UAV Presentation

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UAV Presentation

  1. 1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ((UAV))
  2. 2. UAVPresented By: • Alexander Mohamed Osman • Riyad Ahmed El-laithy • Ruyyan Ahmed El-laithy • Peter Raouf Zaki
  3. 3. Introduction• What are UVs ?• What are UAVs ?• Types of UAVs – Fixed wing UAV – Helicopter UAV – Quadroter UAV
  4. 4. Quadrotor Advantage Over Fixed- Wing Vehicle• Less design complexity.• Minimal space for take-off and landing. A VTOL vehicle.
  5. 5. Quadrotor Advantage Over Helicopter• Quadrotors do not require mechanical linkages.• The use of four rotors allows each individual rotor to have a smaller diameter than the equivalent helicopter rotor.
  6. 6. Conventional Design
  7. 7. Control Scheme Direction ∆ Motor 1 ∆ Motor 2 ∆ Motor 3 ∆ Motor 4 Z+ (Up) + + + + Z- (Down) - - - - X+ (Left) + 0 0 + X- (Right) 0 + + 0Y+ (Forward) + + 0 0Y- (Backward) 0 0 + +
  8. 8. Materials used in building the Prototypes• Balsa wood planks• Super glue
  9. 9. The First Prototype:• Disadvantages – It was too heavy to lift • 197 grams. – The spacing between the motors Picture of 1st Prototype
  10. 10. The Second Prototype• What is improved in that prototype ? – The weight decreased • 93 grams. – The motors are closer to each other• The result Picture of 2nd Prototype – Light lift
  11. 11. The Second Prototype• Disadvantages – Still heavy to hover – Disturbance in the rotor wind vortex – Not aerodynamic Picture of 2nd Prototype
  12. 12. The First Prototype VsThe Second Prototype
  13. 13. The Third Prototype• What is improved in this prototype ?- Starting the X design- Reduced air resistance.- More lift gained .- Lightweight . • 45 Grams. Picture of the 3rd Prototype
  14. 14. The Third Prototype• Problems with the new design: – Too fragile. – The reduced air resistance was still not enough.• What can be done ?
  15. 15. The Fourth and Final PrototypeTop: Isometric: Front: Side:
  16. 16. The Fourth and Final Prototype• Achievements: - Rigid and Lightweight. (43 Grams). - Great lift. - Highly reduced air resistance. Picture of Final Prototype
  17. 17. The Fourth and Final Prototype• Specifications: -Total Weight (with all components) = 990 Grams (0.99 Kg) - Acceleration at Full Power = 4.061m/s2 - Vertical Force at Full Power = 4.021N (Assuming Differential Torque = 0) - Lateral thrust beyond Hover Thrust = 0.4141g - Power – to – Weight Ratio = 1.5 : 1
  18. 18. Controller Design• Design Objectives – Stability – Obstacle Avoidance – Determining Position – Communication
  19. 19. Controller Design• To achieve these objectives we need – IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) – 5 Ultrasonic Sensors – GPS Receiver – RF Transceiver
  20. 20. Controller Design• MicroController requirements – 4 PWM Outputs – 11 Analog to Digital Channels – High speed crystal• PIC18F4431 – 4 14-bit Power PWM modules  – 9 10-bit 200Ksps ADC channels  – 40 MHz Crystal Max 
  21. 21. Controller Design• Problems with 18F4431 – Programmer/PIC incompatibilities• PIC16F777 – 3 10-bit PWM modules  – 14 10-bit ADC Modules  – 20 MHz Crystal Max  – 2 Connected together
  22. 22. Controller Design• Problems with PICxxFxxxx – IMU and RF work at 3.3V Logic – GPS messages are TTL 0 – 2.85V – Ultrasonic readings range from 0 – 2.54• PIC16LF777 – 3 10-bit PWM modules – 14 10-bit ADC channels – 10 MHz Crystal max – Operating voltage range from 2V – 5.5V – 2 Connected together
  23. 23. Controller Design• 2 communicating 3.3V Microcontrollers• Stability & Proximity sensors – IMU – 5 Ultrasonic sensors• 2 communication devices – 2.4 GHz Transceiver – GPS Receiver
  24. 24. Controller Design
  25. 25. Controller Implementation• Small & compact design• Easily modified – Modify subparts only – Protect components from repetitive exposure to welding temperatures• Sub boards• Interface PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards)
  26. 26. Controller Design• First Main board – Replaced – Photo-couplers were used later on
  27. 27. Controller Design First Main board
  28. 28. Controller Design• Second Main board – Photo-couplers were implemented – Sub-boards implemented – Interface boards – Smaller design
  29. 29. Controller Design Second Main board
  30. 30. Controller Design• Last Main Board – Photo-couplers – Interface boards – Sub-boards – 90° Interface connections – Even smaller design – ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programming) wires were added onto the circuit later on – LEDs for easier debugging without the need for expensive hardware such as ICDs (In Circuit Debuggers)
  31. 31. Controller Design Last Main board
  32. 32. Controller PCB Implementation Last Main board
  33. 33. Interface Boards• Easier error correction.• Reduction of surface area.
  34. 34. GPS Interface Board
  35. 35. IMU Interface Board
  36. 36. RF Interface Board
  37. 37. PCB Production Procedures• What do you need to make a PCB – Laser printer – Glossy paper – Acetone – Clothing iron – Acid – Steel sponge
  38. 38. PCB Production• Clean the surface of the board• Print the circuit• Start folding• Start ironing• Put it in hot water• Start chemical etching• Finalize with drilling
  39. 39. Analog-To-Digital Converter• ADCs: - Importance of Data Acquisition in our UAV. - Vref set on 3 Volts. - Ultrasonic sensors. - Gyrometer. - Accelerometer.
  40. 40. ADCs• ADC Reading = (Vin/Vref) X (2N); where Vin : is the Voltage input. Vref : is the reference voltage. N : is the resolution of the ADC Conversion.
  41. 41. Ultrasonic Sensors• Ultrasonic Sensors: - Maximum Range: 254 inches (6.45m) - Minimum Range: 6 inches (15cm) (Blind Spot) - New Readings every 49 Milliseconds. - Has Serial/Analog/Pulse Width Modulation output. - Every 0.01V represents 1 inch.
  42. 42. Ultrasonic Sensors• Calculating Distance inside ADC: - Distance = (Vin/Vref) X (2N);• For example: 50cm = 0.20 Volts shown on Ultrasonic Sensor. (0.20/3.30)*1024 = 62.061 To calculate backwards to know accuracy: (62/1024)*3.3 = 0.1998 Volts on input pin. Therefore, the Error = (1-(0.1998/0.20))*100 = 0.1%
  43. 43. PWM• Pulse Width Modulation: - Processing after Data Acquisition for scenarios. - Implementing the data acquired as output on Motors. - Frequency for Motor Output (750Hz).
  44. 44. PWM• How It works? Obtains Average of On/Off Intervals within period.• VAV = 1.65 Volts since half the time is ON and the other half is OFF.
  45. 45. Testing Sensors• A great way to test the sensors is using an LCD. – Tangible.• Used to test all sensor outputs after processing: - Ultrasonic. - Accelerometer. - Gyrometer. - GPS Receiver. - RF Transceiver units.
  46. 46. LCDs
  47. 47. GPS Applications• GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide.• A useful tool for – Map making. – Land surveying. – Scientific uses.
  48. 48. NAVSTAR Constellation• There is a constellation of 30 earth orbiting satellites transmitting precise radio signals.• Orbits are set up so that at any given point and time on the earth’s surface there are at least six of these satellites in reach.
  49. 49. GPS Messages• Almanac contains orbital data• Ephemeris contains the satellites precise orbit.
  50. 50. Pseudorange• Estimated distance calculated by the receiver between the satellite and receiver.
  51. 51. Trilateration• Pseudoranges intersect at a point.• This point is the receiver location.
  52. 52. Overlapping Pseudoranges
  53. 53. Latitude & Longitude
  54. 54. NMEA Protocol• NMEA preferred to SiRF.• Simply works with input and output messages.
  55. 55. Input Messages
  56. 56. Input Messages• Input messages are used for initialization.• Selected input messages were: – Set Serial Port – Query/Rate Control – Development Data On/Off• CRC required for input message.
  57. 57. Output Message
  58. 58. Output Message• Message of choice was RMC, it contained all we needed which was: – Latitude & Longitude – Course Heading – Velocity
  59. 59. USART• The GPS communicates with the PIC through USART.• Communicates at 4800 bps• Asynchronous
  60. 60. Validating Message• When the message is validated: – The latitude, longitude and heading are ready to be extracted to the Main PIC. – RF function is called to transmit data, to the simulator.
  61. 61. Inertial Measurement Unit• Gyro – Measures angular velocity on the x and y axes – Can also be used to calculate displacement angle – Sensitivity of 2mV/°/sec
  62. 62. Inertial Measurement Unit• Accelerometer – Measures acceleration on the x,y and z axes – Sensitivity of 300mV/g – Can also measure angles
  63. 63. Inertial Measurement Unit• IMU – Gyrometer & Accelerometer – Transform acceleration readings onto the 3 original axes. – Velocity & Displacement can be calculated from accelerometer readings on 3 main axes.
  64. 64. Inertial Measurement Unit
  65. 65. Microcontroller Communication• SPI Communication – Master/Slave Configuration – 3 pin connection – Synchronous Serial Transmission – 8-bit at a time – Control Messages, & Sensor Values
  66. 66. Laipac RF• Haw the transmitter works ? – Data input to the to the encoder. – transmitting the data
  67. 67. Laipac RF• The transmission unit
  68. 68. Laipac RF• How it receives? – Data receiving – Data decoding
  69. 69. Laipac RF• Receiving unit
  70. 70. Laipac RF• Conclusion after testing – Too slow. – Big size . – Very small payload. – Very short range. – Need an external antenna.
  71. 71. RF-24G transceiver• Specification – Very small size – Long range » 280 meter – Built in antenna – 29 byte payload – Fast transmission & reception » Up to 1Mbps – Shock burst mode
  72. 72. RF transceiver• States of Shock burst – Active mode – Configurations mode – Standby mode – Power down mode
  73. 73. RF transceiver• Configuration mode • Configuring Transmitter – Clocking data – Delay – Standby Mode
  74. 74. RF transceiver• Active mode • Transmitting
  75. 75. RF transceiver• Active mode • Receiving
  76. 76. RC Unit
  77. 77. Data Acquisition• What is Data Acquisition?• Why?
  78. 78. Data Presentation• What is Data Presentation?• Why?
  79. 79. Problems• Serial Port• Signed Byte• Graph Origin• Converting Longitude and Latitude to Pixels
  80. 80. Solutions• Javax.comm -CommPortIdentifier -Streams -SerialEvent -Converting any data to String then to Bytes• Convert to short add 256 if negative• -( ( (Height - 90 ) / Range ) * Actual ) + Separation• ((width /|(difference between top left longitude and bottom right longitude)|)*|(acquired longitude-top left longitude)|)
  81. 81. Data Presentation Platform
  82. 82. Data Presentation Platform (cont.)
  83. 83. Map
  84. 84. Map (cont.)
  85. 85. Remote Control
  86. 86. Remote Control (cont.)
  87. 87. Tester
  88. 88. Object detection
  89. 89. Introduction• What is an object ?• What is object detection ?• How to make it ?• What is image processing ?
  90. 90. Challenges & solutions• Acquisition problems• Developing imaging application in a flexible environment• Why not use c/c++ ? – Time consuming , handling• Used language, Why ?
  91. 91. Imaging tasks
  92. 92. Imaging circumstances• Type of the acquistion• The properties of the target object?• The environment• The objective
  93. 93. Challenges• Colored image• Variance in lighting• Uninformed background• The target is colored• The target’s shape is not defined
  94. 94. Our program• Acquisition phase• Visualization phase – Estimate the degree of the color• Processing phase – Applying Median filter
  95. 95. Analysis phase• Make a binary image showing the blue pixels• If there is other blue objects it will be shown as white objects
  96. 96. • Pixel connectivity• The use of the labeling function – [label,num]=bwlabel(y,4); – stats=regionprops(label,Area,BoundingBox, PixelList);• What are the importance of those functions
  97. 97. • Finding the object with the largest area• Locating its position• Making a bounding box around• Send the target position to the UAV
  98. 98. Screen shots• Idle mode
  99. 99. Screen shots• Running mode
  100. 100. Screen shots• Running mode(object not found)
  101. 101. FUTURE IMPLEMENTATIONS• Gyrometer & Accelerometer drift correction• Ultrasonic sensors attached to servos.• High powered brushless motors.• A long range high resolution camera.• Magnetometer• Chassis redesign
  102. 102. CONCLUSION• Local market restrictions inhibited time.• Bottom down programming was the best approach.• Data presentation helps in detecting errors faster and avoiding problems.• Placing UAV on a map helps discovering its location.• Tester helps in testing the response of the RF and the pic programs

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