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Sustainability and Resilience in Community Based Tourism

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Questions whether sustainability or tourism are better models for community based tourism in today's world. Examples from Malaysia.

Questions whether sustainability or tourism are better models for community based tourism in today's world. Examples from Malaysia.


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  • 1. Community Based Tourism in Natural Areas: Sustainability, Life Cycles & Resilience Alan A. Lew, Ph.D., AICP Northern Arizona UniversityEditor-in-Chief, Tourism Geographies AlanLew.com Nanjing University Nanjing, China 13 November 2012 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
  • 2. PPT SlidesOnline DocStoc.com  www.docstoc.com/docs/135960665/Sustainable-Tourism- Lessons-from-Around-the-World  v.gd/No6drz  www.docstoc.com/docs/135960962/NanjingU---Tourism- Incognita  v.gd/RxAz1L www.slideshare.net/alew
  • 3. Outline Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism New Global Challenges Resilience as an Alternative Approach Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience Transformational Resilience and Community Development Disaster Resilience Concluding Thoughts
  • 4. “ Using resources to meet the needs of contemporarysociety while ensuring their availability to meet theneeds of future generations. ”(Brundtland Report 1987) Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • 5. Sustainable Development – Definition Issues= Oxymoron (contradictory concept)  1- ‘Development’ perspective  Sustaining economic activity  Greenwashing  2- ‘Sustainable’ perspective  Environmental stewardship  Ecosystem equilibrium Green Building:  Ambiguous - multiple interpretations Marina Barrage building inDiversity of Planet Earth Singapore: Reason for a flexible definition A green roof with a large solar But, can mean almost anything to anyone = meaningless power arrayIs “Sustainable Development” just a distraction? Abandonment guarantees unsustainable outcomes An “ideal” to work toward -- widely embraced … in principle
  • 6. World’s Most Sustainable Cities Abu Dhabi, UAE  London, England Austin, Texas, US  Malmö, Sweden Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador  Melbourne, Australia Bangkok, Thailand  New York, NY, US Barcelona, Spain  Oslo, Norway Bogotá, Colombia  Portland, Oregon, US Cape Town, South Africa  Reykjavik, Iceland Copenhagen, Denmark  Rotterdam, The Netherlands Curitiba, Brazil  San Francisco, California, US Doha, Qatar  Singapore, Republic of Singapore Edinburgh, Scotland, UK  Sydney, Australia Frankfurt, Germany  Toronto, Canada Helsinki, Finland  Vancouver, BC, Canada Hyderabad, India  Victoria, BC, Canada Kampala, Uganda  Wellington, New Zealand
  • 7. What Makes A Sustainable City?(1) Environmental Footprint (MITIGATION)  Non-carbon Energy Sources: Hydro, Bio-fuels, Wind  Low/Non-Carbon Transit: Mass, EVs, Bikes, Walkability  Green Buildings: Codes, Certifications, Retrofitting  Recycling-based Waste Management
  • 8. (2) Quality of Life / Sense of Place(ADAPTATION)  Community-wide Green Goals & Planning  Open Green Space/Parks  Healthy Air & Water Quality  Targeted Benefits to Low Income  Integrated Land Use & Transportation Planning  Protected Forests, Agricultural Lands, Waterways, Heritage Other Indicators: Education, Arts, Culture; Housing; Economy & Business Strength; Regulatory Framework, Transparency, Governance; Innovation & Investment; Freedom of Speech & Media
  • 9. 1. Maintaining the Tourism Economy  Focus of Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) Fair Trade Products sign in Chinatown  Avoiding Tourism Industry Decline gift shop, San Francisco, USA  Destination Economy’s Adaptive Capacity & Resilience2. Environmental Footprint of Tourism Activities  Focus of Tourism Businesses  “Green Certification” programs3. Tourism’s Contribution to Quality of Life  Focus of Community Development & Social Sciences Research
  • 10. BUT – CONTEMPORARY Threats to Humanity(2011 & 2012 News Items) Extreme Climate & Geologic Events  2011 - Economic losses last year =$380 billion  previous record $220 billion in 2005  Major interruptions to global supply chain & international trade Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases (GHG)  2011 – GHG Reached Highest Levels in past 250 years  Growing at an accelerated rate Population Growth & Migration  31 Oct 2011 - World Reached 7 Billion People  Increasing Urbanization, Resource Pressures, and Income Inequality Economic Shock & Change  Great Recession in the US; Eurozone Crisis; Cultural & Economic Globalization  2012 –International Tourists to reach 1 Billion  up from 674m in 2000; 980m in 2011
  • 11. Sustainable Tourism?- Environmental Footprint- Quality of Life
  • 12. Resilience& GlobalWarming
  • 13. “RESILIENCE” as an Alternative? Physics /Engineering  The property of a material to absorb energy when deformed and not fracture/break; the maximum energy per unit volume that can be elastically stored. Ecology  The capacity of an ecosystem to absorb or respond to a disturbance without permanent damage to the relationships between populations. Psychology  The tendency to cope with stress and adversity, including “bouncing back” to a previous state of normal functioning or developing an inoculating effect to improve functioning - “coping strategies”. Organizations  The ability of an organization (company or government) to provide and maintain an acceptable normal level of service in the face of periodic or catastrophic system faults and errors.  e.g., natural disasters, terrorist attacks, supply chain & electrical grid disruptions
  • 14. Creating Climate Change Resilience  Transportation: Raising roads & runways; increasing culvert sizes; strengthen bridges  Agriculture: Shifting to drought resistant crop varieties; re-training farmers; emphasizing local agriculture on Pulau Kapas, Terengganu, Malaysia  Business: Examining and altering supply chains; increasing transparency and disclosure regarding climate risk  Water: Increasing protection for wetlands; installing permeable pavement, green roofs, and rain and water gardens  Energy: Protecting or moving production & distribution facilities/ vulnerable to flooding, extreme heat, drought or weather events  Public Health: Identifying ways to reduce urban heat islands; assessing medical response vulnerabilities to weather/climate extremes  Ecosystems: Planning for movement of habitat, changes in local plants and animals, sea level rise  Land Use: Changing building codes; planning “retreat” from sea level rise
  • 15. Urban Planning’s Shift to ResilienceTopics in a Call For Papers for “The Politics of Sustainability & Climate Change” Urban planning strategies for managing climate change Resiliency or adaptability paradigms within urban design Urban climate change policy and design Climate change denial and anti-climate change legislation Grassroots responses to climate change policy Effects of climate change on cities (Post) political dimensions of sustainability policy Sustainable or green architecture Disaster Preparation in cities Critiques of sustainability Artistic engagements with climate change Technological innovations for managing climate change
  • 16. Resilience: Learning & Adaptation Severity of adverse events is context dependentReduced Severity Quicker Recovery
  • 17. Scale of Social & Environmental Change(1) Unexpected Large Shocks & Sudden Changes  Physical  Typhoon/Hurricane/Cyclone System  Earthquakes, Tsunamis/Floods, & Droughts  Social  Violent Overthrow of a Government  Massive Famines, Deaths & Migrations  Economic Collapse(2) Unpredictable Gradual Shifts & Moderate Change  Physical  Biological Ecosystem (flora & fauna) Relocations & Endangerments/Extinctions  Climate Change / Global Warming  Social  Globalization – Economic & Cultural  Paradigm Shifts – Enlightenment/Science, Industrial, ICT
  • 18. Scale, Change & Resilience Issues Resilience in Tourism Places 1. Facilities & Service MaintenanceTourism/System Scale 3. 4. Public Public 2. Major Attraction or Tourism - Tourism - Market Loss Slow Sudden Change Shock 3. Climate Change & 1. Globalization 2. Private Private Tourism - Tourism - 4. Major Natural & Slow Sudden Change Human Disasters Shock Change Rate
  • 19. Scale ofResilience Entities  Individual  Family  Business  Community  Society / Country  Ecosystem / Bioregion Kampung Setiu Lama, Terengganu, Malaysia  Planet “Persistent Resilience”: coping with the mundane pressures of social & economic transformation Vulnerability : the opposite of resilience
  • 20. Tourism Business Resilience in Cherating, Malaysia Cherating Village  Small, Laid-back Fishing Village  Nice, wide Surfing Beach; Asias first Club Med  Many Guesthouses & Small Hotels (Chalets) 1973 - residential houses started to be converted into chalets  some residence (fishermen) moved away from tourist areas (beach & highway)  Also driven out by coastal erosion – common on East Coast of Malaysia Early 1990s – tourism became main source of income for most in the beach area  Backpacker Tourism = major income source  1999 – 42 houses rented rooms to tourists
  • 21. The 4 R’s of Resilience(based on the Emergency Management definition)
  • 22. Cherating, Malaysia
  • 23. Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) Model
  • 24. ENTREPRENURIAL RESILIENCE
  • 25. Decline Factors Internal  Seasonality  Low tourist arrival  Location disadvantage due to new development  Lack of family support  Lack of government support  Old age  Ill-health  Death of owner External  Economic Crises  Iraq war  September 11th 2001 terrorism  Diseases and endemics
  • 26. Consistent Stability & Growth Factors Support from government Partnership with other organizations Property ownership Introduction of new activities Improves quality of facilities & services
  • 27. Decline & Bounce Back Factors Decline  Location disadvantage  Economic crises  Iraq War  Seasonality Bounce Back  Offer new activities  Enhanced promotion  Collaboration/partnership  Family support  Improved & enhance facilities and services  Wireless services  Meeting rooms  Bars/restaurants  Mosque
  • 28. Resilience Lessons from the Cherating1. Tourism area separated from local residential area  Non-tourism involved residents may be “forced” out by nuisance impacts2. Need for market/niche development  New products & continuous marketing3. Global events influencing local economy4. Business lifecycle of small enterprises related to the entrepreneur’s life expectancy & descendents5. Availability of other options for economic livelihood
  • 29. Three Approaches to Resilience(1) Engineering Resilience Ability of to return to a steady-state equilibrium after a disturbance  emphasis on the speed of return to equilibrium (bounces back); efficiency &predictability(2) Ecological Resilience Ability to learn from a disturbance & prepare for future stresses Recreational  acknowledges multiple equilibriums & fisherman in potential flip into alternative stabilities Singapore(3) Transformational Resilience Ability to evolve, transform and adapt over mixed timeframes and geographic scales into new models in response to stress  Whole system changes & Paradigm shifts  aka Evolutionary Resilience, Socio-ecological Resilience & Persistent Resilience
  • 30. Engineering Resilience - Return to Equilibrium Transformational Resilience - Learn & Create a New ParadigmEcological Resilience- Learn & Return to Equilibrium • People become resilient in response to adversity • Disturbances include both acute shocks and chronic slow burns • Tools: institutions, leadership, social capital & social learning
  • 31. Community Resilience in Batu Puteh, Sabah
  • 32. 1% Fruits 3% Fishing 1% Paddy Batu Puteh = 4 villages, 1762 villagers 1% Shopkeeper 1% Vegetables Government Oil Palm 5% 69% Private Sector 9% Tourism 10% Tourism Income: (260 tourism cooperative members) 2007 = RM300,000 (USD $100,000); 2011 = RM1.37 million 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 Tourism Income Malaysian Ringgit (RM) 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 032 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  • 33. Natural attractionsKOPEL Tourism CooperativeISSUES: - Retaining youth - Human resource development
  • 34. KinabatanganRiver Wildlife
  • 35. Tourism Income - Categories$1,600,000.00 KOPEL River View Café Crafts kraftangan$1,400,000.00 Lain lain 53,386.50 MCG Dance Group 42,643.30 75,075.90$1,200,000.00 Hammock Camp 44,562.25 Conservation Fees 30,307.80 126,954.40 31,595.50 TREC Camp Forest 55,981.49$1,000,000.00 40,892.00 90,235.32 Village Bus Services 85,347.25 128,844.15 KOPEL F&B 70,295.32 $800,000.00 Village Boat Service 93,219.93 194,903.27 Local Guides 151,677.81 $600,000.00 $65,728.40 Miso Walai Homestay Only $38,559.20 186,842.93 $83,704.50 155,065.79 $50,195.81 $28,524.70 $400,000.00 $100,044.69 $58,296.25 $82,031.64 $82,539.12 194,323.61 238,701.31 $79,966.05 $12,698.00 $78,156.07 $69,253.85 $200,000.00 $34,145.75 $63,399.46 $29,927.74 215,878.50 $186,950.00 193,274.30 $130,380.00 $82,850.00 $- 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  • 36. Miso Walai Homestay
  • 37. Cultural Attractions of theOrang Sungai (“river people”)
  • 38. Rain Forest Eco Camps (2007 & 2009) Tourist Arrival Data3500 Groups3000 FIT’s 3982500 404 4652000 2931500 282 2545 23681000 1856 2055 500 1314 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  • 39. Lake2001 Restoration 2006
  • 40. 2007 Forest Restoration 2010 Tourism = RM 1.3 million in 2011 Forest Restoration = RM 240,000 in 2010
  • 41. KOPEL Tourism Cooperative - 260 members – since 2003 Treasurer & Vice Chairman & Vice Secretary & Vice Treasurer Chairman Secretary Boat Promotion Conserva- Home Stay Cultural Tour Guide F&B Transport Service & PR tion Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau Bureau BureauOutdoor Experiences PartnersBoat Trips Sabah Forestry Department - forest restoration; 2009 Eco-CampWildlife Observation LEAP Conservancy: sourcing funds; capacity buildingTree Planting Alexander Abraham Foundation: lake & forest restorationForest Camps & Camping American Forests: Orang-utan habitat restoration; forest restorationForest Interpretation Arcus Foundation; Shell Oil Malaysia: 2007 Eco-CampLimestone Caving Volunteer Organisations & High Schools: Rakuno Gakuen University, International School Brunei, Global Vision InternationalHomestay & Culture (GVI) , plus independent volunteersCooking Lessons Adventure Tour Companies: Outlook Expeditions (school groups),Traditional Games Exodus Travel, Intrepid Travel, Geckos Travel, Imaginative TravellerTraditional Music & Dance - “responsible tourism” adventure holidays
  • 42. Resilience Lessons from Batu Puteh  Diversification of both tourism product and other economic activities  Early planning to enhance community buy in for cooperative approach  Long term commitment to capacity building by local and external leaders  Entrepreneurial approach to partnerships building and external funding  Sensitivity of international market conditions and opportunities Terrapuri Heritage Village Resort, Kg Setiu, TerengganuBorneo Nature Lodge,Sandakan, Sabah
  • 43. Summary & Conclusions Sustainable Development (SD)  Major Shortcomings: Oxymoron & Culturally constructed  Focus on Engineering Mitigations & Certifications New Global Challenges  Climate, Economy, Governance Issues – Overwhelming SD The ‘Resilience’ Alternative  Focus on Adaptation to Change  Big Resilience (Disasters) & Small Resilience (Persistence) Resilience in Tourism Development  Tourism Area Life Cycle & Entrepreneurial Resilience  Community-Based Tourism & Transformational Resilience
  • 44. Tourism & Disaster Resilience in Taiwan
  • 45. Tourism Resilience in Taiwan
  • 46. The 4 R’s of Resilience(based on the Emergency Management definition)Resilience = “adaptive capacity”KPI = key performance indicators
  • 47. Resilience Planning & Sustainable Planning Planning after a Disaster  Same as before – But Time is Compressed  Much more to do - at a much faster pace  Due to High Change Rate  Process flexibility varies  Information flows, Development of social capital  Demolition and debris removal  Commerce A Sustainable City is a Resilient City
  • 48. Scale, Change & Resilience Issues Resilience in Tourism Places 1. Facilities & Service MaintenanceTourism/System Scale 3. 4. Public Public 2. Major Attraction or Tourism - Tourism - Market Loss Slow Sudden Change Shock 3. Climate Change & 1. Globalization 2. Private Private Tourism - Tourism - 4. Major Natural & Slow Sudden Change Human Disasters Shock Change Rate
  • 49. Small/Private Tourism - Small/Private Tourism - Slow Change Resilience Sudden Shock Resilience Facilities & Service Quality Major Attraction or Market LossTourism as a distinct economic Infrastructure Planning: Indentify activity in a diversified economy Vulnerabilities to Diversify & Change Delivery Systems for Transportation,Need for market development; new Food & Water Supply, Public Health products & continuous marketing; & Basic Needs, Energy & Entrepreneurial approach to Communication, and Business partnerships building and external Supply Chain funding; Awareness of how global Land Use Policies & Planning: Support market conditions events Natural Ecosystem Planning & influencing local economic Conservation; Mitigation planning to opportunities avoid disaster prone areas (e.g.,Business lifecycle of small floodplains & active fault zones; enterprises related to the Adaptive construction & design entrepreneur’s life expectancy & descendentsEarly planning to enhance community buy in for cooperative approach; Long term commitment to capacity building by local and external leaders
  • 50. Tourism as a Highly Resilient Industry
  • 51. Outline Defining Sustainability & Sustainable Tourism New Global Challenges Resilience as an Alternative Approach Tourism Area Life Cycles and Persistent Resilience Transformational Resilience and Community Development Disaster Resilience Concluding Thoughts