Learners and Learning: More Learning for More LearnersAs you come into the workshop today, use the opening minutes to review and respond to the following two writing prompts to begin thinking on workshop themes.1. LearningFrank Coffield proposes the following definition of learning, with two qualifications: “Learning refers only to significant changes in capability, understanding, knowledge, practices, attitudes or values by individuals, groups, organisations or society.” Qualification 1: Learning excludes the acquisition of factual information when it does not contribute to such changes. Qualification 2: Learning excludes immoral learning as when prisoners learn from other inmates in custody how to extend their repertoire of criminal activities. Just Suppose Learning & Teaching Became the First Priority (2008)Making use of the prompt above as well as your experience as learner and teacher brainstorm in thespace below, or on your keyboard, to begin defining what learning would look, sound, be like in yourcourse(s).For Further Information – Coffield‟s analysis shows that if those involved in teaching – at policy orclassroom levels – do not define learning, then acquisition becomes the default definition regardlessof course goals/outcomes and levels of complexity required for mastery.
2. Learners: Making use of your experience and prompted by the chart below, write notes / ideasabout what learner characteristics will help students flourish in your class. Use space below the chartor your keyboard to record your focused list of learner characteristics. STUDENTS LEARNERSRelationship with Students are employees, required to Learners are citizens with a vested interest inEducators obediently follow instructions. the learning society.Relationship with Students are competitors Learners are collaboratorsother StudentsMotivation Obligation: Students are culturally obliged Responsibility: Learners are motivated by an to work for the teacher & for understood and realized “value in their work, compensation (below) especially when it is valuable to others.Compensation Institution defined grades and gateways A sense of ongoing accomplishment that is not to college (another institution) and a delivered but earned, and not symbolic but good job (another institution) tangible and valuable – an investment.Mode of Operation Compliant, group-disciplined, objective- Persevering, self-disciplined, group-and goal- oriented, and trainable oriented, resourceful, and learning in order to achieve rather than achieving learningWhy Compelled CuriousEquipped …with packaged knowledge and tools for recording packaged knowledge – …with tools for exploring a networked variety prescribed and paced learning of content, experimenting with that content, and discovering, concluding, and construction knowledge – invented learningAssessment Measuring what the student has learned. Measuring what the learner can do with what has been learned.
What is Universal Course Design?Adaptation from an Instructors’ Wiki into which we have added aspects of Integrated Aligned Course Design & of 9 Principles of UDI.Universal Course Design (UCD) is constructing college courses including course curriculum, instruction, assessment and theenvironment to be usable by all students, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for accommodations.Faculty Goal: What should all students know and be able to do by participating in this learning experience?Faculty Challenge: High standards and greater student diversity. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UDI PRINCIPLES Use in conjunction with Integrated Aligned Design Primary Starting PointsCurriculum Determine the specific course content, skills, and strategies to be learned. 1. Equitable use Ask the question, “How will the students access the information?” 2. Flexibility in use Provide flexible media & materials to ensure information access & learning. 3. Simple and intuitive Motivate & engage the students based on interest, experience & application.Instruction Provide multiple and flexible methods of presentation. 1. Flexibility in use Provide multiple models of correct performance, multiple opportunities to practice 4. Perceptible information with supports & flexible opportunities to demonstrate skill. 9. Instructional climate Provide choices of content and tools, choice of learning context all of which are culturally responsive.Assessment Create two or more assessment choices for students to choose from to coincide 1. Equitable use with their learning style 5. Tolerance for error Provide ongoing evaluation of “what is working and what is not.” Change methods according to the effectiveness & appropriateness of pre- sentation format, expression methods & level of engagement of all students. Measures a range of student performance across multiple levels.Environment Create a campus-wide climate that is safe, caring, and nurturing. 6. Low physical effort Build a personalized learning environment. Teach respect for all learners. 7. Size and space Use physical space to enhance student participation and engagement. 8. Community of learners Student-teacher social interactions, classroom climate, and peer group relationships enhance student learning.
EXAMPLES RESOURCES Suggestions from Instructors’ Wiki Suggestions from us for Further InformationCourse CurriculumA statistics professor at New Hampshire Community Technical College began his course by Developing an Inclusive Curric.asking students name their interests. He then incorporated the interests into the statistical http://z.umn.edu/ukinclusivedata sets he used in class. Students reported being more interested in the class and better Creating an Inclusive Campus:able to understand how information they learned applied to their profession. http://z.umn.edu/3h8InstructionA family studies professor at the University of Vermont teaching a large lecture class used Preparing Future Faculty portal:to lecture for an hour but noticed that after 20 minutes students‟ eyes look dazed and they http://z.umn.edu/ida8101stopped taking notes. When the mid-term exam scores were not great he decided to begin Improving web access for learning:providing the class with an outline of session concepts & content. Also, students broke into http://webaim.org/groups to discuss a particular problem and then report to the entire class. This strategy Accessible PowerPoints:increased the level of engagement in class. Using an MP3 player to audio, he recorded http://z.umn.edu/3h9lectures, and after class put the audio file on the website for students to download. As a Connecting:result of this technique, students were better prepared to participate in class. http://z.umn.edu/findingcommonground Merlot on UCD: http://z.umn.edu/udmerlotAssessmentAn education professor at Rhode Island College recognized the diverse learning styles in Accessible Assessments:her classroom and decided that a typical final exam would not accurately reflect what http://z.umn.edu/assmtstudents had learned. So, she gave them a choice: take the final exam or develop a website Universal Design for Testing:in groups of 3 using wikis to reflect what they had learned in the class. 65% of the students http://z.umn.edu/3hachose to develop a website, which they still refer to that site as a resource and she has Universal Design for Assessment:used it as a resources in subsequent classes. http://z.umn.edu/3hb Writing & Multilingual Students: http://z.umn.edu/multilingualEnvironmentA nursing professor at the UMassachusetts-Boston assigned a small classroom with rows of Multicultural Learning/Teaching:chairs does not like the arrangement because it does not permit her to freely interact with all http://z.umn.edu/islandsstudents. So, she arrives in the classroom a half an hour early to rearrange the chairs into a Universal Design for Instruction:large circle, equalizing the learning environment for all. Students not only take a more active http://udi.uconn.edu/role in the conversation during the class, but also arrive early to help her with the chairs &speak to her about their work.
5. Tolerance for error Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite skills.6. Low physical effort Instruction is designed to minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning. Note: This principle does not apply when physical effort is integral to essential requirements of a course.7. Size and space for Instruction is designed with consideration forapproach and use appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use regardless of a students body size, posture, mobility, and communication needs.8. A community of The instructional environment promotes interactionlearners and communication among students and between students and faculty.9. Instructional climate Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations are espoused for all students.Adapted From:Principles of Universal Design for Instruction, by S. S. Scott, J.M. McGuire, & S.F. Shaw. Storrs:University of Connecticut, Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability. Copyright 2001.Permission is granted to copy this document for educational purposes; however, please acknowledgeyour source using the following citation:UDI Online Project. (2009). Examples of UDI in Online and Blended Courses. Center on PostsecondaryEducation and Disability, University of Connecticut, Storrs.http://udi.uconn.edu/index.php?q=content/examples-udi-online-and-blended... .Source URL: http://udi.uconn.edu/index.php?q=content/nine-principles-udi%C2%A9Links: http://udi.uconn.edu/index.php?q=content/examples-udi-online-and-blended-courses
Universal Design for InstructionIntegrated and Aligned DesignUniversal Design is not new. It encompasses a range of design considerations with agoal to create learning environments that minimize barriers to teaching and learning.Universal Design is not easy, but a universally designed course will minimize the needto change or modify the design, delivery, and assessment of course material whileimproving learning for all students. Integrated and Aligned Design incorporates theprinciples of Universal Design into well established tenants of good curricular design.This is a summary of essential design considerations:1. What level of intellectual behavior are you attempting to reach (Bloom‟sTaxonomy, e.g. knowledge/remembering, understanding, applying)? Does the course begin with remembering basic information and end with application to novel situations, or is this a survey course where remembering is the expected level of mastery? Determining the desired level Intellectual behavior leads to the question, “how will I achieve this?” This leads to the next design tool, Backward Design.2. Backward Design – Summary Points a) Establish Intended Learning Outcomes (Curriculum) b) Determine various modes of feedback and assessment (Assessment) c) Develop teaching and learning activities (Instruction) a) Learning Outcomes (Curriculum) Begin at the end o What should students know at the end of the: course, topic, lecture What is essential; what prepares students for follow on learning What do you desire for them to leave with when your course ends Write clear and measurable Outcomes – move beyond “understand” and “remember”. Make objectives Concrete and Tangible. Essentially, you will define “to understand” with specific terms. o Not…„to understand the steps of the research process‟. Instead…„students will demonstrate mastery of the research process through creation of a research outline, passing a test on the tenants of good research design, and completion of a research paper.‟ Well constructed objectives provide direct links to how you should assess teaching and learning. Reflect – Who are my learners? In what ways do they learn? What can I do to reach this diverse range of learners (Universal Design)? Do my learning outcomes result in excluding different learners? b) Feedback & Assessment Procedures (Assessment)
What will the students have to do to demonstrate that they have achieved the learning outcomes? Go beyond the basis for issuing a course grade and determine if the assessment plan meets your objectives for student learning. Include multiple modes of assessment to both gauge their learning and effectiveness of teaching. Reflect – Are there artificial constraints contained my assessment plan, i.e. is time truly essential? Is my wording clear, concise, and unambiguous? Are my graphic elements clear, readable, scalable in size? Do my assessment and feedback strategies include a rubric? Is my assessment plan flexible to allow for adjustments without difficulty? c) Teaching/Learning Activities (Instruction) Identify a range of teaching and learning activities (lecture, discussion, project, etc.) that supports the objectives and relates to the assessment plan. Identify enabling resources (to achieve learning outcomes/Universal Design) o Time, tools, personnel, materials and money o Learning activities (in and out of class) o Course materials (books, lab manuals, etc.) Reflect – Will these activities achieve my objectives? Do they minimize the need for later adjustment? Do these activities support my assessment plan or are they a good idea or activity I‟m trying to make fit?3. Review you plan Check to ensure that the three components of Backwards Design are all consistent with, and support each other. Review your strategy for teaching and learning o Multiple modes of engaging learners o Multiple modes of presenting information o Multiple modes of expression of learner expression Review the learning environment to reduce barriers to teaching and learning, both physical and cognitive. Anticipate barriers and adjust for them. Plot the term on a calendar, create a timeline o If I need to create a new teaching strategy, how long will it take? o When can I implement a new assessment tool and do I have the resources to do it? o What if a discussion does not reach my learning objective, do I have time to implement a different activity?Adapted from:Designing Courses for Significant Learning Being Concrete as a Teacher: From CourseL. Dee Fink, PhD (2003) Outcomes Through Practical Activities David Langley, UMN Center for Teaching andUniversal Design of Instruction LearningUniversity of Connecticuthttp://www.facultyware.uconn.edu/home.cfm Taxonomy of educational objectives Bloom, B. S., et al. (1956)
Design Exercise – First week of the termCourse Name:Course Objectives:Objective(s) for the First Week of the Term:Assessment/Feedback Plan for the First Week‟s Objective(s)Teaching/Learning ActivitiesReflectionBefore instruction:After instruction:What changes based on the scenarios?
Classroom Scenarios for Incorporating Universal Design Principles1. New to This Educational CultureIn the department, you overhear a colleague talking about the international students who werein her 1000-level course last fall. Because many of them were freshmen who were new to theU.S., she found herself spending more time than usual with them after class and during officehours answering questions about the material and clarifying expectations for the assignmentsand exams. Their academic performance was on par with their local peers, but she lamentedthe amount of extra help these students seemed to need. Upon hearing this, you look moreclosely at your class list and find that this fall you will have several international students whoappear to be students in their first semester at the U. Given that they will be adjusting to a neweducational culture, as well as perhaps adjusting to learning in a second language, what canyou do given these factors to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?2. Formal Accommodations RequestIt is the first week of the semester and you receive an email (excerpted below) from a studentin your class (John). He is transmitting a Disability Services letter which notesaccommodations that the student will need; you have not yet met this student in person. Onreading the email, you wonder, what can you do in light of this situation to maximize thisstudent‟s learning in ways that will benefit all your students?--------------This student is registered with Disability Services and has a documented disability that impactsvision. Therefore, I recommend that the student meet with you to discuss the followingaccommodations:Classroom Accommodations Note taking assistance provided by a peer note taker. Please assist John in finding a student in the class to provide copies of his/her notes. John will provide an announcement for you to read to the class explaining this process. Preferred seating. Please allow John to choose seating in the classroom. Audio recorder, provided by student, for lectures.Coursework Adaptation Accommodations Class handouts provided in large print: 20 pt font. Bold, sans serifRecommended Best Practices/Universal Design Instructor provides verbal description of all visual materials shown in the classroom. Instructor provides presentation slides to the student prior to the class.Testing Accommodations Extended time for all exams: double time Alternate format testing materials provided by Disability Services: Large print, 20 pt font. Use of computer to provide large print display.3. A Textbook Case
You‟ve made your syllabus available to students ahead of the semester – you know from pastexperience that a number of students like to start collecting and reviewing course readingsduring the couple of weeks before classes begin. This year a number of students haveemailed or dropped by to ask whether they might buy an earlier edition of the textbook sinceit‟s nearly $75 less expensive than one they could order online (which costs less than the textat the local campus bookstore). Cuts in grants, student loans and increased tuition, some sayis impacting their textbook budget. One first generation student who is an engaged student inyour department thinks she might have to shift her classes in order to balance out the bookcosts. Classes start next week and you wonder, what can you do about this situation tomaximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?4. Learning and Teaching InterruptedYou have a student who does not appear to be intentionally rude or abusive, but constantlyinterrupts, often offering personal information or opinion that has little relevance to the topicbeing discussed. During the first week, you notice the student sometimes dominatesdiscussion, generally by asking repeated follow up questions, and at times by making repeatedmovements to switch chairs or stand up. Other students in the class have begun to avoidsitting nearby. Given that the course features a series of group activities requiring consistentcollaborative participation, you are now thinking about how to structure those activities and youwonder, what can you do with regard to this situation to maximize their learning in ways thatwill benefit all your students?
UNIVERSAL DESIGN RESOURCESUniversity of Minnesota:Center for Teaching & Learning http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/Disability Services http://ds.umn.edu/Accessibility in Learning http://accessibility.umn.edu/Office of Information Technology http://www.oit.umn.edu/index.phpAdditional information on Universal Design, Instruction, CourseSyllabus, Technology, and more:Center for University Design http://www.ncsu.edu/project/design-projects/udi/The Faculty Room http://www.washington.edu/doit/Faculty/Strategies/Universal/Technology http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/technology.htmlCourse Design http://www.eeonline.org/How to Rethink Your Syllabus http://www.portals.emory.edu/sylideas.htmlCourse Syllabus http://uditeach.r2d2.uwm.edu/?p=67Syllabus Developmenthttp://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/universaldesign/syllabus.htmlMerlot http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm (search “universal design”)UDI for Moodle http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/869/1575