Us School System
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Us School System

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How does the US educational system work? What is its structure and its differences compared to the system in Germany and the UK? Pros and cons and much more!

How does the US educational system work? What is its structure and its differences compared to the system in Germany and the UK? Pros and cons and much more!

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Us School System Us School System Presentation Transcript

  • Overview• Preschool• Elementary education• Secondary education• Higher education• Comparison to Germany and the UK• Pros and cons – Interviews05/31/2012 The American School System 2
  • Primary, Elementary and Secondary Education05/31/2012 The American School System 3
  • Overview: Primary and Elementary Education• Primary education - Preschool - What do children learn in preschool? - Difference between public and private schools• Elementary education – Primary school05/31/2012 The American School System 4
  • Overview: Secondary Education• Junior High School (Middle School)• 4-year High School (Senior High School) – Definition – How a High School works – Extracurricular activities – Homeschooling – High School names – Types of High Schools05/31/2012 The American School System 5
  • 05/31/2012 The American School System 6
  • Preschool (Nursery School)• Usually between the ages of three and five• Education before the age of six• To develop children through planned programs05/31/2012 The American School System 7
  • What do children learn in preschools?• Social competence (playgroups / sharing etc.)• Listening skills• Several activities (painting, educational games etc.)05/31/2012 The American School System 8
  • The difference between private and public schoolsPrivate school Public school• Tuition fees or scholarship • Financed by taxes• 10 % of all students • Supported by funding• Select their students • Majority of students• Uniforms • Some have dress codes05/31/2012 The American School System 9
  • Elementary Education• Primary school − Provides instructions in skills of mathematics, reading, basic grammar, social studies, geography etc.• Elementary school − First year: kindergarten − From 5/6 to 11 years (1st grade to 6th grade)05/31/2012 The American School System 10
  • Junior High School• Includes seventh, eighth and ninth grade• More independence• Compulsory subjects: Science, mathematics, social sciences, physical education• Electives• Extracurricular activities05/31/2012 The American School System 11
  • Senior High School• Built around 1960 in USA• Originated in Scotland: Edinburgh’s Royal High school 1505• Prepares young people for the adult world• Final four years (9 up to 12)05/31/2012 The American School System 12
  • How a High School works• School attendance: until graduation or age of 16• Full-time school• Begins in late august or early September• Ends in late may or early June• 36 weeks a year• Strict discipline during class time• Possibility to have lunch in school• Extracurricular activities• Graduation• High school diploma
  • Extracurricular Activities• Performed by students outside the normal curriculum• Voluntary• Usually organized by students• First appearance in the 19th century• First activity: literary societies (Harvard & Yale)
  • Extracurricular Activities• Sports • Clubs – American Football – Theater club – Soccer – Debating society – Baseball – Choir – Swimming – Band etc. – Cheerleading – Basketball etc.
  • Homeschooling• Approx. 1.5 million children (2.9 %)• Moral or religious reasons• Dissatisfaction with academic instruction• Effective teaching; individual• To avoid negative social pressure
  • High School Names• Prominent names e.g. – „Kennedy High School“ – „Canyon High School“ – „Ben Franklin High School“
  • Types of High Schools• Can be sub classed in – Magnet High School – College preparatory High School – Special High School• Offer classes for advanced students• General education for average students• Remedial courses for those who are struggling
  • Higher Education05/31/2012 The American School System 20
  • Overview: Higher Education• General information• “College” vs. “University” – “College” in English-speaking countries – “College” in the U.S.• Types of colleges• Tuition fees05/31/2012 The American School System 21
  • Higher Education• 30/45 highest-ranked institutions in the U.S.• Undergraduate: e.g. BA• (Post)graduate: e.g. MA, Ph.D.05/31/2012 The American School System 22
  • Higher Education: General Information• More than 4,400 universities and colleges• Decentralized system• Public universities administered by individual States05/31/2012 The American School System 23
  • Higher Education: General Information• University & college• Institute (e.g. MIT)• Union (e.g. Cooper Union)• School (e.g. Julliard School)• Academy (e.g. United States Military Academy)• Conservatory (e.g. New England Conservatory)05/31/2012 The American School System 24
  • “College” versus “University”: Etymology• Collegium: club/ society under a common set of rules• Universitas magistrorum et scholarium: community of teachers and scholars05/31/2012 The American School System 25
  • “College” in English-Speaking Countries• Degree-awarding tertiary educational institution• Institution within a university• Vocational School• Secondary School• Be careful when translating!05/31/2012 The American School System 26
  • “College”: Origin of the U.S. Usage• Founders of first institutions from Oxbridge• Smaller than universities; like colleges• Right to confer degrees to graduates• Harvard College: – 1st degree in 1642 – later “university”, but the term stuck05/31/2012 The American School System 27
  • “College” in the U.S. Today• Any post-secondary undergraduate education• “Americans go to college”• Dual-enrollment: (college during high school)05/31/2012 The American School System 28
  • Types of Colleges• 2 years: (e.g. junior / community colleges)• 4 years: (e.g. liberal arts colleges)• Residential colleges05/31/2012 The American School System 29
  • Two-Year College• Associate’s degree• Before 1970, all “junior colleges”• Today: – “junior colleges” = private – “community colleges” = public (students of local community, with supports)05/31/2012 The American School System 30
  • Four-Year College• Bachelor’s degree: – Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) – Bachelor of Science (B.S.)• Curriculum on liberal arts (versus vocational): “liberal arts colleges”05/31/2012 The American School System 31
  • Residential College• e.g. Oxford, Harvard• In the U.S.: housing system• In the UK: both academic and residential functions05/31/2012 The American School System 32
  • Vocational School• Also called “trade/ career school” or VET (Vocational Educational Training)• Skills for a particular job• Training, not education05/31/2012 The American School System 33
  • University• Undergraduate and graduate education• Core: undergraduate colleges with liberal arts curriculum => bachelor’s degree• Graduate schools (both teaching and research)• Divided in colleges/ schools/ faculties (e.g. School of Law)05/31/2012 The American School System 34
  • But…• Some universities = “colleges” (historical reasons)• Different use of the terms among states• Example: Georgia, 1996: – 4-year institutions (“colleges”) => “universities” – “vocational technology schools” => “technical colleges”05/31/2012 The American School System 35
  • Acronyms you should know…• B.A. = Bachelor of Arts / M.A. = Master of Arts• B.S. = Bachelor of Science / M.S. = Master of Science• M.B.A. = Master of Business Administration• M.F.A. = Master of Fine Arts• Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy (Philosophiae Doctor)• M.D. = Doctor of Medicine (Medicinae Doctor)• D.V.M. = Doctor of Veterinary Medicine• Phar.D.. = Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharmaciae Doctor)• J.D. = Doctor of Law (Juris Doctor)05/31/2012 The American School System 36
  • College students are called…• Like in high school (grades 9-12): (Slang: singular: fish, new-g, fresher, prep; plural: frosh, newbie, freshie, snotter, fresh- meat, pichones, etc.)05/31/2012 The American School System 37
  • Tuition Fees• Charged almost everywhere, except: – 5 federally sponsored service academies; – few tuition-free institution (e.g. Webb Institute)• Lower at public universities (subsidies)• Cheaper for local students• Scholarships, student loans or grants05/31/2012 The American School System 38
  • Tuition fees at the most prestigious universities05/31/2012 The American School System 39
  • Harvard University• Cambridge, Massachusetts• since 1639• 2011-12: – $ 36,305 for tuition – $ 52,652 for tuition, room, board and fees combined05/31/2012 The American School System 40
  • Princeton University• Princeton, New Jersey• Since 1746• 2012-13: – $ 38,650 for tuition – $ 54,780 in total05/31/2012 The American School System 41
  • Yale University• New Haven, Connecticut• Since 1701• 2011-12: – $ 32,500 for tuition f05/31/2012 The American School System 42
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)• Cambridge, Massachusetts• Since 1861• 2011-12: – $ 40,732 for tuition and fees f05/31/2012 The American School System 43
  • The American School System in Comparison to Germany and the UK05/31/2012 The American School System 44
  • Overview: Comparison to Germany and the UK Education in Germany Differences to Germany Education in the United Kingdom College in the UK Grades Tuition Fees PISA Results05/31/2012 The American School System 45
  • USA – Germany05/31/2012 The American School System 46
  • Differences: USA-Germany IPreschool, Nursery School (optional) Kindergarten (optional) 3-6Elementary G 1-5/6 Primarstufe Klasse 1–4 (Berlin 1 – 6)Middle School G 5/6 – 8/9 Sekundarstufe I ,or Junior High School Klasse 5 – 9 or 10High school G 9/10 – 12 Vocational training or after „Mittlere Reife“On the job training → Sekundarstufe II: Gymnasium/GesamtschuleCollege or University University or FH 05/31/2012 The American School System 47
  • Differences: USA-Germany IIgeneral structure Federalism: Each state decides on the structure → diversity of school types in public schools“Full-time” school Halbtagsschule → GanztagsschuleSchool holidays: ~17 weeks School holidays: ~12 weeks(depending on area) (depending on state)Funding through School District Funding from two sources  Government funds  Local government fundsDecision-making committee: Decision-making committee:Board of Education Landesparlament or KommunalparlamentHomeschooling allowed and lots of private School attendance is compulsory; privateschools schools: secondary roleImportance of university reputation 05/31/2012 Graduation The American School System more important than reputation 48
  • Differences: USA-Germany IIITeacher: encouraging Teacher: rather deficit-orientedConception: Conception: School → co-responsibility for schoolResponsibility for school performance → performance and educationFamily “process-oriented““results-oriented“Counselor: few for all Klassenlehrer/in: accompany and school career advisingES: class changes every year Learning as a class (1-4,5-10)HS: courses Sek. II: coursesHigh-performance sports: passport for High-performance sports: individualhigher education → expectations are high decisionfor children and their families → no impact on school career05/31/2012 The American School System 49
  • 05/31/2012 The American School System 50
  • Education in the United Kingdom First School Middle School GCSE Upper School A-Level05/31/2012 The American School System 51
  • College in the UK In the United Kingdom, usage of the word "college" remains the loosest, encompassing a range of institutions: Further education Higher education05/31/2012 The American School System 52
  • Grades Academic grading in the United States Percentage Letter Numerical 90%–100% A 4.0 80%–89% B 3.0 70%–79% C 2.0 60%–69% D 1.0 59% and below E/F 0.0 Chromatic variants, represented by + and −, are commonly used. They are usually represented as being 0.3 higher and lower than the normal. (e.g., B = 3.0, B+ = 3.3, B− = 2.7)05/31/2012 The American School System 53
  • 05/31/2012 The American School System 54
  • Tuition Fees USA UK Germany Average: 12.000 –  Scotland:  No tuition fees in most 16.000 US$ p.a. £2700 for 4 years States Range:2.000 US$  England, Northern  In Bavaria, Baden- (community college) Ireland and Wales: Württemberg and up to £ 9.000 p.a Lower Saxony: up to 40.000 US$ (most prestigious (effective since 2012) Up to 1000 Euro p.a.: universities) p.a.05/31/2012 The American School System 55
  • Postgraduate Tuition Fee (Master)05/31/2012 The American School System 56
  • Programme for International Student Assessment TOP 10 (2009)05/31/2012 The American School System 57
  • GERMANY 497 P.: 20. UK 494 P.: 25. USA 500 P.: 17. GERMANY 513 P.: 16. UK 492 P.: 28. USA 487 P.: 30. GERMANY 520 P.: 13. UK 514 P.: 16. USA 502 P.: 23.05/31/2012 The American School System 58
  • Pros and Cons05/31/2012 The American School System 59
  • Pros and Cons: High SchoolPros Cons•Electives05/31/2012 The American School System 60
  • Pros and Cons: High SchoolPros Cons•Electives •Choosing subjects doesn’t always work05/31/2012 The American School System 61
  • Pros and Cons: High SchoolPros Cons•Electives •Choosing subjects doesn’t•Different difficulty levels always work – No necessity to change schools •Educational level at times not•Extracurricular activities (mostly very highfor free) •Doesn’t prepare enough for•Guidance counselors college05/31/2012 The American School System 62
  • Pros and Cons: High SchoolPros Cons•Electives •Choosing subjects doesn’t•Different difficulty levels always work – No necessity to change schools •Educational level at times not•Extracurricular activities (mostly very highfor free) •Doesn’t prepare enough for•Guidance counselors college•Same schedule every day •Same schedule every day•Discipline (hall pass) •Private schools usually not big enough for AP classes•Many ways to get scholarships •Big classes (public)•School buses •Exchange years aren’t common•Public schools “for free”•Standardized education05/31/2012 The American School System 63
  • Pros and Cons: CollegePros Cons•Electives05/31/2012 The American School System 64
  • Pros and Cons: CollegePros Cons•Electives •Tuition fees•Campus life – Loans (up to 15 years)•You can tailor education – Private collegesto your liking05/31/2012 The American School System 65
  • Pros and Cons: CollegePros Cons•Electives •Tuition fees•Campus life – Loans (up to 15 years)•You can tailor education – Private collegesto your liking •Public/private•Staff-student relationship•(Liberal)05/31/2012 The American School System 66
  • Pros and Cons: CollegePros Cons•Electives •Tuition fees•Campus life – Loans (up to 15 years)•You can tailor education – Private collegesto your liking •Public/private•Staff-student relationship•(Liberal)05/31/2012 The American School System 67
  • Sources• Liao, Ingrid, Poirer, Annie, Smith, Jessica (2012). Personal interviews, conducted by Simon Ovadia. Cologne, 04/28/12, 04/29/12, 05/01/12.• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_United_States#Public_and_private_schools• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_United_States#Junior_and_senior_high_school• http://www.harvard.edu/• http://www.usastudyguide.com/overview.htm• http://www.ed.gov/• http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_a_college_and_a_university• http://www.kingscolleges.com/Upload/Courses/university_progression_courses/tables/Web_BritEdSystem_sept10.png• http://stats.oecd.org/PISA2009Profiles/#• http://www.ludgerusschule.de/content/projekte/eurorap/lernen/lernen.htm• http://www.rpi.edu/• http://www.homeschooling.de/• http://www.studieren-in-england.de/409,1,studiengebuehren.html• http://www.sueddeutsche.de/bildung/studiengebuehren-in-england-steigen-dramatisch-studieren-nur-fuer-reiche-1.1272305/31/2012 The American School System 68
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