Building drupal web farms with IIS - part 1


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This webcast covers the theoretical introduction to Web Farms and how to build Drupal Web Farms with IIS. Don't miss the second part of the webcast (also part of this series) where a full demo on creating Drupal Web Farms with 4 virtual machines will be presented. If you are already familiar with Web Farms, Application Request Router, Web Farm Framework you can skip to part 2. Otherwise, this webcast is highly recommended and propaedeutic to grasp all the basic knowledge that you might need later.

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Building drupal web farms with IIS - part 1

  1. 1. Building Drupal WebFarms with IIS - Part 1 Alessandro Pilotti @alexpilotti MVP ASP.NET / IIS MCSD, MCAD, MCSE, MCDBA, MCT Red Hat Certified Engineer
  2. 2. Application Request Routing 2.5 IIS 7.x add-on installable via WebPI or setup available on http://iis.NET Features  HTTP based routing decisions  Load balance algorithms  Health monitoring  Client affinity  Host name Affinity  Multiple server groups  Managing and monitoring by using the UI  Caching  SSL offloading  Failed Request Tracing rules
  3. 3. Web Farm Framework 2.1 Features  Integration with ARR  Platform provisioning  Including frameworks (PHP, etc)  Application provisioning via WebDeploy  Simplified farm management  Rich UI for monitoring and management
  4. 4. Architecture
  5. 5. Create a Server FarmAfter installing ARR and/or WFF the node “ServerFarms” shows up in the tree
  6. 6. Server Farm You can enable independently  Load balancing  Server farm provisioning Enabling server farm provisioning only means that an alternative load balancing solution is planned, e.g.:  Hardware NLB  Varnish  Apache + HAProxy WFF requires administrator credentials valid on all the hosts belonging to the farm Creating an ARR farm via GUI creates also URL rewrite rules
  7. 7. Server Farm Details
  8. 8. WFF Server Roles WFF is based on the concept of a primary host and multiple secondary hosts Primary host  Is the master  Platform and applications get provisioned to secondary hosts Secondary hosts  Are “clones” of the primary host Roles can be switched  A secondary host can become primary Provisioning is customizable
  9. 9. Adding Servers
  10. 10. CLI To achieve the same result as seen before:  appcmd.exe set config -section:webFarms /+"[name=myServerFarm]" /commit:apphost  appcmd.exe set config -section:webFarms /+"[name=myServerFarm].[address=’DrupalWeb1]" /commit:apphost URL Rewrite rules:  appcmd.exe set config -section:system.webServer/rewrite/globalRules /+"[name=ARR_myServerFarm_loadbalance, patternSyntax=Wildcard,stopProces sing=True]" /commit:apphost  appcmd.exe set config -section:system.webServer/rewrite/globalRules /[name=ARR_myServerFarm_loadbalance,patternSyntax=Wildcard,stopProcessin g=True].match.url:"*" /commit:apphost  appcmd.exe set config -section:system.webServer/rewrite/globalRules /[name=ARR_myServerFarm_loadbalance,patternSyntax=Wildcard,stopProcessin g=True].action.type:"Rewrite" /[name=ARR_myServerFarm_loadbalance,patternSyntax=Wildcard,stopProcessin g=True].action.url:"http://myServerFarm/{R:0}" /commit:apphost
  11. 11. ARR Configuration
  12. 12. Health Test
  13. 13. Load Balance
  14. 14. Routing Rules
  15. 15. Server Affinity
  16. 16. CachingPrimary and secondary disk caches areconfigured at the server level
  17. 17. Add Drives
  18. 18. Cache Configuration
  19. 19. Cache Warm-up
  20. 20. Cache Rules
  21. 21. Enable Caching in the Farm
  22. 22. Platform Provisioning
  23. 23. Application Provisioning
  24. 24. Failed Request Tracing Detailed requests log  Excellent troubleshooting tool Launch IIS Manager Select web site  e.g. Default Web Site Select Failed Request Tracing…
  25. 25. Enable Failed Request Tracing
  26. 26. Tracing Rules Select Failed Request Tracing Rules in the features pane Add…
  27. 27. Trace Conditions
  28. 28. Select Providers
  29. 29. Analyze Traces Traces are located by default in  %SystemDrive%inetpubLogsFailedReqLogFiles Sections to check:  GENERAL_REQUEST_HEADERS  ARR_REQUEST_ROUTED  ARR_SERVER_STATS  GENERAL_RESPONSE_HEADERS  GENERAL_RESPONSE_ENTITY_BUFFER
  30. 30. CLI To obtain what we did via GUI: appcmd set site "Default Web Site" - traceFailedRequestsLogging.enabled:"true" /commit:apphost appcmd.exe set config "Default Web Site" - section:system.webServer/tracing/traceFailedRequests /+"[path=*]” appcmd.exe set config "Default Web Site" - section:system.webServer/tracing/traceFailedRequests /+"[path=*].traceAreas.[provider=WWW Server,areas=Rewrite,RequestRouting,verbosity=Verbose]” appcmd.exe set config "Default Web Site" - section:system.webServer/tracing/traceFailedRequests /[path=*].failureDefinitions.statusCodes:"200-399"
  31. 31. Shared Config Share the same IIS server configuration among two or more hosts Obtained by saving the configuration files on a network share An encryption key is set to protect sensitive data Web sites reside on shared paths
  32. 32. Export Config
  33. 33. Enable Shared Config
  34. 34. Shared Config
  35. 35. Scenario
  36. 36. Roles Load balancer / Farm controller (DrupalARR) Web Server 1 (DrupalWeb1) Web Server 2 (DrupalWeb2) File Server (DrupalFileServer) MySQL Server (DrupalDB)  Note: In our demo and lab, we will install MySQL on DrupalFileServer to limit the number of required VMs
  37. 37. DBMS Install MySQL on the DBMS server  Can be Windows, Linux, etc CREATE DATABASE MyNewDrupalSite2; Enable access to the MySQL database from the web servers. E.g.:  CREATE USER MyNewDrupalSite2@% IDENTIFIED BY Passw0rd;  GRANT ALL On MyNewDrupalSite2.* TO MyNewDrupalSite2@%’; Note: in the Drupal web apps, connecting to MySQL using an IP address is preferred  Avoid name resolution
  38. 38. Web Farm Hosts Web farm hosts (DrupalWeb1 and DrupalWeb2)  Install Web Deploy via WebPI, if not already installed  Disable UAC (User Account Control)  Enable the following feature through the local firewall  Core Networking  File And Printer Sharing  Remote Administration
  39. 39. Web Farm Hosts We need a common account with administrator rights on the hosts. It can be:  A domain user  A user with same username/password on all hosts  Must be a member of the “Administrators” group  Check that the user password is not set to expire  net user wfadmin Passw0rd /add  wmic path Win32_UserAccount where Name=wfadmin set PasswordExpires=false  net localgroup administrators wfadmin /add
  40. 40. Drupal Web Site Create a Drupal web site on the primary server (DrupalWeb1)  Via WebPI or manually  As seen in the previous lessons  Install all necessary components  PHP 5.3, PHP Manager, WinCache, URL Rewrite  Point the Drupal DB configuration to the database on the DBMS server  For performance reasons, consider using an IP address instead of name resolution WFF will later use WebDeploy to replicate the site to the secondary servers (DrupalWeb2 in our case)
  41. 41. Load Balancer ARR Install ARR 2.5 and WFF 2.1 via WebPI
  42. 42. ARR Open IIS Manager and create Web Farm.  Note: if IIS Manager was open during the setup of ARR, it needs to be closed and reopened to be able to access the installed features.
  43. 43. Server Farm Details Set the wfadmin user you created in the previous steps
  44. 44. Add Primary Host to the Farm In our case, DrupalWeb1 will become the primary server This host contains the Drupal web site(s) to be served by the farm (can be added later)
  45. 45. Add Secondary Hosts to the Farm
  46. 46. URL Rewrite Rules Create local URL Rewrite rules. This is the base of the redirection process!
  47. 47. Platform Provisioning At this point, platform and application synchronization between the hosts takes place. Platform tools and frameworks that are available on the primary server get installed on the other servers. Afterwards, application pools, sites and applications will be synchronized Provisoning can be started manually Check secondary web farm hosts afterwards
  48. 48. Platform Provisioning
  49. 49. ARR – Configure Health Test
  50. 50. ARR – Check Health Test
  51. 51. ARR – Set Affinity CookieNote: a distributed session management shouldalso be evaluated.
  52. 52. The “drupalwp” User Create a common user on:  DrupalFileServer  DrupalWeb1  DrupalWeb2 No privileges required  net user drupalwp Passw0rd /add  wmic path Win32_UserAccount where Name=’drupalwp set PasswordExpires=false  Check that the user password is not set to expire Repeat on all the above hosts
  53. 53. WP Identity On the primary server, in IIS Manager, open the server node, click on Application Pools and on the Drupal web site application pool. Click on “Advanced Settings…” Change the Identity to the drupalwp user and set it to “drupalwp” In the PHP.ini configuration file on the PHP version used by the Drupal web site, set  fastcgi.impersonate = 0 For performance, make sure also that WinCache is enabled.
  54. 54. Shared Storage Access Drupal requires a shared “files” directory accessed by the web farm hosts Can be hosted on a SMB share As an alternative FS sync solutions could be applied  DFS, rsync, WebDeploy, etc A valid user must exist on the web farm hosts and on the file server. It can be:  A domain account  A local user with same username and password Proper permissions need to be set on the SMB share
  55. 55. Folder Permissions Create a directory where you want to store your Drupal shared data  E.g: C:DataMyNewDrupalSite  Add write permissions for the user “drupalwp”
  56. 56. SMB Share Create an SMB share for the directory and add read/write permissions for the user “drupalwp”
  57. 57. CLI md C:DataMyNewDrupalSite icacls C:DataMyNewDrupalSite /grant drupalwp:(OI)(CI)(RX,W) net share MyNewDrupalSite=C:DataMyNewDrupalSite /grant:wpuser,Change
  58. 58. Troubleshoot SMB Access From the web farm hosts (DrupalWeb1, DrupalWeb2) try to access the shared folder with the identity of the WP user: Runas /u:drupalwp cmd In the drupalwp command prompt: net use drupaltest05MyNewDrupalSite echo test > drupaltest05MyNewDrupalSitetest.txt dir drupaltest05MyNewDrupalSite File exists: ok del drupaltest05MyNewDrupalSitetest.txt
  59. 59. Drupal Configuration Log on the drupal web site as administrator and go to:  Administer -> Site Configuration -> File System Set the “File System”, “Temp” path on the shared storage area.  Create a separate share on the file server for the “Private” path if necessary
  60. 60. Drupal Configuration
  61. 61. Drupal 6 Caveat Drupal 6.19 published on WebPI doesn’t support UNC paths. This can be easily solved with the following code patch: File includes/ Line 126 Original if (!is_writable($directory)) { Modified if (!touch($directory)) {