Sustainability and Resilience in Community Based Tourism

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Questions whether sustainability or tourism are better models for community based tourism in today's world. Examples from Malaysia.

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Sustainability and Resilience in Community Based Tourism

  1. 1. Community Based Tourism in Natural Areas: Sustainability, Life Cycles & Resilience Alan A. Lew, Ph.D., AICP Northern Arizona UniversityEditor-in-Chief, Tourism Geographies AlanLew.com Nanjing University Nanjing, China 13 November 2012 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
  2. 2. PPT SlidesOnline DocStoc.com  www.docstoc.com/docs/135960665/Sustainable-Tourism- Lessons-from-Around-the-World  v.gd/No6drz  www.docstoc.com/docs/135960962/NanjingU---Tourism- Incognita  v.gd/RxAz1L www.slideshare.net/alew
  3. 3. Outline Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism New Global Challenges Resilience as an Alternative Approach Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience Transformational Resilience and Community Development Disaster Resilience Concluding Thoughts
  4. 4. “ Using resources to meet the needs of contemporarysociety while ensuring their availability to meet theneeds of future generations. ”(Brundtland Report 1987) Vancouver, BC, Canada
  5. 5. Sustainable Development – Definition Issues= Oxymoron (contradictory concept)  1- ‘Development’ perspective  Sustaining economic activity  Greenwashing  2- ‘Sustainable’ perspective  Environmental stewardship  Ecosystem equilibrium Green Building:  Ambiguous - multiple interpretations Marina Barrage building inDiversity of Planet Earth Singapore: Reason for a flexible definition A green roof with a large solar But, can mean almost anything to anyone = meaningless power arrayIs “Sustainable Development” just a distraction? Abandonment guarantees unsustainable outcomes An “ideal” to work toward -- widely embraced … in principle
  6. 6. World’s Most Sustainable Cities Abu Dhabi, UAE  London, England Austin, Texas, US  Malmö, Sweden Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador  Melbourne, Australia Bangkok, Thailand  New York, NY, US Barcelona, Spain  Oslo, Norway Bogotá, Colombia  Portland, Oregon, US Cape Town, South Africa  Reykjavik, Iceland Copenhagen, Denmark  Rotterdam, The Netherlands Curitiba, Brazil  San Francisco, California, US Doha, Qatar  Singapore, Republic of Singapore Edinburgh, Scotland, UK  Sydney, Australia Frankfurt, Germany  Toronto, Canada Helsinki, Finland  Vancouver, BC, Canada Hyderabad, India  Victoria, BC, Canada Kampala, Uganda  Wellington, New Zealand
  7. 7. What Makes A Sustainable City?(1) Environmental Footprint (MITIGATION)  Non-carbon Energy Sources: Hydro, Bio-fuels, Wind  Low/Non-Carbon Transit: Mass, EVs, Bikes, Walkability  Green Buildings: Codes, Certifications, Retrofitting  Recycling-based Waste Management
  8. 8. (2) Quality of Life / Sense of Place(ADAPTATION)  Community-wide Green Goals & Planning  Open Green Space/Parks  Healthy Air & Water Quality  Targeted Benefits to Low Income  Integrated Land Use & Transportation Planning  Protected Forests, Agricultural Lands, Waterways, Heritage Other Indicators: Education, Arts, Culture; Housing; Economy & Business Strength; Regulatory Framework, Transparency, Governance; Innovation & Investment; Freedom of Speech & Media
  9. 9. 1. Maintaining the Tourism Economy  Focus of Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) Fair Trade Products sign in Chinatown  Avoiding Tourism Industry Decline gift shop, San Francisco, USA  Destination Economy’s Adaptive Capacity & Resilience2. Environmental Footprint of Tourism Activities  Focus of Tourism Businesses  “Green Certification” programs3. Tourism’s Contribution to Quality of Life  Focus of Community Development & Social Sciences Research
  10. 10. BUT – CONTEMPORARY Threats to Humanity(2011 & 2012 News Items) Extreme Climate & Geologic Events  2011 - Economic losses last year =$380 billion  previous record $220 billion in 2005  Major interruptions to global supply chain & international trade Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases (GHG)  2011 – GHG Reached Highest Levels in past 250 years  Growing at an accelerated rate Population Growth & Migration  31 Oct 2011 - World Reached 7 Billion People  Increasing Urbanization, Resource Pressures, and Income Inequality Economic Shock & Change  Great Recession in the US; Eurozone Crisis; Cultural & Economic Globalization  2012 –International Tourists to reach 1 Billion  up from 674m in 2000; 980m in 2011
  11. 11. Sustainable Tourism?- Environmental Footprint- Quality of Life
  12. 12. Resilience& GlobalWarming
  13. 13. “RESILIENCE” as an Alternative? Physics /Engineering  The property of a material to absorb energy when deformed and not fracture/break; the maximum energy per unit volume that can be elastically stored. Ecology  The capacity of an ecosystem to absorb or respond to a disturbance without permanent damage to the relationships between populations. Psychology  The tendency to cope with stress and adversity, including “bouncing back” to a previous state of normal functioning or developing an inoculating effect to improve functioning - “coping strategies”. Organizations  The ability of an organization (company or government) to provide and maintain an acceptable normal level of service in the face of periodic or catastrophic system faults and errors.  e.g., natural disasters, terrorist attacks, supply chain & electrical grid disruptions
  14. 14. Creating Climate Change Resilience  Transportation: Raising roads & runways; increasing culvert sizes; strengthen bridges  Agriculture: Shifting to drought resistant crop varieties; re-training farmers; emphasizing local agriculture on Pulau Kapas, Terengganu, Malaysia  Business: Examining and altering supply chains; increasing transparency and disclosure regarding climate risk  Water: Increasing protection for wetlands; installing permeable pavement, green roofs, and rain and water gardens  Energy: Protecting or moving production & distribution facilities/ vulnerable to flooding, extreme heat, drought or weather events  Public Health: Identifying ways to reduce urban heat islands; assessing medical response vulnerabilities to weather/climate extremes  Ecosystems: Planning for movement of habitat, changes in local plants and animals, sea level rise  Land Use: Changing building codes; planning “retreat” from sea level rise
  15. 15. Urban Planning’s Shift to ResilienceTopics in a Call For Papers for “The Politics of Sustainability & Climate Change” Urban planning strategies for managing climate change Resiliency or adaptability paradigms within urban design Urban climate change policy and design Climate change denial and anti-climate change legislation Grassroots responses to climate change policy Effects of climate change on cities (Post) political dimensions of sustainability policy Sustainable or green architecture Disaster Preparation in cities Critiques of sustainability Artistic engagements with climate change Technological innovations for managing climate change
  16. 16. Resilience: Learning & Adaptation Severity of adverse events is context dependentReduced Severity Quicker Recovery
  17. 17. Scale of Social & Environmental Change(1) Unexpected Large Shocks & Sudden Changes  Physical  Typhoon/Hurricane/Cyclone System  Earthquakes, Tsunamis/Floods, & Droughts  Social  Violent Overthrow of a Government  Massive Famines, Deaths & Migrations  Economic Collapse(2) Unpredictable Gradual Shifts & Moderate Change  Physical  Biological Ecosystem (flora & fauna) Relocations & Endangerments/Extinctions  Climate Change / Global Warming  Social  Globalization – Economic & Cultural  Paradigm Shifts – Enlightenment/Science, Industrial, ICT
  18. 18. Scale, Change & Resilience Issues Resilience in Tourism Places 1. Facilities & Service MaintenanceTourism/System Scale 3. 4. Public Public 2. Major Attraction or Tourism - Tourism - Market Loss Slow Sudden Change Shock 3. Climate Change & 1. Globalization 2. Private Private Tourism - Tourism - 4. Major Natural & Slow Sudden Change Human Disasters Shock Change Rate
  19. 19. Scale ofResilience Entities  Individual  Family  Business  Community  Society / Country  Ecosystem / Bioregion Kampung Setiu Lama, Terengganu, Malaysia  Planet “Persistent Resilience”: coping with the mundane pressures of social & economic transformation Vulnerability : the opposite of resilience
  20. 20. Tourism Business Resilience in Cherating, Malaysia Cherating Village  Small, Laid-back Fishing Village  Nice, wide Surfing Beach; Asias first Club Med  Many Guesthouses & Small Hotels (Chalets) 1973 - residential houses started to be converted into chalets  some residence (fishermen) moved away from tourist areas (beach & highway)  Also driven out by coastal erosion – common on East Coast of Malaysia Early 1990s – tourism became main source of income for most in the beach area  Backpacker Tourism = major income source  1999 – 42 houses rented rooms to tourists
  21. 21. The 4 R’s of Resilience(based on the Emergency Management definition)
  22. 22. Cherating, Malaysia
  23. 23. Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) Model
  24. 24. ENTREPRENURIAL RESILIENCE
  25. 25. Decline Factors Internal  Seasonality  Low tourist arrival  Location disadvantage due to new development  Lack of family support  Lack of government support  Old age  Ill-health  Death of owner External  Economic Crises  Iraq war  September 11th 2001 terrorism  Diseases and endemics
  26. 26. Consistent Stability & Growth Factors Support from government Partnership with other organizations Property ownership Introduction of new activities Improves quality of facilities & services
  27. 27. Decline & Bounce Back Factors Decline  Location disadvantage  Economic crises  Iraq War  Seasonality Bounce Back  Offer new activities  Enhanced promotion  Collaboration/partnership  Family support  Improved & enhance facilities and services  Wireless services  Meeting rooms  Bars/restaurants  Mosque
  28. 28. Resilience Lessons from the Cherating1. Tourism area separated from local residential area  Non-tourism involved residents may be “forced” out by nuisance impacts2. Need for market/niche development  New products & continuous marketing3. Global events influencing local economy4. Business lifecycle of small enterprises related to the entrepreneur’s life expectancy & descendents5. Availability of other options for economic livelihood
  29. 29. Three Approaches to Resilience(1) Engineering Resilience Ability of to return to a steady-state equilibrium after a disturbance  emphasis on the speed of return to equilibrium (bounces back); efficiency &predictability(2) Ecological Resilience Ability to learn from a disturbance & prepare for future stresses Recreational  acknowledges multiple equilibriums & fisherman in potential flip into alternative stabilities Singapore(3) Transformational Resilience Ability to evolve, transform and adapt over mixed timeframes and geographic scales into new models in response to stress  Whole system changes & Paradigm shifts  aka Evolutionary Resilience, Socio-ecological Resilience & Persistent Resilience
  30. 30. Engineering Resilience - Return to Equilibrium Transformational Resilience - Learn & Create a New ParadigmEcological Resilience- Learn & Return to Equilibrium • People become resilient in response to adversity • Disturbances include both acute shocks and chronic slow burns • Tools: institutions, leadership, social capital & social learning
  31. 31. Community Resilience in Batu Puteh, Sabah
  32. 32. 1% Fruits 3% Fishing 1% Paddy Batu Puteh = 4 villages, 1762 villagers 1% Shopkeeper 1% Vegetables Government Oil Palm 5% 69% Private Sector 9% Tourism 10% Tourism Income: (260 tourism cooperative members) 2007 = RM300,000 (USD $100,000); 2011 = RM1.37 million 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 Tourism Income Malaysian Ringgit (RM) 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 032 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  33. 33. Natural attractionsKOPEL Tourism CooperativeISSUES: - Retaining youth - Human resource development
  34. 34. KinabatanganRiver Wildlife
  35. 35. Tourism Income - Categories$1,600,000.00 KOPEL River View Café Crafts kraftangan$1,400,000.00 Lain lain 53,386.50 MCG Dance Group 42,643.30 75,075.90$1,200,000.00 Hammock Camp 44,562.25 Conservation Fees 30,307.80 126,954.40 31,595.50 TREC Camp Forest 55,981.49$1,000,000.00 40,892.00 90,235.32 Village Bus Services 85,347.25 128,844.15 KOPEL F&B 70,295.32 $800,000.00 Village Boat Service 93,219.93 194,903.27 Local Guides 151,677.81 $600,000.00 $65,728.40 Miso Walai Homestay Only $38,559.20 186,842.93 $83,704.50 155,065.79 $50,195.81 $28,524.70 $400,000.00 $100,044.69 $58,296.25 $82,031.64 $82,539.12 194,323.61 238,701.31 $79,966.05 $12,698.00 $78,156.07 $69,253.85 $200,000.00 $34,145.75 $63,399.46 $29,927.74 215,878.50 $186,950.00 193,274.30 $130,380.00 $82,850.00 $- 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  36. 36. Miso Walai Homestay
  37. 37. Cultural Attractions of theOrang Sungai (“river people”)
  38. 38. Rain Forest Eco Camps (2007 & 2009) Tourist Arrival Data3500 Groups3000 FIT’s 3982500 404 4652000 2931500 282 2545 23681000 1856 2055 500 1314 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  39. 39. Lake2001 Restoration 2006
  40. 40. 2007 Forest Restoration 2010 Tourism = RM 1.3 million in 2011 Forest Restoration = RM 240,000 in 2010
  41. 41. KOPEL Tourism Cooperative - 260 members – since 2003 Treasurer & Vice Chairman & Vice Secretary & Vice Treasurer Chairman Secretary Boat Promotion Conserva- Home Stay Cultural Tour Guide F&B Transport Service & PR tion Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau BureauOutdoor Experiences PartnersBoat Trips Sabah Forestry Department - forest restoration; 2009 Eco-CampWildlife Observation LEAP Conservancy: sourcing funds; capacity buildingTree Planting Alexander Abraham Foundation: lake & forest restorationForest Camps & Camping American Forests: Orang-utan habitat restoration; forest restorationForest Interpretation Arcus Foundation; Shell Oil Malaysia: 2007 Eco-CampLimestone Caving Volunteer Organisations & High Schools: Rakuno Gakuen University, International School Brunei, Global Vision InternationalHomestay & Culture (GVI) , plus independent volunteersCooking Lessons Adventure Tour Companies: Outlook Expeditions (school groups),Traditional Games Exodus Travel, Intrepid Travel, Geckos Travel, Imaginative TravellerTraditional Music & Dance - “responsible tourism” adventure holidays
  42. 42. Resilience Lessons from Batu Puteh  Diversification of both tourism product and other economic activities  Early planning to enhance community buy in for cooperative approach  Long term commitment to capacity building by local and external leaders  Entrepreneurial approach to partnerships building and external funding  Sensitivity of international market conditions and opportunities Terrapuri Heritage Village Resort, Kg Setiu, TerengganuBorneo Nature Lodge,Sandakan, Sabah
  43. 43. Summary & Conclusions Sustainable Development (SD)  Major Shortcomings: Oxymoron & Culturally constructed  Focus on Engineering Mitigations & Certifications New Global Challenges  Climate, Economy, Governance Issues – Overwhelming SD The ‘Resilience’ Alternative  Focus on Adaptation to Change  Big Resilience (Disasters) & Small Resilience (Persistence) Resilience in Tourism Development  Tourism Area Life Cycle & Entrepreneurial Resilience  Community-Based Tourism & Transformational Resilience
  44. 44. Tourism & Disaster Resilience in Taiwan
  45. 45. Tourism Resilience in Taiwan
  46. 46. The 4 R’s of Resilience(based on the Emergency Management definition)Resilience = “adaptive capacity”KPI = key performance indicators
  47. 47. Resilience Planning & Sustainable Planning Planning after a Disaster  Same as before – But Time is Compressed  Much more to do - at a much faster pace  Due to High Change Rate  Process flexibility varies  Information flows, Development of social capital  Demolition and debris removal  Commerce A Sustainable City is a Resilient City
  48. 48. Scale, Change & Resilience Issues Resilience in Tourism Places 1. Facilities & Service MaintenanceTourism/System Scale 3. 4. Public Public 2. Major Attraction or Tourism - Tourism - Market Loss Slow Sudden Change Shock 3. Climate Change & 1. Globalization 2. Private Private Tourism - Tourism - 4. Major Natural & Slow Sudden Change Human Disasters Shock Change Rate
  49. 49. Small/Private Tourism - Small/Private Tourism - Slow Change Resilience Sudden Shock Resilience Facilities & Service Quality Major Attraction or Market LossTourism as a distinct economic Infrastructure Planning: Indentify activity in a diversified economy Vulnerabilities to Diversify & Change Delivery Systems for Transportation,Need for market development; new Food & Water Supply, Public Health products & continuous marketing; & Basic Needs, Energy & Entrepreneurial approach to Communication, and Business partnerships building and external Supply Chain funding; Awareness of how global Land Use Policies & Planning: Support market conditions events Natural Ecosystem Planning & influencing local economic Conservation; Mitigation planning to opportunities avoid disaster prone areas (e.g.,Business lifecycle of small floodplains & active fault zones; enterprises related to the Adaptive construction & design entrepreneur’s life expectancy & descendentsEarly planning to enhance community buy in for cooperative approach; Long term commitment to capacity building by local and external leaders
  50. 50. Tourism as a Highly Resilient Industry
  51. 51. Outline Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism New Global Challenges Resilience as an Alternative Approach Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience Transformational Resilience and Community Development Disaster Resilience Concluding Thoughts

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