5th LEVEL. REVIEW OF GRAMMAR EOI REUS GERUNDS AND INFINITIVESGERUNDSWe use the gerund of the verbs in the following cases:1) When a verb functions as the subject of the sentence and the main verb is not any ofthe following: appear, seem, or be, we tend to use a gerund. Eating too much may produce stomach illnesses. Playing football makes people be fit.2) When there is the verb to be and we need another verb functioning as an attributivecomplement. Her hobby is painting watercolours. My favourite sport has always been playing rugby.3) After a preposition we always use a verb in gerund. Some English prepositions that wecan find in verb patterns are the following ones: about, after, against, at, before, besides,between, by, for, from, in, of, on, with, without. I am very tired of arguing with you. They escaped by slashing the net.NOTE THAT many phrasal verbs require a verb in gerund after their prepositions: be for,be against, care for, give up, leave off, put off, see about, keep on, etc.REMEMBER that some verbs use the preposition TO + a gerund: look forward to +gerund, take to + gerund, be accustomed to +gerund, be/get/become used to + gerund.4) The gerund can also function as the object complement of the verb. She dreads getting old. My brother kept complaining all the way home.VERBS: admit, anticipate, avoid, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, enjoy, escape,finish, forgive, hate, imagine, keep, miss, pardon, postpone, practise, prevent, resist, risk.5) Some other verbs can function as complements of the verb, but can also be introducedby a personal object complement. With only the gerund, the action of the verb refers tothe subject of the main verb: Tom insisted on reading that letter. (Tom read the letter) Would you mind moving your car? (You should move your car)But when the main verb is followed by a personal object complement, the gerund willrefer to that complement. Tom insisted on my/me reading that letter. (I read the letter)
5th LEVEL. REVIEW OF GRAMMAR EOI REUS Would you mind me/my moving your car? (I am going to move your car)NOTE THAT with these verbs the gerund can be introduced by an object pronoun, butalso by a possessive adjective.VERBS: appreciate, dislike, dread, fancy, help, involve, like, mean, (not, would) mind,propose, recollect, remember, resent, save, stand, stop, suggest, understand, approve of,disapprove of, insist on, object to.6) With some expressions such as the following: it’s no use, it’s no good, it is not worth,there is no point in, what is the point of we also use the gerund. There is no point in feeling sorry now. It’s not worth copying all those sentences if you’re not going to revise them.INFINITIVESThe to-infinitive is used in the following cases:1) When the infinitive is the subject of the sentence with the verbs appear, seem or be. To save money nowadays seems impossible2) Sentences beginning with the following structure: It + appear/be/seem + adjective +to-infinitive. It is really necessary to revise before the exam. Its going to be difficult.3) Some other verbs like take or cost also take up this structure, including a tiome ormoney reference between the main verb and the to-infinitive. It takes a lot of years to learn Japanese. It cost me quite a lot of money to book a table in that expensive restaurant.4) The to-infinitive can be part of the object complement of a verb. After some of theseverbs, the infinitive can as well be introduced by a wh- interrogative pronoun (why, what,when, who, how, where, which). I managed to tell Mary the news She offered to help me with the cooking for the party. We will decide what to do with the old washing machine later onVERBS: agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, bother, care, choose, claim,condescend, consent, decide, decline, demand, determine, be determined, fail, forget,guarantee, happen, hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, plan, prepare, beprepared, pretend, proceed, promise, prove, refuse, remember, resolve, seem, swear,tend, threaten, trouble, try, undertake, volunteer, vow.VERBS + WH-QUESTION WORD: ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn,remember, see, show, think, understand, want to know, wonder.
5th LEVEL. REVIEW OF GRAMMAR EOI REUS4) Some auxiliaries need a to-infinitive to function as modal auxiliaries (be, have, ought,used). He was to come when we left the office. Peter had to walk to school. His motorbike had broken down the day before.5) Some other verbs need an object complement between the main verb of the sentenceand the to-infinitive. She encouraged me to try again some days later. They persuaded Susan to go to the countryside with them. I consider him to be the best player in the local football team.VERBS: advise, allow, assume, believe, bribe, command, compel, consider, enable,encourage, forbid, force, implore, induce, instruct, invite, know, oblige, order, permit,persuade, remind, request, show (how), teach (how), tell (how), tempt, train,understand, urge, warn.GERUNDS AND INFINITIVESA number of verbs can take a gerund or an infinitive with to. In many cases the meaningchanges depending on whether a gerund or the to-infinitive follows the verb.1) TO REMEMBERWhen this verb is followed by a gerund, it means remembering something that has beendone in the past. I couldn’t remember flying in the past. I remember reading about the earthquake in the papers.When it is followed by the to-infinitive, it means remembering that one must dosomething in the future. You must remember to go to the banks. Remember to post the letters in town!2) TO FORGETWhen a gerund follows the verb forget, the action expressed by this gerund is the earlier.Forget is only followed by a gerund in negative sentences. I’ll never forget waiting for the bombs to fall. I cant forget being so happy when I was in AustraliaA to-infinitive follows the verb forget when we express that someone forgets that he/shemust do something. Arthur has forgotten to take his overcoat. Don’t forget to sign your cheques.3) TO REGRETWe use regret + a gerund when someone is sorry that he or she has done somethingwrong. The action expressed by the gerund is the earlier and the one that is regretted.
5th LEVEL. REVIEW OF GRAMMAR EOI REUS I don’t regret leaving my past job. I regret spending so much money in our holidays.However, the to-infinitive is used if we want to express regret in advance (aboutsomething we are going to say or to do). I regret to tell you that I have a bad news. I regret to say that you have failed your exams.4) TO TRYTry is used with a gerund when we want to refer to someone experimenting to see ifsomething has an effect. He tried taking an aspirin but it didn’t have any effect. I tried adding a bit of salt, but it did not work out.We will use the to-infinitive when it means making an effort, attempting with effort to dosomething. He tried hard to pass the final exam. I tried my best to understand what he was explaining.5) TO STOPStop is used with a gerund when the speaker refers to not continuing an action that oneis doing. Stop talking with each other! You must stop shouting at me.It takes up a to-infinitive when it means pausing in an action in order to do somethingelse. When we got to the top of the hill, we stopped to look at the marvellous view. We were tired, so we stopped to rest a little.6) TO ALLOWThe verb allow functions with a gerund if there is not a personal object complement, andit uses a to-infinitive when there is a personal object complement. We don’t allow smoking in the classroom. We don’t allow students to smoke in the classroom.7) TO LIKEThe gerund is used in general statements meaning enjoy or practise habitually and theto-infinitive is used meaning prefer. I like dancing in the discos. I like to have a good breakfast at weekends.In the Conditional form, like, as hate or love is always followed by the to-infinitive. I’d like to be with you there. I’d hate to live on a boat all my life.