Sustainable Tourism - Lessons from around the world
Sustainable Tourism: Lessons from Around the World (USA, Scotland, Nepal & South Africa) Alan A. LewNorthern Arizona University AlanLew.com Nanjing University Nanjing, China 11 November 2012 Khumbu Valley, Nepal
Sustainable Development & Sustainable Tourism Case 1 - Policies for Cultural Protection Case 2 - Tourism in Peripheral Regions Case 3 - Adapting to Social & Environmental Monument Valley, Navajo Nation Park, Utah, USA Change Case 4 - Natural & Cultural Heritage Protection
“ Using resources to meetthe needs of contemporarysociety while ensuringtheir availability to meetthe needs of futuregenerations. ”(Brundtland Report 1987) Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Sustainable Development – Definition Issues = Oxymoron (contradictory concept) – 1- ‘Development’ perspective • Sustaining economic activity • Greenwashing – 2- ‘Sustainable’ perspective • Environmental stewardship • Ecosystem equilibrium Culturally Constructed – Ambiguous - multiple interpretations Green Building: – Masks support for different selective interpretations Marina Barrage building in Diversity of Planet Earth Singapore: • Reason for a flexible definition A green roof • But, can mean almost anything to anyone with a large – Becoming meaningless, and even diabolical solar power array Is “Sustainable Development” worthwhile or just a distraction? • Abandonment guarantees unsustainable outcomes • An ideal to work toward -- widely embraced … in principle
“Sustainable Tourism Development”• Subset of Sustainable Development – a Type or Form of Sustainable Development SD ST• Subset of Tourism Development TD – a Type or Form of Tourism DevelopmentST = Applying “Sustainable Development” Concepts to the Tourism Industry and related Social, Environmental and Economic Aspects of Tourism and Travel Electric “Go” Cars for Tourists in San Francisco
1. Ecosystem Models ① Environment ② Economy ③ Society2. Geographic Scales ① Global ② Community ③ Personal3. Time Horizons ① Short-Term / Immediate Shennongjia ② Near-Term National Forest, ③ Long-Term Hubei, China
Actions that…1. RECYCLE = Replenish Natural & Human Resources at the same rate that they are used Diving in Bali, – “Circular Economy” & “Product Life Cycle Costing” Indonesia – “Green Certifications” – Science & Business Approaches2. EVOLVE - Evolution - Encourage Diversification & Niche Development to enable communities to meet new & varying challenges - “Community Resilience” – “Resort Life Cycle” – “Longtail Marketing” - Climax Communities - Maximize & Harmonize the Opportunities for All to achieve their optimal potential under present conditions - “Quality of Life“ – “Heritage Conservation” – “Upscaling Tourism” - Social Science & Economics Approaches
Near the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia 2. Geographic Scale Perspectives on Sustainability Environment Economy Society Climate change, Globalization, Resource Human rights, Ecosystem inequities, Structural Political instability,Global Scale degradation, dependencies Freedom of travel Biodiversity lossLocal / Infrastructure Employment, Cost of Housing, Health,Community Scale (water, energy, living, Business climate Sense of place, transportation ...), Quality of life BioregionalismPersonal / SME Housing, Food, & Career & Investment Political choices,Scale Transportation choices, Educational Cultural traditions choices, Recycling access, “Affluenza” activities
• The Problem of Time : – Same Problem Changes Over Time – Change is Not Linear – Limited Human Perception• Short-Term / Immediate – Pandemic Diseases; Economic Job Losses; Windfall Profits; Political Changes; Sudden Fluctuations in Tourist Arrivals Panda in Hong Kong• Near-Term – Loss of Coral Reefs & Fishing Grounds; Oceanic Island Erosion; Legal & Illegal Migration; Shift in Job Locations & Types; Growing Global Internet Access; Creating more Green Destinations• Long-Term – Flooding of Coastal Lands & Cities; Need for New Types & Areas of Education & Training; Need for New Types & Forms of Governance; Greening Airlines & Mass Tourism
CASE 1 - American Indian Cultural Tourism Policy • Indian Wars (1860-1890) – Ethnic conflict; Near genocide many tribes • “Reservations” = Not available for settlement by European immigrants • First Reservations – California (1849) • Following “Gold Rush” • The California solution to the "Indian problem" Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico – quickly spread throughout the western West
Lockett Meadow, San Francisco Mountain, Flagstaff, Arizona
Competing Values on American Indian ReservationsTRADITIONAL INDIAN VALUES DOMINANT AMERICAN VALUES1- Cooperation 1- Competition2- Prestige & Authority = Age & Religion 2- Prestige & Authority = Family, Political Position, Education & Wealth3- Education from Elders 3- Education in Schools4- Animist Religious Beliefs 4- Scientific Rationalism5- Morality = Social Conformity 5- Morality = legally defined Good & Bad6- Life organized around Ceremonial Activities 6- Life organized around Work Activities7- Communal land ownership & management 7- Fee simple land tenure and private property rights Arizona Snow Bowl Ski Area, San Francisco Peaks, Flagstaff, Arizona
How to Maintain Traditional Culture?• Hopi Indian Tribe - First Mesa Villages• Possibly the most traditional (authentic?) tribe in the US• Struggling to maintain Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico heritage – Threatened with loss of Language &Traditions• Among six Hopi pueblo villages – only First Mesa has considered these rules
Tourism PolicyDecision Making Approaches1 - ad hoc potential for poor decision making & corruption of the process2 - Policy based continuity, predictability, & a legal basis for decision makingTourism Policies = Monument Valley, Legally govern the type & extent of Navajo Nation Park tourism development desired Arizona-Utah Border, USA - Laws that implement Goals & ObjectivesBasic Question: What is the Preferred Tourism Situation for Us?
First Mesa, Hopi - Tourism Goals • To enable the First Mesa Consolidated Villages to provide for the health, safety, welfare and economic security of the Villages of First Mesa, and specifically: – A. To control and regulate visitors, visitor tours, and tour operations within their jurisdiction. – B. To assist the Villages of First Mesa to protect and preserve the arts, crafts, traditions and ceremonies of the Hopi culture. – C. To provide tour services and charge a fee in accordance with a fee schedule.AcomaPueblo,NewMexico
Hopi Reservation-wide Visitor Rules (Posted on Signs)1. Visitors are welcome, but must remember that they are guests of the Hopi, and should act accordingly.2. Possession of alcohol or drugs anywhere on the reservation is prohibited by Tribal Law.3. Archeological resources and ruin sites are off-limits to all non-tribal Simulated Hopi Kiva at the members - removal of artifacts is Museum of Northern a criminal offense. Arizona, Flagstaff4. Photographing, recording, and/or sketching of villages, religious ceremonies or individuals is strictly prohibited on the Reservation, unless permission is granted by the village chief or governor.5. If spending an unusually lengthy period of time in a village, permission must be obtained from the village chief or governor.6. Drivers are cautioned to obey posted speed limits on the reservation and to watch for livestock on roads and highways, especially at night.
The Ideal & The Real• Regulations are Difficult to Implement – Locals: • Sell arts & crafts from their homes • Offer services as unauthorized guides in exchange for money – Tourists: • Do not pay attention to rules - on purpose? • Sneak photographs – strong desire to remember place• Cost of Enforcement - can be too high Hopi Indian• Culture of Enforcement – the Legal System Reservation, Arizona – may not be compatible with traditional culture
Lessons from the Hopi• ECOSYSTEM MODEL LESSONS – Emphasis on conservation of traditional culture economic and social/community relationships; May require legal barriers (walls)• GEOGRAPHIC SCALE LESSONS – Focus on community and personal privacy, though Hopi religion also has global perspectives• TIME HORIZON LESSONS – Using the legal system to conserve cultural heritage (past & present) against acculturation (globalization/Americanization) for future generations Pueblo Indian Dancers, 4th of July Parade, Selling Indian Crafts at Flagstaff, Arizona Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona
Pow Wow Souvenir Festival shop at Dancers the Four at Arizona Corners State Navajo University Park Tour Company, Sedona, ArizonaPow Wow Festival Drummers atArizona State University, Tempe, AZ Yavapai Apache Reservation, Arizona
CASE 2 : Peripheral Regions: The Scottish Highlands
A Peripheral EconomyScottish Highlands• One of the most scenic regions of Europe• May tourists in summer• Among most sparsely populated regions of EuropePeripheral Economies• Often dependent on one or two industries• Often resource-based industries, such as mining, forestry, fishing or extensive grazing – Some industries may be tourist attractions
Glacier carved landscapes, peat bogs,tourists in Fort William, and Urquhart Castel
Scottish SouvenirsMost of the tourists come to theScottish Highlands in the summermonths by motorcycle, car, tour bus,and caravan/RV.
Loch LomondNational Park Loch Lomond National Park is in the Scottish Lowlands. It is a popular camping, hiking and fishing area close to Glasgow.
Loch LomondA fault line runs from northeast(top-right) to southwest (bottom-left) of this model of Loch Lomond.To the north is the ScottishHighlands, to the south is theScottish Lowlands.
Lessons from Scotland• ECOSYSTEM MODEL LESSONS – Remote location (geography/time, economy/cost, climate/seasons) helps conserve sensitive ecosystem; Good infrastructure helps tourism• GEOGRAPHIC SCALE LESSONS – Internationally known icons to attract tourists; Peripheral, but accessible, with open borders• TIME HORIZON LESSONS – Adjustment to a high seasonality in its tourism economy; Resources based on geologic time scale
• Before 1950 - Nepal closed to world• 1953 - Tenzing Norgay Sherpa & Edmund Hillary (NZ) – first ascent of Mr. Everest• 1957 - Closing of Tibetan Border – Loss of Trade & Influx of Refugees• 1964 - First ever visit of a high-level Nepal government official to the Khumbu – Edmund Hillary School opening – Firsts: Airport, Post Office & Police• 1975 - Sagarmatha National Park• Nepalization of the Khumbu – Kathmandu Nepalis = Hindu – Khumbu Sherpas = Tibetan Bhuddism
1. Deforestation – Fuel for Cooking and Heating2. Overgrazing – Loss of Vegetation and Top Soil3. Solid waste, sanitation & litter – Along trekking routes4. Recent Warming Trend – Glacial Retreats (Ama Doblam) – Glacial Lakes Increase in Size – Desertification in some areas• Impacts on – Agricultural practices – Wildlife Habitats, and At Mongla Pass (3973m), Trekker Restaurant, – Vegetation Patterns Ama Dablam (6812m) &• Development Pressures for over past 40 years Mt. Everest (8850m) – Built Environment in mid-Winter – Natural Environment Uses
• UN Human Development Index – Nepal = #157 out of 177 countries (2011)• Tourism – 1963 - Time to Kathmandu from 14 days to 40 minutes – 1964 - First airport at Lukla – 1999 - 491,000 international visitors to Nepal • 2002 - 275,000 due to “State of Emergency” – Among Nepal’s largest source of foreign currency • 3.5% of GDP, 20% of Export Income• Sagarmatha National Park (1976) – 2005 = 21,960 visitors • Plus 17,000 porters & staff • 1000s of yak & zopkio – 65% near park depend on Trekking economy
• ECOSYSTEM SCALE LESSONS – Environment, Society/Culture & Economy all change over time• GEOGRAPHIC SCALE LESSONS – Isolation enables community & regional integration; Increased connections to world creates globalization challenges Namche Bazaar,• TIME SCALE LESSONS the “Sherpa Capital” – Issues and their importance change over time – Memories are difficult to recall as we paint the past with feelings and concerns of the present
Case 4 – Protected Areas:Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa
History of National Parks• USA – 1864 - US Congress gave Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort & recreation” • First large protected land for public use – 1872 - Yellowstone National Park • World’s 1st true national park• Australia – 1866 - British Colony of New South Wales Grand Canyon Preserve (1906) reserved the Jenolan Caves (Sydney) National Park (1919) • Later expanded into the Blue Mountains National Park – 1879 - Royal National Park established • to provide a natural recreation area for the Sidney metropolitan area• Canada – 1885 - Bow Valley Hot Springs in the Rocky Mountains • 1887 - renamed as Banff National Park• New Zealand – 1894 - Tongariro National Park • by agreement with the Maori people - important spiritual site• South Africa – 1895 - Greater St. Lucia Game Reserve – first protected wetland in Africa – 1895 - Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve – first wildlife conservation area in Africa
Hluhluwe-UmfoloziGame Reserve• Zulu royal hunting ground• Oldest proclaimed wildlife park in Africa – 1895 – 3 parks merged in 1899• Created to protect white rhino – Most white rhinos in world today• Only government park in KwaZulu-Natal with all “Big Five Game” animals
Africa’s Big FiveSafari Game Animals1. African Elephant2. Leopard3. Lion4. Cape Buffalo5. Rhinoceros
Lessons from Kwa-Zulu Natal, SA• ECOSYSTEM MODEL LESSONS – Integrated conservation program, including nature and culture, public and private preserves, and local economic opportunities• GEOGRAPHIC SCALE LESSONS – Role of global trends and national legislation on local tourism• TIME HORIZON LESSONS – Heritage includes both human history and natural ecosystem time frames
1. Ecosystem Models Environment, Economy, Society 2. Geographic Scales Sustainable Global, Community, Personal Development & 3. Time Horizons Sustainable Tourism Short-Term / Immediate, Near-Term, Long-Term American Indians – Policies for Cultural Protection Rural Scotland – Tourism in Peripheral Regions Khumbu, Nepal – Adapting to Social & Environmental Change South Africa – Natural & Cultural Heritage Protection View from Isandlwana Lodge, South Africa