lewis and Clark College • 1000 images, February 2009 (http://accesscerami cs.blogspot.com/200 9/02/today-is-big- milestone-as-weve- reached.html)
  73. 73. PLE vs LMS • Self-created • Small pieces, loosely • Consumer products joined • Personalization • Variable levels of presence Beyond the students: Professional development Reputation growth
  74. 74. New forms River of news wars: Twitter vs Facebook vs Buzz
  75. 75. New… things • Google Wave, SAP
  76. 76. Your turn, constructivistically What else are you More: seeing? • Understand • Organizing stuff in affordances constructive and useful way • What are the ways these tools improve teaching and learning? • Keeping up with next.gen
  77. 77. Your turn, constructivistically What else are you How are you finding seeing? this stuff out? • Organizing stuff in constructive and useful way • What are the ways these tools improve teaching and learning? • Keeping up with next.gen
  78. 78. Citations • iCub, http://infocult.typepad.com/infocult/2009/09/robot- children-toddle-out-of-the-uncanny-valley.html • Principles of Forecasting chart, http://www.forecastingprinciples.com/methodologytree.html • accessCeramics, Lewis and Clark, http://accessceramics.org/ • Nassim Taleb, http://www.fooledbyrandomness.com/ • Black Swans: Field Museum Library, http://www.flickr.com/photos/field_museum_library/3405475664/ ; gnuckx cc0, http://www.flickr.com/photos/34409164@N06/3209135920/ • Great California Shakeout, http://www.shakeout.org/media/index.html
  79. 79. More citations • NITLE Prediction Markets, http://markets.nitle.org/ • Cat and kitten, http://www.flickr.com/photos/bryanalexander • Bing’s Twitter search, http://www.bing.com/twitter • Episilon Aurigae crowdsourcing, http://mysite.du.edu/~rstencel/epsaurnews.htm • Horizon Report 2010 wiki, http://horizon.wiki.nmc.org/ • “Apprehending the Future: Emerging Technologies, from Science Fiction to Campus Reality”, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 44, no. 3 (May/June 2009): 12–29. http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReview MagazineVolume44/ApprehendingtheFutureEmergingT/171774. More sources there.
  80. 80. The ultimate links NITLE http://nitle.org Our blog http://blogs.nitle.org/ NITLE prediction markets game http://markets.nitle.org/ Bryan on Twitter http://twitter.com/BryanAlexander
  81. 81. The ultimate links Techne http://blogs.nitle.org/ Bryan on Twitter http://twitter.com /BryanAlexander
  82. 82. The ultimate links NITLE prediction markets game http://markets.nitle.org/ NITLE http://nitle.org
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