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  1. 1. Intelligence Group 4 Prinzy Amerila Lauro Gran Jeremy Rausa Alvaner Reyes Johannah Tapon
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>State the meaning of intelligence, the factors shaping and affecting it and the various theories that encompass intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Heredity and Environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assessment of Intellectual Abilities <ul><li>Intelligence is a difficult concept to define and equally difficult to measure. It </li></ul><ul><li>includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attentiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical Skills </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Assessment of Intellectual Abilities <ul><li>Assesses the degree to which a test is measuring something and the variance in measurement error across studies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ good” reliability will yield reproducible and consistent results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures of Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal consistency : the degree to which the separate items on a test measure the same thing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interjudge/Interrater Reliability : exists if the correlation between judges of a test or method of assessment is high, usually ≥ .90 </li></ul></ul></ul>Reliability
  5. 5. Assessment of Intellectual Abilities <ul><li>Determines if a test or method of assessment measures what it is intended to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion problem in assessment : there is no measure of “truth” to validate the test. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolved with construct validity: demonstrates the correlation between results or scores on the test with the hypothesized outcomes. </li></ul></ul>Validity
  6. 6. Early Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Originated in 1905, from French psychologists Aflred Binet and Théophile Simon, the Binet-Simon Scales. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested mental age (MA) to be compared with chronological age (CA) to determine mental growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revised by Lewis Term of Stanford University in 1916, now referred to as Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted intelligence quotient (IQ) from William Stern. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>IQ expresses the intelligence as a ratio of mental age to chronological age: </li></ul><ul><li>IQ = MA/CA x 100 </li></ul><ul><li>where mental age (MA) expresses the age one performs at intellectually, and chronological age (CA) is determined by the date of birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the equation for IQ became obsolete and instead tables are used to determine standard scores from raw scores. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A frequency distribution of IQ scores shows a normal distribution, or bell curve, where the mean IQ at any age is approximately 100. </li></ul><ul><li>Each standard deviation (15 points) within the bell curve represents a level of intelligence, highlighted by the legend, where number values indicate IQ score and percentage indicates the fraction of the population which falls into each category. </li></ul>≤ 55, (.1%), severely mentally retarded 55 ≤ X ≤ 70, (2.2%), mildly mentally retarded 70 ≤ X ≤ 85, (13.6%), borderline mentally retarded 85 ≤ X ≤ 115, (68.2%), Average 115 ≤ X ≤ 130, (13.6%), Superior ≥130, (2.3%), Gifted, where IQs of 145+ represent .1% of the population
  9. 9. Early Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Wechsler Intelligence Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1939 by David Wechsler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), divided into 2 scales: verbal and performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made sub-scores available as well as full IQ score, identified difference between verbal and performance scales to highlight specific learning handicaps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with the Stanford-Binet, shows good reliabilty– both scoring test-restest ability of ~.90 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sample IQ Test <ul><li>12 Questions, 25 minutes, ~2 minutes per question. </li></ul><ul><li>An asterisk (*) denotes scratch paper should be used to assist in solving the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>This IQ Test will challenge your mathematical, verbal, spatial, and logic abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Guessing is discouraged (on multiple choice) as it may yield a correct answer. Be honest with your answers. </li></ul><ul><li>IQ Tests are done in proctored settings, these are only sample questions. Therefore an accurate IQ score may not be yielded, however, scores 8/12 and higher are considered to be above average (> 100). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Solution #1 <ul><li>8f . </li></ul><ul><li>The word for the number 9 contains 4 letters ( n-i-n-e ) so the fourth letter of the alphabet ( D ) is paired with it. This rule applies to the other pairs as well, except  8F . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Solution #2 <ul><li>Amethyst </li></ul>
  13. 13. Solution #3 <ul><li>72 inches- head + body + tail, 9+36+27=72 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Solution #4 <ul><li>Step 1: Flip both timers. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: After 4-minute timer elapses, immediately flip over. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: After 7-minute time elapses, immediately flip over (1 minute remaining on 4-minute timer). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: After 4-minute timer elapses, two cycles will have finished on this timer, equaling 8 minutes. Where only one of those minutes has simultaneously passed with the 7-minute timer (its first minute). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Flip the 7-minute timer (where only one minute has passed) for the 9 th minute. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Solution #5 <ul><li>Binuke is lying. </li></ul><ul><li>Wild penguins are nonexistent in the North Pole. Their habitat is in the Antarctic, the South Pole. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Solution #6 <ul><li>Three </li></ul>
  17. 17. Solution #7 <ul><li>Jade. </li></ul><ul><li>All other girls are named after a shade of red. Jade is a shade of green. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Solution #8 <ul><li>17. </li></ul><ul><li>16, 25, 4, and 9 group together as they are all square numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>13, 7, and 11 are all prime numbers– only divisible by itself and 1. </li></ul><ul><li>17 is also a prime number. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Solution #9 <ul><li>F of grouping “EFW” </li></ul><ul><li>The letters in the first group are written with one line.  The letters in the other groups are written with 2, 3, and 4 lines respectively.  F, written with 3 lines, is in the 4 line group.  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Solution #10 <ul><li>C. Cannot be resolved. </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement is true, then it would be false. </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement is false, the it would be true. </li></ul><ul><li>The statement cannot be resolved. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Solution #11 <ul><li>D. </li></ul><ul><li> It is the only design that has a smaller figure of itself inside.  The other designs have different figures inside. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Solution #12 <ul><li>Conrad, Debbie, Alvin, Eddy, Becky </li></ul><ul><li>Conrad is older than Debbie who is older than Alvin and Eddy  (Debbie has only one older brother). </li></ul><ul><li>If Becky was older than Alvin and/or Eddy  this would make Eddy (who is Debby's youngest brother) the &quot;baby&quot; of the family. But he is not, so Eddy is older than Becky.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eddy is Debbie's  youngest brother, so Alvin is older than Eddy and therefore older than Becky. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Group Ability Tests <ul><li>The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler scales are examples of individual ability tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Group Ability tests can be administered to a large number of people by a single proctor. They can work as screening tools to approximate an individual’s intelligence contingent upon the reliability and validity of the test. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Group Ability Tests <ul><li>The Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the American College Test (ACT) are examples of general-ability tests, typically mandatory for 4-year college applicants in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAT emphasizes sophisticated reading, writing and mathematics skills. </li></ul><ul><li>SAT scores improve predictors for college-bound students, however, the grades of those students will vary greatly despite similar SAT scores. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAT II, or SAT Subject Tests, challenge an individuals knowledge on specific subjects chosen by the tester. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Group Ability Tests <ul><li>The term “computerized adaptive testing,” or CAT, defines itself fairy well by its three component words. It is a form of administering group ability tests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a way of using computers to administer tests that adapt during the testing period to the test taker’s ability levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors include: Proportion of correct answers, duration of time per question, among others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as “tailored testing” as it adapts to the examinee’s ability level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example of a CAT administered group test is the NCLEX-RN, an examination for the licensing of registered nurses. They are designed to test the knowledge, skills, and abilities essential for the practice of nursing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Factorial Approach <ul><li>Factor analysis : a statistical technique that examines the intercorrelations among a number of tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of obtaining more precise information about the kinds of abilities that determine performance on intelligence tests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping of factor analysis data by those of the strongest correlations reduces the amount of independent dimensions, or the aforementioned abilities, called factors . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the myriad of factors and the lack of consistency between them amongst varying intelligence tests, factor analysis is still significant for studying intellectual performance. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Contemporary Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>The Factorial Approach dominated research on intelligence until the 1960’s. </li></ul><ul><li>With the emergence of cognitive psychology at this time a new approach manifested: the information processing approach . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to extinguish use of factors and instead understand intelligence in terms of cognition during times of intellectual activity. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Developed by Howard Gardner in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>“ An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural setting”. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, Gardner distinguished 7 intelligences, but later added an 8 th , they are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Linguistic Intelligence <ul><li>The capacity for speech, along with mechanisms dedicated to phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Musical Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to create, communicate and understand meanings made of sound, along with mechanisms dedicated to pitch, rhythm, and timbre. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to use and appreciate relationships in the absence of action or objects– that is, to engage in abstract thought. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Spatial Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to perceive visual or spatial information, modify it, and recreate visual images without reference to the original stimulus. Includes the capacity to construct images in three dimensions and to move and rotate those images. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to use all or part of the body to solve problems. Includes control over fine and gross motor actions and the ability to manipulate external objects. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Intrapersonal Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to distinguish among one’s own feelings, intentions and motivations. Typically associated with introspection and self-reflection. Characteristically introverted with a sense of independence. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Interpersonal Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to recognize and make distinctions among other people’s feelings, beliefs, and intentions. Show empathy, extroversion, high communication skill, and the ability to both lead and follow. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Naturalistic Intelligence <ul><li>Deals with sensing patterns in and making connections with elements in nature. Show keen awareness of one’s surroundings, including changes in the environment. Characterized by keen senses. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Anderson’s Theory of Intelligence and Cognitive Development <ul><li>Created by Mike Anderson in response to “Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences” stating they are ill-defined as they are “sometimes a behavior, sometimes a cognitive process, and sometimes a structure in the brain”. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences in intelligence and developmental changes in intellectual competence are explained by different mechanisms. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Anderson’s Theory of Intelligence and Cognitive Development <ul><li>Basis of difference in intelligence is difference in “basic processing mechanism” that implements thinking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, direct correlation with the acquisition of knowledge and the speed it occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of intelligence based on “ module-based knowledge ”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtually automatic, effectiveness is contingent upon maturation of the module. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory <ul><li>Comprised of three subtheories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Componential subtheory : Deals with thought process. The most developed of the subtheories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential subtheory : Deals with effects of experience on intelligence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual subtheory: Considers the effects of one’s environment and culture. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory <ul><li>Componential Subtheory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses three components of thought, critical in intelligence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metacomponents (Analytical abilities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance components (Creative abilities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge-Acquisition Components (Practical abilities) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Ceci’s Bioecological Theory <ul><li>Developed by Stephen Ceci to build upon Anderson’s Theory of Intelligence while emphasizing context and impact on problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposes “multiple cognitive potentials” rather than just underlying general intelligence, g . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are biologically based and place limits on mental processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped by challenges and opportunities in one’s environment, also known as context . </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Ceci’s Bioecological Theory <ul><li>Everyday intellectual performance, “street smarts”, cannot be explained by IQ or g (general intelligence). </li></ul><ul><li>Highly contingent upon relationship of one’s multiple cognitive potentials and a knowledge base. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In essence, one’s intelligence is contingent upon nature (multiple cognitive potentials) and nurture (knowledge base). </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Comparing Theories of Intelligence Gardner’s Theory -Intelligence is an ability to solve problems or create products that are of value in a particular culture. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory -Divides intelligence into three subtheories: componential, experiential, and contextual.
  44. 46. Comparing Theories of Intelligence Ceci’s Bioecological Theory -Intelligence involves multiple cognitive potentials that are biologically based, but their expression depends on the knowledge an individual has amassed in a particular domain. Anderson’s Theory -Intelligence is a basic processing mechanism, along with specific processors that deal with propositional thought and visual and spatial functioning.
  45. 47. Genetics and Intelligence <ul><li>Heritability : Percentage of the variance in any trait that is accounted for by genetic differences amongst individuals in a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to a particular population in a particular environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, cannot identify the source of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differences between populations. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>Heritability refers to differences among individuals, not the affect of genetic factors on an individual’s expression of a trait. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a fixed attribute or trait. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent upon population and environment. For example, as phenotypic variation fluctuates, heritability will change as well. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Extremes of Intelligence <ul><li>Mensa – the oldest high-IQ society in the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organization open to those scoring in the 98 th percentile or higher in any approved intelligence test. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Extremes of Intelligence <ul><li>Savant syndrome, or savantism, a rare condition amongst those with developmental disorders that have one or more areas of brilliant expertise that contrast with their overall limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed to be latent within everyone, stimulated by directing low frequency magnetic pulses into the brain’s left temporal lobe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatized in 1988 in an American Drama film, “Rain Man”, featuring Tom Cruise and Dustin Hoffman. </li></ul></ul>