1. Perrys Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Summary including Belenky et al (Women’s Ways of Knowing) by William J. Rapaport, Professor: CompSci & Engineering & Philosophy Depts and Ctr for Cognitive Science; SUNY Buffalo. Key points from Baxter Magolda et al, “Engaged Learning: Enabling Self-Authorship and Effective Practice,” 2009, added by Ilene Alexander).William Perry claimed (and his claims have been substantiated by subsequent research) that collegestudents (others, too) "journey" through 9 positions with respect to intellectual (and moral) development.These stages can be characterized in terms of students’ attitudes towards knowledge. The journey issometimes repeated; and one can be at different stages at the same time with respect to different subjects.A. Dualism/Received Knowledge:Right/wrong answers, engraved on Golden Tablets in the sky, known to Authorities. Basic Duality: All problems are solvable; Therefore, the students task is to learn the Right Solutions Full Dualism: Some Authorities (literature, philosophy) disagree; others (science, math) agree. Therefore, there are Right Solutions, but some teachers views of the Tablets are obscured. Therefore, students task is to learn the Right Solutions and ignore the others!Baxter Magolda – Dependent on others for answers, values, identity.B. Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge:Conflicting answers; therefore, students must trust their "inner voices", not external Authority. Early Multiplicity: There are 2 kinds of problems: * those whose solutions we know * those whose solutions we dont know yet (thus, a kind of dualism). Students task is to learn how to find the Right Solutions. Late Multiplicity: Most problems are of the 2nd kind; therefore, everyone has a right to their own opinion – or, some problems are unsolvable; therefore, it doesnt matter which (if any) solution you choose. Students task is to shoot the bull. Most freshman are at this position, which is a kind of relativism. At this point, some students become alienated, and either retreat to an earlier, "safer" position: "I think Ill study math, not literature, because there are clear answers and not as much uncertainty,” or else escape, drop out: "I cant stand college; all they want is right answers" or else "I cant stand college; no one gives you the right answers".Baxter Magolda – Beginning to question authority, form views, develop identity.C. Relativism/Procedural Knowledge:Specific disciplinary reasoning methods: Connected knowledge: empathetic (why do you believe X?; whatdoes this poem say to me?) vs. Separated knowledge: "objective analysis" (what techniques can I use toanalyze this poem?) Contextual Relativism: All proposed solutions supported by reasons; must be viewed in context & relative to support. Some solutions are better than others, depending on context. Students task is to learn to evaluate solutions. "Pre-Commitment": Student sees the necessity of: *making choices *committing to a solutionBaxter Magolda – Forming own sense of values and views to guide relationships and decisions.D. Commitment/Constructed Knowledge:Integration of knowledge learned from others with personal experience and reflection. Commitment: Student makes a commitment. Challenges to Commitment: Student experiences implications of commitment. Student explores issues of responsibility. "Post-Commitment": Student realizes commitment is an ongoing, unfolding, evolving activityBaxter Magolda – self-authored life.
2. Determining Essential Requirements for Courses/Programs Published on Student Affairs http://studentaffairs.stanford.edu/oae/faculty/essentialWhether a requested accommodation would fundamentally alter an essential requirement of acourse will generally need to be determined on a case-by-case basis, in light of the specifics of thecourse and the requested accommodation. The following general discussion may be helpful toillustrate some of the relevant considerations.Essential Requirements DefinedEssential requirements are the outcomes (including skills, knowledge, and attitudes) all studentsmust demonstrate with or without using accommodations. Some students might useaccommodations and some might not, but all students must achieve the same outcomes. Processis important, of course, but not necessarily essential. Focusing on course outcomes will helpinstructors to define the course’s essential requirements.Essential vs. Non-essential RequirementsThe difference between essential and non-essential requirements is similar to the differencebetween “essential” and “preferred” skills listed in job descriptions. An employer may want to seeboth sets of skills, but only the essential skills are an absolute requirement of employment.Similarly, in courses instructors can articulate essential outcomes that all students mustdemonstrate in order to successfully complete the course, as well as preferred outcomes theyhope students will be able to demonstrate.Determining Essential Requirements of CoursesTo determine the essential requirements of a course, consider the following: • What is the purpose of the course? • Are there pre-existing abilities or skills all participating students must possess? • What other knowledge, background is assumed? • What outcomes are absolutely required of all students in the course, with or without accommodations? • What teaching strategies most effectively address the essential outcomes? • What methods of instruction are non-negotiable?Once instructors have determined the essential course requirements they should be able to: • Articulate the overall purpose of the course • Identify what skills, knowledge, principles and concepts in a course must be mastered and demonstrated by all students • Treat all students fairly • Convey the framework used to set academic and program standards to OAE staff • Assist in determining reasonable accommodations for students with disabilitiesConsider Flexibility in Instructional Methods or AssessmentMethods of instruction and assessment can be examined to determine how information is taughtand what alternative opportunities are available for teaching and learning the information, formatof materials, skills etc.Flexibility in achieving outcomes may or may not be appropriate depending on the nature of thecourse and its requirements as the following examples illustrate.Consider CollaborationDetermining what accommodations are appropriate is most effectively accomplished throughcollaboration. • Faculty bring knowledge of the course content, methods, and essential requirements; • Disability Advisers understand what accommodations are possible; • Students understand their own limitations and how their disability impacts learning in a
3. classroom.Scenario #1A student with a psychological disorder asks to give a required oral presentation in a sociologycourse to the instructor in private rather than to the entire class. The accommodation is approvedsince the essential requirement remains, which is the presentation itself.This same student requests the identical accommodation in an oral communication class wheregiving speeches is required. The accommodation in this instance is denied because thefundamental requirement of delivering a speech publicly is essential to the course’s objective.Scenario #2A student with a learning disability is taking a writing course and asks to use a computer andspellchecker for the in-class final exam. This accommodation is approved because theinstructor’s grading rubric does not focus on accurate spelling as the most important element inthe essay.Scenario #3A medical student who has the use of only one hand requests a change in the procedure to startan IV. This accommodation is granted because the student is able to demonstrate proficiency instarting the IV as required by law and/or licensing requirements although he is using a differentprocedure to achieve this outcome.Scenario #4 (this scenario and the ones that follow are by Tim Kamenar & Ilene Alexander)In the department, you overhear a colleague talking about the international students who were inher 1000-level course last fall. Because many of them were freshmen who were new to the U.S.,she found herself spending more time than usual with them after class and during office hoursanswering questions about the material and clarifying expectations for the assignments andexams. Their academic performance was on par with their local peers, but she lamented theamount of extra help these students seemed to need. Upon hearing this, you look more closely atyour class list and find that this fall you will have several international students who appear to bestudents in their first semester at the U. Given that they will be adjusting to a new educationalculture, as well as perhaps adjusting to learning in a second language, what can you do giventhese factors to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?Scenario #5It is the first week of the semester and you receive an email (excerpted below) from a student inyour class (John). He is transmitting a Disability Services letter which notes accommodations thatthe student will need; you have not yet met this student in person. On reading the email, youwonder, what can you do in light of this situation to maximize this student’s learning in ways thatwill benefit all your students?--------------This student is registered with Disability Services and has a documented disability that impactsvision. Therefore, I recommend that the student meet with you to discuss the followingaccommodations:Classroom Accommodations • Note taking assistance provided by a peer note taker. Please assist John in finding a student in the class to provide copies of his/her notes. John will provide an announcement for you to read to the class explaining this process. • Preferred seating. Please allow John to choose seating in the classroom. • Audio recorder, provided by student, for lectures.Coursework Adaptation Accommodations
4. • Class handouts provided in large print: 20 pt font. Bold, sans serifRecommended Best Practices/Universal Design • Instructor provides verbal description of all visual materials shown in the classroom. • Instructor provides presentation slides to the student prior to the class.Testing Accommodations • Extended time for all exams: double time • Alternate format testing materials provided by Disability Services: Large print, 20 pt font. • Use of computer to provide large print display.Scenario #6You have a student who does not appear to be intentionally rude or abusive, but constantlyinterrupts, often offering personal information or opinion that has little relevance to the topic beingdiscussed. During the first week, you notice the student sometimes dominates discussion,generally by asking repeated follow up questions, and at times by making repeated movements toswitch chairs or stand up. Other students in the class have begun to avoid sitting nearby. Giventhat the course features a series of group activities requiring consistent collaborative participation,you are now thinking about how to structure those activities and you wonder, what can you do withregard to this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?Scenario #7You’ve made your syllabus available to students ahead of the semester – you know from pastexperience that a number of students like to start collecting and reviewing course readings duringthe couple of weeks before classes begin. This year a number of students have emailed ordropped by to ask whether they might buy an earlier edition of the textbook since it’s nearly $75less expensive than one they could order online (which costs less than the text at the localcampus bookstore). Cuts in grants, student loans and increased tuition, they note is impactingtheir textbook budget. One first generation student thinks she might have to shift her classes inorder to balance out the book costs. Also, you have a Disability Services email related to astudent who’s been in touch with you – they’re wondering when to expect copies of the coursematerials for transferring into alternative formats. Classes start next week and you wonder, whatcan you do about this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all yourstudents?
5. For Further Information Resources – in a suggested orderJames Zull on the Art of Changing the Brain / Pillars of Learning:http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/Neurosciences/articles/The%20Art%20of%20the%20Changing%20Brain/index.htmlA Dialogic Approach to Online Facilitation:http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet26/swann.html10 Principles for Learning and Teaching and the Development of Learning Cultures in Scotland’sColleges:http://www.scotlandscolleges.ac.uk/component/option,com_docman/Itemid,78/gid,234/task,doc_download/Teaching Inclusively Using Technology:http://www.jisctechdis.ac.uk/pages/detail/online_resources/Teaching_Inclusively_Using_TechnologyCultural Competence for Health Professionals:http://healtheducation.umn.edu/cultural-competence/“I’ve Done All the Reading for this Class…” The Role of Low Stakes, Online Writing Promptshttp://uminntilt.wordpress.com/2012/05/14/ive-done-all-the-reading-for-this-class-the-role-of-low-stakes-online-writing-prompts/