Renaissance Italy Group 2


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Renaissance Italy Group 2

  1. 1. Renaissance Italy<br />Alina Lewandowski, Ana Stevens, Nigel Itchon, <br />Mike Rush, and Trevor Kupecky<br />
  2. 2. Farming Life<br />In the beginning of the Renaissance, four books were published in 1472. These books were the agronomy of ancient Romans and farming techniques that were now available to estate owners in Italy. The key elements in Italian agriculture were to forage or search for crops and expand irrigation to water crops. During the Renaissance, many nitrogen-fixing crops had been planted in fields that would make the soil fertile and plants grew abundantly. This was very important to Italy because nitrogen-fixing crops had been lost in Italian medieval times. An example of these crops would be alfalfa, a very cultivated crop in Italy in 1540 known as the “Spanish Grass”. Other plants that were grown abundantly during the Italian Renaissance Era were flax, many vegetables, and olives.<br />Once the Americas were discovered, new foods and agricultural ways were brought to Italy allowing farming to thrive will all the new resources. Sweet potatoes were introduced to Italy from the Americas and became a big export.<br /> Peasants were a large portion of people in Italy during this era and they worked on the farmland with their families. Landlords owned most of the land that peasants worked on and the peasants rented the land to work on for food. Sometimes even livestock or tools would be traded for land rents. In most of Italy, people were either peasants renting land, or a small percentage was landlords owning countless fields.<br />
  3. 3. Food<br />Peasants:<br />Poultry and eggs<br />Almost never drank water (drank beer and wine)<br />Raised pigs to sell to nobles<br />Nobles:<br />Prevented peasants from hunting certain animals<br />Ate feasts generally<br />
  4. 4. Schools During Renaissance<br />During the Renaissance, it took a lot of effort for Italy to establish schools. Teachers were very abundant in both cities and villages of Italy, but they mostly taught on their own or in small groups. A teacher would have an average of 20 to 40 students. Near 1550, new religions influenced Italy to set up schools similar to the ones we have where on teacher teaches one grade and the students move up a grade when promoted.<br /> The two main schools in Italy were Latin schools that taught governing and philosophy, and Italian schools that taught skills for commerce and trade. Latin schools studied the classical Rome, focusing on authors from previous times and they had to speak in Latin. Eventually these schools would lead into universities that taught primarily ancient Greek philosophies and no math. On the other hand, Italian schools taught students to read in their native tongue. Italian schools taught medieval and practical morality like reading, writing, and math. They taught a type of math called abbaco, which is the math of commerce like measuring and weights. These Italian schools led to trade because of their lack of Latin language. Most students never went beyond the lower stages of education, but some hard determined elite men, or women, would study very long to get a quality education in that period of time.<br />
  5. 5. Medicine<br />Invention of microscope <br />Helped scientists later discover micro-organisms<br />Print and press helped spread knowledge about medicine through books<br />Produced medical books without problems in mass quantity<br />Andreas Vesalius did dissections to help correct misconceptions <br />Helped people understand the inside of the human body <br />Made first book about the human body<br />Stitching wounds idea created<br />Before sealing wounds with heat was the main practice which caused eventual infection or death<br />Used silk thread to seal the wound<br />GirmoloFrascastoro found new treatments for infectious diseases such as syphilis <br /> Good hospitals effectively quarantined leprosy and other diseases<br />GirmoloFrascastoro named syphilis after a man named Syphilus who was supposedly stricken with it for offending the god Apollo<br />Few drugs existed <br />Such as opium and quinine <br />Folklore challenged the advance of medical science <br />Some believed stars or gods caused illnesses <br />Medical colleges re-emerged<br />Idea of tying off blood vessels to stop bleeding instead of burning them with hot oil or metal<br />
  6. 6. Religion<br />Mostly Roman Catholic<br />When the Roman Empire fell, the Church was the only bond in the area<br />Influence on Art<br />Most people couldn’t read<br />Artists painted stories of the Bible to help them understand<br />For example: The Last Supper<br />
  7. 7. Religion (2)<br />Corruption<br />Clergy were engulfed with money<br />Raided church coffers to pay for wants and to support their children<br />Clergy ignored vows to the church<br />Got married and had children<br />Nepotism<br />Appoint people to the church because they were either family or friends<br />
  8. 8. Religion (3)<br />Reformation<br />People got anger due to the clergy’s corruption<br />Felt that the church was being unproductive<br />Martin Luther spreads his ideals to change Catholicism <br />Spread Protestant <br />Counter-Reformation<br />Revival of the Catholics<br />
  9. 9. Government<br />Broken into 7 city-states<br />Naples: standard monarchy<br />Ruled by a king<br />Milan and Savoy: autonomous duchy<br />Ruled by dukes, but still separate from the rest of Italy<br />Rome and Romagna: papal states<br />Ruled by the Catholic pope<br />Venice and Florence: Republics<br />Pyramid of power, divided into different branches<br />
  10. 10. Crime and Punishment<br />Fines<br />For low level crimes<br />Jail sentencing’s <br />For high level crimes<br />If in a powerful family punishment affects whole family<br />Certain legal rights were taken away and were not returned for a couple of generations <br />Judged by rulers and princes <br />Violent criminals hung and killed <br />Only highest crimes such as murder, rape, or highway man (thief) activity<br />Judges were harsh on law violators<br />Police were present but weren’t what they are today<br />Could be easily bribed<br />Were lazy and sometimes didn’t do their jobs<br />Punishment included hanging, burning, torture, pillorying, and execution.<br />Executions drew crowds and were made public spectacles<br />Women couldn’t be tortured this way if they were pregnant or menstruating <br />Torture was used to get a confession <br />Innocent may confess to avoid torture Guilty may tough out torture and get set free <br />Believed that body contained truth <br />Believed that skin could be peeled back to uncover the truth <br />Thoughts of witchcraft often got women tortured and killed<br />
  11. 11. There were three major categories under the big topic of danger in the Italian Renaissance. They are super natural, natural, and human made. <br />Things that fall under super natural are thing that have to do with god and the aspect of going to hell. <br />People were living in fear of sin and they always thought that if they committed sin they would go to hell. <br />Thing that fall under the category of Natural would be stuff like natural disasters. These included, floods and earthquakes. <br />Also Omens fall under this category, things that have birth defects for example like a four-legged chicken or a two-headed child. <br />Hunger and famine also fall under this category but unlike earthquakes or floods famine was not considered an act of god. <br /> The last category is human made danger, like different types of violence.<br /> There was personal violence and crime which included violence over personal quarrels over theft or over territory and other personal matters.<br />There was also state violence which took two forms, warfare and judicial. <br />Danger<br />
  12. 12. Science<br />Leonardo da Vinci<br />Had contributions to art<br />The Last Supper<br />Had contributions to science<br />Had a journal with practical inventions<br />Musical Instruments<br />Hydraulic pumps<br />“Father of Modern Science”<br />
  13. 13. Science (2)<br />Alchemy<br />Start of chemistry<br />Focused on making certain metals into gold<br /> Astronomy<br />Geocentric <br />Belief that earth was the center<br />Church believed this<br />Heliocentric<br />The sun was the center of the universe<br />Galileo Galilee supported who had telescope to see Venus revolve around the sun<br />Mathematics and Accounting<br />Based off of Hindu-Arabic numerals<br />
  14. 14. During the Italian renaissance as society became interested in classical ideas, artists began to work in classical forms.<br />Artists, and sculptors adopted classical subject matter as their own, depicting many figures from Greek and Roman mythology.<br />These forms of modern artistic expression most often represented self conscious statements of reform and general rejection of the political and social status quo<br />Some artists, sculptors and architects believed that their profession could provide the vision and the physical framework for constructing a new democratic society and a new moral order.<br />Art<br />
  15. 15. Humanism<br />Stressed individual<br />Wanted to create a society with men and women who could read or write and have a hand in their political system<br />Conflict with Church<br />Humanists felt that humans are rational and should act that way<br />The Classics<br />This is the revival of old manuscripts from Rome and Greece<br />Important for the study of Humanism <br />Brought back old systems of thinking<br />Spread<br />Starts to spread after the invention of the printing press<br />