OML Center: Climate Change 101


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  • OML Center: Climate Change 101

    1. 1. Climate Change 101 The basics for understanding climate change, its impacts, and how to address them
    2. 2. Outline 1. What is climate?  Weather VS Climate  Factors affecting climate 2. How is the climate changing?  Causes of climate change  Global warming and the greenhouse effect  Contributing factors 3. How will the future climate look like?  Global projections  Local projections
    3. 3. 4. What will be its impacts?  How sectors will be affected  Vulnerability of the Philippines 5. How are we going to respond?  Mitigation and adaptation  Global and Local efforts  Individual contributions Outline
    4. 4. What is climate?
    5. 5. What is climate? It considers the average weather conditions and its variability to give a long-term view of the weather being experienced by a certain area. (ISDR, 2008) If it is generally hot for a certain period every year, then that area has a hot climate. Philippine Climate Types based on Corona Classification
    6. 6. How is it different from weather?
    7. 7. What is weather? the set of conditions in the atmosphere observed at a certain time and place. (ISDR, 2008) focuses on a short period of time (NASA, 2013) Example: Today is a sunny day with expected 0-20mm rainfall in the morning. Tomorrow, could be a rainy day. Different days have different weather conditions.
    8. 8. What are the factors that affect climate? Natural and Human Factors
    9. 9. Earth and its radiative equilibrium  intensity of the sun's radiation;  the planet's distance from the sun; and  its albedo or reflectivity for solar radiation.
    10. 10. The Climate System The following processes play an important role in the climate system:  Global energy balance;  Global water cycle;  Global carbon cycle “The detailed patterns of climate on earth are produced by a complex web of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes within the global climate system.” (Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003)
    11. 11. Natural Factors
    12. 12. Different ocean currents can indicate changes in temperature (ISDR, 2008) Oceans  “Ocean covers 71% of the earth’s surface to an average depth of 3800 m and plays a key role in redistributing heat around the globe.” (Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003)
    13. 13. Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic eruptions introduce gases and particles that can impact the climate of an area (Robock, 2002)  It can reduce the solar radiation, cooling up the surface of the Earth for several years. (Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003)  Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 was the largest eruption of the 20th century. The relatively cooler surface that followed for more than two years was attributed to this eruption. (Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003)
    14. 14. Countries found closer to the equator have warmer climates. The further away a country is from the equator, the cooler its climate will be. (Bureau of Meteorology Australia, 2003) The Philippines is found right above the equator, which would explain a great deal of its hot climate. Distance from the Equator
    15. 15. Continentality (Distance from the sea) When you go to the beach, the sun seems stronger since there is not as much shade compared to the city. The difference is that it generally feels much cooler. Areas beside or closer to bodies of water have a cooler and wetter climate Inland areas experience a wide range of temperatures. (UK Environmental Change Network, 2013)
    16. 16. Human Factors
    17. 17. Human activities are the major contributors to climate change. “…in particular fossil fuel use and changing land-uses, are the dominant factor in this growth and are responsible for most of the warming observed over the past 50 years.” (ISDR)
    18. 18. Burning of Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are formed from decayed plants and animals, which are converted into crude oil, coal and natural gas (Science Daily, 2013) The increase in fossil fuel burning for transportation, manufacturing, home use, etc. is one of the main contributors to the heightened global warming.
    19. 19. Deforestation (Changing patterns of land use) Trees absorb carbon dioxide, which helps make a climate cooler. If forests are cut down, no trees will absorb the carbon dioxide. This adds to the greenhouse effect. (Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change) Deforestation itself releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (IPCC, 2007) The Philippines only has 6.6% of its original forest cover left. (Forest Carbon Asia, 2012)
    20. 20. This is another form of fossil fuel burning. GHG emissions have significantly increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Government of Canada, 2012) The increase in the use of fossil fuels brought about the increase in GHG emissions, making the Earth warmer. Industrial Production
    21. 21. Mountains of Trash Smokey Mountain is the famous trash mountain in Manila, Philippines that releases a lot of methane. How do we deal with this problem? Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. Our trash in landfills breaks down and releases a gas called Methane, a GHG that contributes to 20% of global warming. (Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change), (GRIDA, 2013)
    22. 22. Summary: Section 1 Climate gives a long-term view of the weather being experienced by a certain area. It is affected by natural and human causes. Human activity has become the main driver of climate change. Weather is different from climate, in that it is the set of conditions in the atmosphere observed at a certain time and place.
    23. 23. How is the climate changing?
    24. 24. Climate Change “any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity” (IPCC) the natural occurrence of changes in the state of the climate (UNFCCC) From clearing forests to burning fossil fuels, these activities all contribute to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gases that get released into the atmosphere. (ISDR, 2008)
    25. 25. It is no surprise that the climate has been changing world wide.  In fact, this is a natural phenomenon that has been taking place for centuries.  But scientists have noticed that the change in climate has become more extreme in the past decades, especially in temperature increase. Why is this so?
    26. 26. What are greenhouse gases (GHGs)? compounds that trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere (EIA, 2004), (IPCC) When it gets trapped in the Earth, it makes the temperature warmer. Examples include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide (CCC)
    27. 27. Greenhouse gases and their lifespan Greenhouse gases Main sources Life in the atmosphere Proportional contribution to global warming Carbon dioxide (CO2) Fossil fuel burning, deforestation, biomass, burning, gas flaring, cement production 5 to 200 years 60% Methane (CH4) Natural wetlands, rice paddies, ruminant animals, natural gas drilling, venting and transmission, biomass burning, coal mining 12 years 20% Halocarbons Industrial production and consumer goods 2 to 50,000 years 14% Nitrous oxide (N2O) Biological sources in oceans and soils, combustions, biomass burning, fertilizer 114 year 6% (Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change)
    28. 28. How do the GHGs of the past affect us today? Since GHGs have different lifespans that last for at least two years, the GHGs produced in the past are part of the cause of climate change today. The current situation of climate change in the Philippines is partially caused by human activities that took place in the 1980s, for example. CO2 released in the past still affects climate change today because the GHGs are still present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
    29. 29. Greenhouse Effect GHGs acting as a blanket that warm up the Earth (CCC) This natural warming process helps maintain a stable temperature for the Earth (NEAQ, 2013), (PEW Center) Stable temperature: allows living things to survive and thrive in
    30. 30. Greenhouse Effect (ProCon, 2013) Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere heat trapped
    31. 31. Global Warming Most commonly associated with climate change It is an enhanced greenhouse effect caused by human interference and activity. This further increases global temperatures, hence warming the earth. (PEW Center)
    32. 32. Global Warming Global average temperature rose by - 16.67°C or 1.5°F in the last century. (PEW) To date, the Earth has the highest concentration of greenhouse gases compared to the past 500,000 years. (ISDR)
    33. 33. How has climate changed?
    34. 34. Globally… The eleven years of 1995 to 2006 rank among the twelve warmest years in the record of global surface temperature (since 1850). The linear warming trend from 1956 to 2005 (0.13 [0.10 to 0.16]°C per decade) is nearly twice that for the 100 years from 1906 to 2005. (IPCC)
    35. 35. Global Temperature Changes There has been a noticeable increase in global temperature over the past 50 years. Due to the increased ice melting in the polar regions, global sea levels have been rising along with it. (IPCC, 2007)
    36. 36. Philippine Changes in Temperature temperature increase from 1951 to 2010 (PAGASA, 2011) 0.65°C
    37. 37. Summary: Section 2 Climate Change is “any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity” (IPCC) Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere and make the Earth warmer. The greenhouse effect is a natural warming process where GHGs purpose comes into play. Global warming is an increased greenhouse effect that is influenced by human activity. Temperature has been increasing globally and locally.
    38. 38. How will the future climate look like?
    39. 39. What are the global climate projections?
    40. 40. Global Projections IPCC projections provide a wide range of potential surface warming based on six different emission scenarios.
    41. 41. How will the future climate of the Philippines look like?
    42. 42. Climate Change in the Philippines Hot days | Rainfall Extreme weather events
    43. 43. Projected Philippine Climate The Philippines will have warmer days. Summer time will experience less rainfall. The mean temperature is expected to rise by:  0.9°C to 1.1 °C in 2020; and  1.8°C to 2.2 °C in 2050. Rainfall is expected to increase during the southwest monsoon season. (PAGASA, 2011)
    44. 44. Summary: Section 3 Global climate is expected to increase in temperature by 0.4°C in the next two decades. In the Philippines, there will be a projected increase in temperature. There will be warmer days during the summer, but more rainfall during the rainy season.
    45. 45. What will be its impacts?
    46. 46. How will it affect the different sectors in the Philippines? Understanding climate change under Philippine context
    47. 47. Coastal and Marine Increased sea surface temperature and sea level rise Impacts 50% decrease in marine capture by 2050 Coral bleaching  Corals die, and water species lose their homes Sea level rise causes destruction  People will lose their homes  Businesses will be affected leading to less income  Migration or extinction of organisms (PAGASA, 2011) Projections
    48. 48. Health Projections  Increases in temperature and rainfall Impacts  Increase in outbreaks of water-based and vector- borne diseases  Increase in number of people affected by diseases, especially the poor who live in inadequate conditions  Malnutrition is likely because of the stress in food production caused by extreme events (PAGASA 2011)
    49. 49. Agriculture and Food Security Projections  Increased intensity and frequency of extreme events (heavy rainfall, flood, drought) Impacts  Malnutrition is likely because of the stress in food production (PAGASA 2011)  Increase in temperature will decrease agricultural production (NCSP)  There will be a decrease in food security  Farmers will be affected by crop loss  Less crop, less income
    50. 50. Water Projections  Areas with longer drier periods and areas with increased rainfall. Impacts  Areas with longer drier periods will have less water essential for daily needs and irrigation for farmers.  Less water will affect energy production from dams.  Increased rainfall can lead to floods, landslides and mudslides. This disrupt daily routines and destroy public infrastructures.
    51. 51. Forestry Projections  Forests are predicted to be influenced by temperature increase. Impacts  Temperature increase leads to less favorable forest conditions to support plants and animals.  Forest fires destroy homes of species and change the livelihood of communities living within the area.  Forest degradation will increase the country’s vulnerability to climate change.
    52. 52. Urban Infrastructure Projections  Increased frequency of extreme events and sea level rise Impacts  Urban conditions increase the risk of climate hazards, particularly for the poor residents of cities.  Infrastructures and homes will be destroyed.  Residences in affected areas will be displaced by extreme events.  Lives will be lost and more people will be injured.
    53. 53. Gender Projections  Changes in temperature and rainfall pattern and frequency of extreme events Impacts  Women already have limited access to resources and restricted rights.  The female gender may have great ideas to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation but will not have the opportunity to speak out. (UNDP, 2013)
    54. 54. Energy Projections  Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns Impacts  Changes will affect the production, delivery and consumption of energy.  Energy breakdowns (blackouts) will increase.  It may become more and more difficult to fix the problems of energy production the more extreme events occur.
    55. 55. Projected Impacts on Ecosystems (Source: IPCC 2007 AR4 WG II. Technical Summary. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability)
    56. 56. Is the Philippines vulnerable? Looking at Philippine geography and how this adds to the risk with climate change
    57. 57. In a study conducted by Yusuf and Francisco in 2009, the Philippines is considered one of the most vulnerable to climate change in Southeast Asia. Philippines’ Vulnerability
    58. 58. Philippine Geography The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of 7,107 Along the typhoon belt 70% of cities and towns are in coastal areas (CDKN Global, 2012) Located close to the equator, making the climate generally warmer
    59. 59. The geography of the Philippines makes it even more vulnerable to the impacts of disasters. Combining a natural hazard with an ill-prepared community leads to greater disaster. (ISDR)
    60. 60. Summary: Section 4 Coastal and Marine: Temperature increase has caused coral bleaching and decreased marine capture Health: More water and vector-borne diseases Agriculture and food security: Decrease in food production as temperature increase Water: Less water leading to droughts, increased rainfall leading to floods and infrastructure destruction Forestry: Animals and plants will lose their homes
    61. 61. Summary: Section 4 Urban and Infrastructure: Magnified risk of floods, especially for the poverty-stricken areas Gender: Less freedom between genders to contribute ideas to addressing climate change Energy: Disruptions in production and delivery of energy Philippines has increased vulnerability due to its geography.
    62. 62. How are we going to respond?
    63. 63. Energy-related CO2 emissions are projected to increase by 36% by 2030. Most of these emissions come from only a handful of countries, majority of which are developed countries. (PEW)
    64. 64. Many people have been pushing for the mitigation of climate change for many years. Climate change, specifically global warming, was already an issue that was raised in the early 1900’s. There was not enough support to convince people to mitigate its effects since the impacts were not felt during these times yet.
    65. 65. What is mitigation? It is the effort of people to reduce the emissions they contribute to climate change. (CCC) This is achieved by decreasing the greenhouse gases through:  developing low-energy technologies  Reducing energy consumption  Switching to renewable energy  Preserving natural biomes that capture carbon dioxide (ISDR)
    66. 66. Examples of Mitigation Projects
    67. 67. The effects of climate change have been rapidly increasing to the point that mitigation is not enough. We must learn to adapt.
    68. 68. Response to Address Climate Change The impacts are inevitable. They will happen, no matter how great the efforts will be to mitigate climate change. Due to the fact that the Philippines has been so vulnerable to climate change, mitigation efforts will not be able to keep up with the increasing effects. With this in mind, adaptation is key in dealing with climate change.
    69. 69. What is adaptation? Adaptation is adjusting our human habits and lifestyles in response to climate change and its effects. Communities can adapt by:  preparing risk assessments  protecting ecosystems  improving agricultural methods  managing water resources  building settlements in safe zones  instituting better building designs (ISDR)
    70. 70. What has been done? What is being done?
    71. 71. This has been a call for global efforts, first from the developed countries…
    72. 72. Global Efforts United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)  the foundation of global efforts to combat global warming; opened for signature in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit; has almost universal membership with 195 governments having ratified the Convention Kyoto Protocol  All participating industrialized countries are required to “reduce emissions on average 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by 2008–2012”; ratified by 182 countries (includes all developed countries except the USA)
    73. 73. Even emissions from developing countries are rising faster than those from developed countries. “Their per capita emissions, however, will remain much lower than those of developed countries. Despite being surpassed by China as the largest annual emitter of GHGs in 2006, the United States accounts for 30 percent of cumulative energy-related CO2 emissions since 1850 while China accounts for 9 percent.” (PEW)
    74. 74. Renewable Energy Local Efforts: Mitigation Geothermal Hydropower Wind Source: Source: Source: Solar Source:
    75. 75. Local Efforts: Mitigation Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Source: - Reforestation Programs Agroforestry
    76. 76. Local Efforts: Adaptation Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (RA 10121) Law that emphasizes the shift from disaster response to disaster risk reduction Addressing adaptation through improving poor urban planning, poor solid waste management, etc. Climate Change Act of 2009 created by the Climate Change Commission sole policy-making body of the government tasked to coordinate, monitor and evaluate plans to address climate change (SEPO)
    77. 77. Local Efforts: Adaptation There are several initiatives from different sectors like: National Agencies (e.g. DA and DENR Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Project) Local Government (e.g. Albay Province’ CCA and DRR initiatives) Communities (e.g. community-based adaptation: agriculture, agroforestry, rainwater harvesting) Private Sector (ABS-CBN’s Kapit Bisig para sa Ilog Pasig)
    78. 78. How can YOU help address the impacts of climate change?
    79. 79. Check your Carbon Footprint You’ll never know how much you can save until you know how much you’re using up. WWF Philippines can help you calculate your carbon footprint. Getting an idea of how much you contribute will give you ways on how to reduce it.
    80. 80. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Manufacturing products and throwing them away as waste is one of the big contributors to our degrading environment. Reduce your consumption. Reuse what you have or sell and donate them instead of throwing them away. Find the recycling center closest to you!
    81. 81. Conserve Water A person consumes an average of 70 gallons of water per day. (WWF, 2013) Turn off the faucet when it’s not in use. Keep your showers short. Kindly decline water in restaurants if you don’t plan on drinking it.
    82. 82. Choose Green Travelling If a place is close enough, choose walking over driving. It reduces carbon emissions and gives you good exercise. Find ways to commute instead of taking a car. If you must take a car, look for people you can carpool with.
    83. 83. Decrease Energy Use  There are appliances that still consume energy when plugged in. Unplug them to make sure you are not consuming wasted energy.  Choose green appliances. Products like solar-powered clocks and phone chargers are available on the market!  Turn your house on full clean energy and convert to using solar panels.
    84. 84. Prepare a Survival Pack Due to the unpredictable change in climate, it is important to always be ready. Have a survival pack prepared with canned food, extra clothes, medicine, water, etc. Keep a list of the emergency hotlines. Check Get Ready Pinas for more details.
    85. 85. Learn and Inform Keep yourself informed of the climate situation in the Philippines. Learn more about how else you can help mitigate and adapt to climate change. You can do this through volunteer work as well. Inform others and help them understand how they can reduce their impacts to climate change.
    86. 86. Summary: Section 5 Mitigation is the human effort to reduce emissions that contribute to climate change. Adaptation has become necessary, especially for a disaster-prone country like the Philippines. Adaptation is adjusting human lifestyle in response to climate change. Mitigation and adaptation efforts have been taking place locally and globally.
    87. 87. References
    88. 88. ReferencesAlliance Development Works, United Nations University, The Nature Conservancy. (2013). World Risks Report 2012. Retrieved from Eckstein, D. and Harmeling S. (2013). Global Climate Risk Index 2013: Who Suffers Most from Extreme Weather Events? Weather-related Loss Events in 2011 and 1992 to 2011. Retrieved from Sajise, A. (2010). State of the Art on Socio-Economics of Climate Change in the Philippines. Retrieved from PAGASA (2011). Climate Change in the Philippines. Retrieved from Senate Economic Planning Office SEPO (2013). Natural Disasters at a Glance. Retrieved from World Bank. (2013). Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience. Retrieved from climate-extremes-regional-impacts-case-resilience-full-report Peng, S, J Huang, JE Sheehy, RC Laza, RM Visperas, X Zhong, GS Centeno, GS Khush and KG Cassman. (2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (27): 9971-9975. Philippine Floods [Digital photograph]. (2012). Retrieved from IPCC Data Distribution Center. (2013). Retrieved from International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (2008). Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved from Weaver, C., Lempert, R., Brown, C., Hall, J., Revell, D., and Sarewitz, D. (2013). Improving the contribution of climate model information to decision making: the value and demands of robust frameworks. WIREs Clim Change, 4, 39–60. doi: 10.1002/wcc.202 Idinoba, M., Imbach, P., and Santoso, H. (2008). Climate Scenarios: What we need to know and how to generate them. Retrieved from publication/publication/2766.html Barrow, E. (2001). Climate Change Scenarios [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from Bureau of Meteorology, Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology Australia (2003). The Greenhouse effect and climate change. Retrieved from Care Climate Change (2012). Decision-making for climate resilient livelihoods and risk reduction: a Participatory Scenario Planning approach. Retrieved from Burton, I., Huq, S., Lim, B., Pilifosova, O., and Schipper, E. (2002). From Impacts, Assessment to Adaptation Priorities: the Shaping of Adaptation Policy. Climate Policy, 2, 145-149. IPCC. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds.], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Wilby, R.L., J. Troni, Y. Biot, L. Tedd, B. C. Hewitson, D. M. Smithe and R. T. Sutton. (2009). A review of climate risk information for adaptation and development planning. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 1193–1215. doi: 10.1002/joc.1839 Lugon, R. (2010). Climate information for decision-making: Lessons learned from effective user provider communication schemes. Retrieved from Chinvanno, S. (2011). Developing Regional Climate Change Scenario and Dilemma in Climate Change Adaptation Planning. Retrieved from United Nations Development Programme (2011). Formulating Climate Change Scenarios to Inform Climate-Resilient Development Strategies. Retrieved from Alano, B. (2013). Unique Portraits of Filipino Fishermen by Bryan Alano. [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from Silhouetted Fisherman. [Digital photograph]. (2012). Retrieved from Salgado, T. (2008). Farmers ready to planting rice seedlings. [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from Rice planting. [Digital photograph]. (2008). Retrieved from World Meteorological Organization (2013). Emission scenarios. Retrieved from Lasco, R. and Delfino, R. (2010). Future Climate and Uncertainties [Powerpoint slides]. Baas, P., Kappelle, M., and Van Vuuren, M. (1999). Effects of climate change on biodiversity: a review and identification of key research issues. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 1383-1397. Goosse H., P.Y. Barriat, W. Lefebvre, M.F. Loutre, and V. Zunz (2010). Introduction to climate dynamics and climate modelling. Retrieved from van Ypersele, JP. (2010). Update on Scenario Development: from SRES to RCPs. Retrieved from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007a). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Felipe, A. (2007). Filipinos. [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from
    89. 89. Produced by: Team: Alexandra Beatrice Cancio, Rafaela Jane Delfino, Rodel Lasco, Perlyn Pulhin, Luigi Toda For more information, contact us at Citation: The Oscar M. Lopez Center for Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management Foundation, Inc., 2013. Climate Change 101. Climate Knowledge Portal for the Philippines. (Url here)