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Crystals and Art. Juan Maguel Garcia Ruiz
 

Crystals and Art. Juan Maguel Garcia Ruiz

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The lecture at Eureka science cafe in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok (art-club NIIKUDA)

The lecture at Eureka science cafe in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok (art-club NIIKUDA)

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    Crystals and Art. Juan Maguel Garcia Ruiz Crystals and Art. Juan Maguel Garcia Ruiz Presentation Transcript

    • Crystals and Art Geometry and beauty in the mineral world Juan Manuel García-Ruiz CSIC, Granada, Spain Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 4500 4000 3800 3500 2800 2500 2100 1900 1800 1100 850 600 Formation of Earth Origin of Life as seen from microfossils Oldest sedimentary rocks Oldest putative fossils and stromatolites Cianobacteria and Stromatolites Iron Banding Formations Latest detrital Uraninite and Pyrite Atsmosferic oxygen Nucleated cells (Phytoplankton) Complex (sexual) Phytoplankton Seaweeds and protozoans Animals without backbones History of the Primitive Earth J. W. Schopf. Major events in the History of Life (Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 1992) E.C. Nisbet, The young Earth Allen & Unwin, Boston 1987 Issua Warrawoona Onwerwacht Fig Tree Moodies Insuzi Fortescue Hamersley Ventersdorp Gowganda Transvaal Gunflint Belcher Dismal Lakes Belt Chichkan Ediacara Bitter Springs Chuar Little Dal Main Life EventsMain Microbiota Change in the tectonic regime of the earth. Greenstones and komaitites becomes later rare Mostly based on data from Oldest material Zircon ≈ 4.2 Gy Oldest rock, gneiss ≈ 4.0 Gy Oldest sedimentary rocks, Putative Isotopic marks Issua ≈ 3.8 Gy. Oldest putative microfossils, Warrawoona 3.5 Gy üIsotopic signature of carbonaceous remnants üMorphology of putative microfossils üChemical composition of carbonaceous compounds üStromatolitic-like structures Primitive life detection
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Primitive life detection Some structures found in Precambrian rocks (cherts) which are interpreted as fossils remnants of primitive life and its laboratory made silica/carbonate counterparts
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 FESEM view of morphologies found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 and proposed as evidence of primitive life on Mars. “Some of the features in ALH84001 (e.g. filaments) are common biogenic markers on Earth. We conclude that the evidence for fossilized microbes and their products …………cannot be readily explained by nonbiologic processes ..” LPI Workshop, “Martian meteorites: Where do we stand and where are we going?” Microstructures found in Achaean rocks and interpreted as one of the oldest remnants of life on planet Earth. Search for life elsewhere (actually, on Mars and meteorites)
    • Two different world? Two different geometry behavior?
    • Crystalline Shapes controlled by crystal structure Aiγi = minimum 32 G3 0 ⊂ K Faceted crystals, sharp angles, crystallographic dendrites, twining, fluid inclusions, hopper crystals
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo 2013 Santalo’s School on the Mathematics of the Planet Earth
    • ∞ G3 0 ⊄ K Aiγi > minimum Crystalline Patterns not controlled by crystal structure
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The symmetry of natural shapes (classical thought) The realm of the crystal The realm of life Organic symmetry Sinuous shapes Continuous curvature Unrestricted symmetry Inorganic symmetry Polyhedral, faceted shapes Deterministic angles Forbidden symmetry operators Aiγi = minimum 32 G3 0 ⊂ K ∞ G3 0 ⊄ K Aiγi > minimum
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 CO2 HCO3 and CO3 = CO2 Silica gel pH0 = 6.2 pH0 = 10.5 pHgradient Room conditions but they also form at higher pressure and temperature Preparation of silica/carbonate biomorphs BaCl2 + NaSi2O3 8.5 < pH < 11 BaCl2 In solution In gelled solution The inorganic precipitation of barium or strontium carbonate in alkaline silica rich solutions leads to the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline aggregates displaying complex shapes with non-crystallographic symmetry
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The morphogenesis of the leaf-like shape (L1D2 or D1L2 ; H1 = H2 ;Vφ1 Vφ2 Vρ) : The morphogenesis of a helicoids of constant width (L1L2 or D1D2 ; H1 = H2 ;Vφ1 ≈Vφ2 ≈Vρ): The morphogenesis of the braid (L1L2 or D1D2 ; H1≈ H2 ;Vφ1 ≈Vφ2 >Vρ): The morphogenesis of worm like structures (L1L2 or D1D2 or L1D2 ; H1 >> H2 ;Vφ1 ;Vφ2 ;Vρ): The power of curling
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Primitive life detection Some structures found in Precambrian rocks (cherts) which are interpreted as fossils remnants of primitive life and its laboratory made silica/carbonate counterparts
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Morphological convergence of silica biomorphs with primitive life forms Some structures found in Precambrian rocks (cherts) which are interpreted as fossils remnants of primitive life and its laboratory made silica/carbonate counterparts
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 FeCO3 +H2O à Fe3O4 + CO2 +CO + H2 + PAH Heating siderite at 300 ºC simple aromatic hydrocarbons form (McCollom & Seewald, Geochem & Cosmoch. Acta, 67 ( 2003) 216) Mixtures of phenol-formaldehyde adsorb in silica biomorphs. After heating at 350 ºC kerogen is made. This kerogen has the same Raman spectra that the one obtained from structures considered the oldest microfossils found on Earth 40 microns D G Neither morphology nor chemical composition can be used as unambiguous tools for life detection Highly disordered carbonaceous material J.M. García-Ruiz. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 24 (1994) 451-467 J.M. García-Ruiz,A. Carnerup,A. Christy, N. J.Welham, and S. Hyde,Astrobiology 2 (2002) 335 J.M. García-Ruiz, S.T. Hyde,A. Carnerup,A.G. Christy, M.J.Van Kranendonk, N.J.Welham. Science 302 (2003) 1194.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Morphology does not contain unequivocal genetic information Primitive and extraterrestrial life detection cannot be only based on morphology Morphology can be used only as a tool for life detection when it becomes a darwinian character. Before that critical and I guess late step, morphology of living organisms where controlled by the same physical parameters that control the shape of abiotic self- assembled structures, namely surface tension, membrane elasticity and porosity and osmotic forces. There is not a fundamental difference between the symmetry of the world of crystals and the symmetry of the lifeworld
    • The existence of a sharp boundary dividing the realm of biology and sensuality and the realm of minerals and cold rationality has pervaded the landscape of arts and philosophy for centuries. Crystals and crystallographic theories have played an important role in the intellectual construction of that proposed boundary.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 2001: A Space Odyssey Arthur Clarke/Stanley Kubrick, 1968
    • The  cold  shapes  of  crystals,  volumes   delimited  by  sharp  volumes  of  6ixed   angles The sensual shapes of life displaying continuous curvature
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Crystals have fascinated humans since ancient times. May be one of the stronger evidence of such a fascination is the quartz crystal found in a 6000 years-old dolmen in Alberite, Cadiz, South of Spain).
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Dolmen of Alberite Information from José Ramos y Salvador Dominguez-Bella
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Dolmen of Alberite Smocky quartz crystal found in the funerary site of Alberite, built approximately 6000 years ago. This pegmatitic quartz crystal does not exist near the area of the location of the Dolmen and therefore has been transported from an area located at least 400 kms away from Alberite. Why mankind wonders about crystals ?
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The planet on which we all live today was formed around four thousand five hundred million years ago. Way back then, the planet was not only the scene of volcanic activity: the hot earth also began to cool quickly, and condensed water soon began to gather on the surface. And so began the combined action of fire and water. These two forces, along with the wind, carved out the shapes of Earth’s inanimate materials, the mineral world. These shapes are the result of the repeated action of simple mechanism which work relentlessly, second by second, constructing an increasingly complex geometry in which curves, and branching are the dominant feature. Shapes drawn by the earth Water, wind and fire moulded the surface of the Earth over the course of one thousand million years.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The geological forces which first drew shapes in the Earth’s surface were later joined by living organisms, around three thousand million years ago. This new artist became a faithful apprentice in the mineral workshops, copying, retouching here and there, but without changing the style of its master. The geometry of life melted into the geometry of the Earth to form a single landscape of curves and branching: thenatural landscape. Shapes drawn by life L i f e s h a p e s t h e landscape by fixing and colouring the forms drawn by the water, the wind and the fire
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The geometry of Nature No straight lines or circles, no polyhedra.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 When humans forked off and carved out a straight line in the earth to aerate it and to sow seeds, they began to paint the landscape with a new pattern which broke away from the style created by the Earth and life duting thousands of millions of years. Man-made shapes Less than a couple of millions years ago appeared on the E a r t h a n e w l y - evolved species. Men drew its own tracks on the Earth’s surface
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 An aesthetic battle began when mankind started to plough the fields with perfectly- straight lines, like in the irrigated fields around Doñana in southwest Spain, where surface water could then flow easily from the well dug out in the sandy soil. The landscape was retouched, but gently, and this is a minor injury, just like the artificial lagoon that fits delicately into the shallows of the salt marsh in San Fernando, near Cadiz in southern Spain Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Man-made shapes
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Man-made shapes
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013Juan Manuel García-Ruiz Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo 2013 Santalo’s School on the Mathematics of the Planet Earth Man-made shapes
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The skyline of the large cities is the perfect example of the triumph of the straight line in the urban landscape. Juan Manuel García-Ruiz Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo 2013 Santalo’s School on the Mathematics of the Planet Earth Man-made shapes
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The geometry of Nature No straight lines or circles, no polyhedra.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Dolmen of Alberite Smocky quartz crystal found in the funerary site of Alberite, built approximately 6000 years ago. This pegmatitic quartz crystal does not exist near the area of the location of the Dolmen and therefore has been transported from an area located at least 400 kms away from Alberite. Why mankind wonders about crystals? Because crystals are singular natural objects with morphology distinct from any other kind of natural objects
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Why are they not spherical, like soap bubbles ? Crystals are shapes of minimal energy Because crystals have anisotropic 3D structures. Melancholia from Durero
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The minimum work required to build a unit interface at a constant volume and temperature in the system is called the specic free-surface energy and denoted gamma It has units of energy per unit area and is conceptually similar to surface tension, but not identical in the case of solids. The density and relative strength of bonds in crystals depend on the orientation of the surface. The polyhedral shapes of the crystals result from the anisotropy in specific free- surface energy. Crystals: Internal order
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Crystals: External order
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 1784 Essai d’une théorie sur la structure des crystaux René Haüy Traité de Minérologie (1801)
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) Maria Shelley Based on the work of Andrew Crosse, a fascinating character who explores electrocrystallization in 1817, including controversial experiments on life creation by electrocrystallization. The book of Mary Shelley was inspired by these experiments
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Specifically, beginning in the nineteenth century with the works of Jules Verne (1828-1905) and in case of giant crystals in his famous Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864) illustrated by French painter Édouard Rius. Same year of 1864 George Sand published Voyage dans le cristal, another book using t h e n e w c o n c e p t o f c r y s t a l s a n d crystallization.
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Wenzel Hablik The Path of the Genius, 1918 Structure of a Colony Floating in the Air, 1908
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Ville Savoye de Le Courbusier
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 the Glass house of Mies van der Rohe
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The manifesto “Towards the crystal” A. Ozenfant and Le Corbusier L'ESPRIT NOUVEAU (1923)
    • You love a matter definite and exact, where the toadstool cannot pitch its camp. You love the architecture that builds on the absent and admit the flag simply as a joke. The steel compass tells its short, elastic verse. Unknown clouds rise to deny the sphere exists. The straight line tells of its upward struggle and the learned crystals sing their geometries. But also the rose of the garden where you live. Always the rose, always, our north and south! Calm and ingathered like an eyeless statue, not knowing the buried struggle it provokes. Pure rose, clean of artifice and rough sketches, opening for us the slender wings of the smile. (Pinned butterfly that ponders its flight.) Rose of balance, with no self-inflicted pains. Always the rose! A debate on aesthetic From García Lorca Ode to Dali Dali Naked In Ecstasy Before Five Regular Bodies
    • Federico  Garcia  Lorca Poet  in  Nueva  York A debate on aesthetic Murdered by the sky, among the forms towards the snake and the forms searching for crystal I will let my hair grow
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The Pyramid of The Louvre
    • Juan Manuel García Ruiz El Escorial, 22 de Julio de 2013 Cursos deVerano de la Complutense 55 Crystals and architecture
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 The Crystal Cathedral of Philips Johnson
    • Juan Manuel García Ruiz El Escorial, 22 de Julio de 2013 Cursos deVerano de la Complutense
    • GRID art installation
    • David DiMichele's "Construction" installation
    • I kept searching ... and I found ...
    • Quartz crystals: • Zhoukoudian, China, Upper 8 Quartz Horizon 2 (Locus G), ~770,000 BP: ~20 quartz crystals, 1 perfect fully faceted smoky quartz, some transparent or semi-transparent with one or more of faces recognizable, probably transported from 7 km away (Pei 1931); • Gudenus Cave, Austria, Acheulian level, fragment of large crystal with several facets (Bednarik 1988); Singi Talav, India, lower Acheulian level, >390,000 BP: 6 complete quartz crystals from different crystal flowers and probably transported to site (D’Errico et al 1989; Bednarik 1994) Data provided by James Harrod,
    • Is our brain designed to prefer order, i.e., do we like crystals, because crystals were among the first items to be collected? or Do we collected crystals almost one million years ago because our brain was already designed to prefer order*? Is the impact of crystals on culture due to the fact that they are firmly linked to the birth of art, symbolism and conscience? * that would favour the understanding of nature and thus may be evolutively important
    • Juan Manuel García-Ruiz The Integral Club --Concert Hall Eureka- Novosibirsk, October 1, 2013 Thank you