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PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION and FLUID ORGANIZATION      as dynamic features of future organizing  CLASS O.S.I.A. (ORGANIZZAZI...
Twenty years from now you will be more  disappointed by the things that you didntdo than by the ones you did do. So throw ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS   1)   ABSTRACT   2)   INTRODUCTION   3)   PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION   4)   FLUID ORGANIZATION   5)   REF...
ABSTRACTThe need for supporting the personal feelings of myself as “non frequentante studentelavoratore“ with “experts vie...
INTRODUCTIONDiscovering something that might be characteristic of the dynamics of organizing in 20years from now is a very...
INDICATIONS FROM FORWARD LOOKING STUDIES: THE CONTEXTThe main conclusions of the EUROPEAN COMMISSION’s report are:   1. a ...
reconfigurable, multi-functional and cross-technological, with an user-friendly human-machine interaction.The role of ICT ...
business process will have moved to cyberfacture”. “Jobs will change greatly: e.g. bemore flexible, with no fixed location...
As a result, whether it is running a business or managing individual health, our workand personal lives will increasingly ...
Contrary to representational computing and imagined computing experiences,experiential computing focuses on the notion of ...
FLUID ORGANIZATIONDriving forces for change at the global level are interacting between them and createturbulence and dyna...
Our tools and technologies shape the kinds of social, economic, and politicalorganizations we inhabit. Many organizations ...
supported by some general and shared assumptions about e.g. how a company shouldbe run, or how employees should be managed...
REFERENCESBECK, U. (2000), Il lavoro nell’epoca della fine del lavoroBROWN B. – SIKES J. (2012),”MINDING YOUR DIGITAL BUSI...
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  1. 1. PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION and FLUID ORGANIZATION as dynamic features of future organizing CLASS O.S.I.A. (ORGANIZZAZIONE DEI SISTEMI INFORMATIVI AZIENDALI) 2012 PROF. DAVID JAMES HAKKEN STUDY COURSE: LAVORO, ORGANIZAZZIONE, SISTEMI INFORMATIVI (L.O.S.I.) EXAM PAPER BY ALESSANDRO BOZZO, n. 155631 SEPTEMBER 2012
  2. 2. Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didntdo than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safeharbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover. ( Mark Twain ) 2Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) ABSTRACT 2) INTRODUCTION 3) PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION 4) FLUID ORGANIZATION 5) REFERENCES 3Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  4. 4. ABSTRACTThe need for supporting the personal feelings of myself as “non frequentante studentelavoratore“ with “experts views” about plausible dynamics of organizing in 20 yearsfrom now, brought me to the search of qualified recent forward looking studies relatedto my job together with reading course materials.The conclusions of this overview lead me to be confident that ”GLOBAL CONNECTIVITY” and“WEB 3.0, 4.0…“ are the most likely dynamic features of future organizing that are associatedwith the use of digital technologies .Then I engaged myself in developing a sociological argument for each one of the twoabove dynamics as string of logically-connected statements about conditions andcontexts that are likely to be typical organizing assemblages in 20 years and why thisset of conditions/contexts is likely to produce the dynamic identified.My preference is for structuration theory, based on special attention generally givento the intentions of the human actors. (Other ways to account for dynamics wouldinclude the practice lens and Actor Network Theory (ANT), in its several forms). 4Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONDiscovering something that might be characteristic of the dynamics of organizing in 20years from now is a very hard task at today crisis times, when we feel that the weightof unsolved problems (financial troubles, sustainable development, joblesseconomy,…) and rapid societal change (globalization of commerce and culture,proliferation and speed of information, evolution of technology and transport) havebuilt up to the point that the need of a new “paradigm” (T.KUHN, 1970) replacing theold one is perceived.Many forward looking studies developed by public institutions, research companies,professional associations and industry are “looking for options and opportunities forchange before the business is forced to change" (WILLENIUS, 2008).The background set up through the course materials, the main findings of some recentqualified forward looking studies in Europe and in US (EUROPEAN COMMISSION,2011; INSTITUTE FOR THE FUTURE, 2011) and some papers advancing conceptsredefining the possibilities and transforming the nature of organizations (SABETY,2009; SABETY, 2011; ELLEN MACARTHUR FOUNDATION, 2012) draw a challengingframework for matching personal feelings — as a worker and at the same time as astudent — with more “objective” indications in taking a “world view” of the drivingforces for change and how specific key forces are affecting the current structure andfuture development of the organizations.FOLLOW-UP FROM LECTURES, SPEAKERS and COURSE MATERIALSThe background set up in my mind by lectures, speakers and course material issummarized as in the following: - Technological determinism is overcome by the need to integrate social and technical dimensions - Digital technologies change communications at work as well at home - Productivity would only rise when organizations “stopped” (HAKKEN, 2004) treating computers as just a technology ( in Italy, I would say “will stop”...) - Aligning information systems and business goals (digital technologies and key business processes) is fundamental to the success of an enterprise (OSTERWALDER A. - PIGNEUR Y., 2010) - Digital technologies are competitive necessity but not lasting vantage - Particular technologies are central to the mechanisms (McAdam, et al. 2008) that strongly afford particular social patterns 5Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  6. 6. INDICATIONS FROM FORWARD LOOKING STUDIES: THE CONTEXTThe main conclusions of the EUROPEAN COMMISSION’s report are: 1. a new model of open and collaborative innovation driven by users should be developed recognizing the role of innovative ‘ecosystems’ encompassing both technological and non-technological aspects such as social, economic and cultural forces. 2. technological developments and social demands could be translated in future cross-cutting research and innovation fields such as ‘Human-Technology cooperation’ (machines interpreting information, better knowledge of human brain, etc), ‘Sustainable living spaces and infrastructures for the future’, ‘Environmentally friendly and individually tailored solutions’, ‘Renewing services and production by digital means’, ‘Manufacturing on demand’ and ‘Urban mining’. 3. while Europe has to increase cohesion and convergence on research and innovation among EU countries, in the newly global innovation networks it has also to intensify the contacts with world scientific leaders and emerging countries. 4. European Union research and innovation should grapple with major global societal challenges like natural resource depletion, energy and climate change and urbanization, whilst at the same time tackling EU concerns of ageing, productivity and social cohesion. The nexus between hard sciences and soft sciences, between engineering and social aspects, between grand challenges and daily citizens life are increasingly relevant. Future research and innovation should take these points into consideration.A more sustainable economy requires shared efforts from citizens, authorities,researchers and economic stakeholders. Indeed, it implies new socio-politicalparadigms and, consequently, of new production and consumption patterns. The keyword to lead to the future seems to be integration: integration between differentstakeholders towards common goals, integration between technologies and socio-technical systems, integration between different technologies and materials (andtherefore between one industry, its suppliers and its customers), integration betweenproduction and services.To be competitive, the way of working and, consequently, machines and tools have tobe more and more flexible, in order to adapt very quickly the products to the changingcustomers needs. This means that manufacturing must be self-adaptive, 6Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  7. 7. reconfigurable, multi-functional and cross-technological, with an user-friendly human-machine interaction.The role of ICT will still increase, because industrial processes are more and morecomplex, implying the need for computer-aided modeling and simulations.On the basis of industrial transition, a basic component emerges: human capital.Multidisciplinary knowledge and competencies of workers will be essential, but also anew style of management and leadership are needed, more open to creativity,innovation and adaptability.THE INSTITUTE FOR THE FUTURE’s forward looking study identifies six drivers—bigdisruptive shifts —that are likely to reshape the future landscape with a strongrelevance to future work skills : 1. Extreme longevity: increasing global lifespans change the nature of careers and learning 2. Rise of smart machines and systems: workplace automation nudges human workers out of rote, repetitive tasks 3. Computational world: massive increases in sensors and processing power make the world a programmable system 4. New media ecology: new communication tools require new media literacies beyond text 5. “Super structed” organizations: social technologies drive new forms of production and value creation 6. Globally connected world: increased global interconnectivity puts diversity and adaptability at the center of organizational operationsThe intersection of the two above sets outlines, as plausible dynamics of organizing in20 years from now, 2 dynamic features of future organizing that are associated withthe use of digital technologies and that are strictly interconnected: 1. PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION 2. FLUID ORGANIZATIONSThese dynamic features refer in their turn to many items of the ranked list set up atthe workshop on the course examination, like:“The virtual will be the main form of organizations”, “FLOSS”, “The rise of networkorganizations means they will shrink in size, have a flatter hierarchy, be less controlledand be more focused on a core business”, “Organizations will have fewer boundaries,may be lose them altogether and will be much more like social networks”, “Typical 7Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  8. 8. business process will have moved to cyberfacture”. “Jobs will change greatly: e.g. bemore flexible, with no fixed location, hours, even pay”, “For the worker, achieving agood work/life balance will be easier, because it will be policy and because theseparation of work from home will decline”.In the following two section I describe the 2 features PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION andFLUID ORGANIZATION of the dynamics of organizing in 20 years and try to construct asociologically persuasive argument for why I believe this is likely to be true.PERVASIVE DIGITALIZATION AND EXPERIENTIAL COMPUTINGActually we are watching how computational power and digital connections aregrowing fast thanks to the internet, the wireless networks and the large adoption ofsmartphones. It’s the first time that computers are not hard to use instruments set ondesk at home or at office but very friendly light devices that follow every one of us .The INTERNET and the MOBILE PHONE are transformational technologies convergingin such way to redesign society.Web 2.0 and social networking offer new ways of communication, new possibilities ofinnovation. They offer huge possibilities to revitalize the delivery of public services, butonly if access is assured to those who need the services.In general, the diffusion of sensors, communications, and processing power intoeveryday objects and environments will unleash an unprecedented torrent of data andthe opportunity to see patterns and design systems on a scale never before possible.Every object, every interaction, everything we come into contact with will beconverted into data. Once we decode the world around us and start seeing it throughthe lens of data, we will increasingly focus on manipulating the data to achieve desiredoutcomes. Thus we will usher in an era of “everything is programmable”—an era ofthinking about the world in computational, programmable, designable terms.The collection of enormous quantities of data will enable modeling of social systemsat extreme scales, both micro and macro, helping uncover new patterns andrelationships that were previously invisible. Agencies will increasingly model macro-level phenomena such as global pandemics to stop their spread across the globe. At amicro level, individuals will be able to simulate things such as their route to the officeto avoid traffic congestion based on real-time traffic data. Micro and macro-scalemodels will mesh to create models that are unprecedented in their complexity andcompleteness. 8Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  9. 9. As a result, whether it is running a business or managing individual health, our workand personal lives will increasingly demand abilities to interact with data, see patternsin data, make data-based decisions, and use data to design for desired outcomes.The combination of mobile devices with sensors can also assist individuals to cope withtheir environment in myriad ways. Many more adaptations of sensing with smart-phones can be expected. Always-on mobile phones will be universal sensors and willcollect data from the user’s immediate environment and report in real-time. The rangeof sensors available is likely to be extended by miniaturization, nano-technology andeven bio-technology. The extent to which the user can control this information isunclear; as advanced applications produce more and more context information so newprinciples of protecting privacy will need elaboration.New multimedia technologies are bringing about a transformation in the way wecommunicate. As technologies for video production, digital animation, augmentedreality, gaming, and media editing, become ever more sophisticated and widespread, anew ecosystem will take shape around these areas. We are literally developing a newlanguage, for communication.This kind of scenario depicted, introduces a new way of intending computing: theexperiential computing (Ihde 1990). A review of four recent studies (Banker andKauffman 2004; Orlikowski and Iacono 2001; Orlikowski and Scott 2008; Sidorovaet al. 2008) shows that in the majority of past Information Systems studies,computing was conceptualized as a discrete symbolic representations of somethingin the real world - individuals, teams, products, information, process, organization,and market. This is what Ihde (1990) refers to the hermeneutical relationship betweenusers and technology in which the technology is used as a symbolicrepresentation of something else real. Another way of intending computing isimagined computing that focuses on what Ihde refers to as an alterity relationshipbetween technology and users. Alterity is a philosophical term to mean “otherness,”often used in the context of self-awareness. Therefore, an alterity relationship refersto a relationship between users and technology where the technology becomes thealter ego, being attributed user’s intention, hopes, and fears. Referring to Stefano DePaoli lecture, this is the world of computer games and virtual reality, for example,SecondLife and the World of Warcraft. Avatars in a virtual world may take acompletely different identity from the owner who may have several avatars at thesame time. Digital products and buildings in the virtual world exist only in the realm ofthe imagined. 9Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  10. 10. Contrary to representational computing and imagined computing experiences,experiential computing focuses on the notion of the embodiment relationshipbetween technology, world, and people (Ihde 1990). The notion of embodiment thatfinds its roots in the philosophy of phenomenology (Boland 1985; Heidegger1962; Merleau-Ponty 1962; Mingers 2001) means “the property of being manifest inand of the everyday world” (Dourish 2001). Here, the social and physical reality issomething that is not experienced through abstraction, but rather is experienceddirectly. Therefore, an embodiment relationship refers to a relationship betweentechnology and users in which the technology mediates lived experiences of the users.Drawing on Merleau-Ponty (1962), the embodied human experience is conceptualizedas an interaction between our body and the environments characterized by fourdimensions: time, space, other actors, and things (including the natural world).The digitalization of these four dimensions of human experience forms the basis ofexperiential computing. Unlike traditional computing users, the users of this new formof experiential computing will not necessarily see computing as an activity that isseparate from their everyday activities. Humans will no longer experiencecomputing as something that is out there, but rather they will live in it.An emerging sociomateriality lens that emphasizes the indissolubility of social andtechnical (Orlikowski and Scott 2008) can be particularly useful in developing preciseunderstanding on this issue. Among other things, a sociomateriality perspectiveemphasizes that material agency and human agency are so entangled with each otherthat previously taken-for-granted boundaries are dissolved.Further in the future, we can envisage that everything, including people, has a web-address, and that this information plus the capacity to process it can be used to placeall entities in a geographical context in real time. This is potentially a very disruptivetool; capable perhaps of benefitting society, but also pregnant with possibilities forexploitation by unscrupulous governments, organizations and individuals.Experiential computing bring us to consider new ways of working, people with newskills and a different kind of organizing. 10Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  11. 11. FLUID ORGANIZATIONDriving forces for change at the global level are interacting between them and createturbulence and dynamics influencing first of all the lives of the people.The organizations are the fundamental blocks of society and most human activitiestake place through them to meet different needs. At the highest level, business,government and social sectors dominate the organizational landscape of mostdeveloped economies.Organizations are products of human design and as such they reflect the culturalnorms, values, priorities and context out of which they are created. The todayorganizational models were designed at a time when the world was a very differentplace : many different driving forces of rapid societal change have combined to createa new massively interdependent global culture and economy and organizations arefacing heavy pressures to adjust to a number of challenges – worsening of the qualityof our natural environment, declining of the social capital, growing disparity betweenrich and poor, etc. - which are ultimately by products and unintended consequences oforganizational design. There is growing recognition that these systemic problems arerooted in structural failures at the organizational level: solving these problems requiresnew ways of thinking and acting on the part of individuals along with neworganizational designs that encourage stakeholders actions consistent with long-termwelfare of our ecological, economic and social systems.I consider the work in the enterprises as motor of the economy and how dynamics ofenterprises and economy are evolving under new needs and awareness.New technologies and social media platforms are driving an unprecedentedreorganization of how we produce and create value.Amplified by a new level of collective intelligence and tapping resources embedded insocial connections with multitudes of others, we can now achieve the kind of scale andreach previously attainable only by very large organizations.In other words, we can do things outside of traditional organizational boundaries.To “superstruct” means to create structures that go beyond the basic forms andprocesses with which we are familiar. It means to collaborate and play at extremescales, from the micro to the massive. Learning to use new social tools to work, toinvent, and to govern at these scales is what the next few decades are all about. 11Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  12. 12. Our tools and technologies shape the kinds of social, economic, and politicalorganizations we inhabit. Many organizations we are familiar with today, includingeducational and corporate ones, are products of centuries-old scientific knowledgeand technologies. Today we see this organizational landscape being disrupted.In health, organizations such as Curetogether and PatientsLikeMe are allowing peopleto aggregate their personal health information to allow for clinical trials andemergence of expertise outside of traditional labs and doctors’ offices. In these daysSalvatori Iaconesi, a technology expert with a brain cancer, has started a FLOSSpractice to stimulate participation in finding a solution for his illness.Science games, from Foldit to GalaxyZoo, are engaging thousands of people to solveproblems no single organization had the resources to do before. Open educationplatforms are increasingly making content available to anyone who wants to learn.A new generation of organizational concepts and work skills is coming not fromtraditional management/organizational theories but from fields such as game design,neuroscience, and happiness psychology. These fields will drive the creation of newtraining paradigms and tools.But there is another aspect that has to be considered: skills to coping cultural changes.We’ve seen that the pervasive digitalization will bring us to change the way wecommunicate, with rise of new literacies. Moreover it will reduce the need oforganization to be structured around physical places.All this considerations involve a tremendous change of what we call culture.In fact, according with Schein, culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that thegroup learned as it solved its problems that has worked well enough to be consideredvalid and is passed on to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feelin relation to those problems. Schein culture model contains three layers:Artifacts, that are the visible elements in a culture. Artifacts can be recognized bypeople not part of the culture. Artifacts can e.g. be dress codes, furniture, art, workclimate, stories, work processes, organizational structures etc. The outsider mighteasily see these artifacts, but might not be able to fully understand why these artifactshave been established. To understand this, outsiders can look at the espoused valuesin the culture.Espoused values are the values normally espoused by the leading figures of a culture.Espoused values could e.g. be represented by the philosophies, strategies and goalssought realized by e.g. leaders. However, the values sought by leaders should be 12Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  13. 13. supported by some general and shared assumptions about e.g. how a company shouldbe run, or how employees should be managed. If espoused values by leaders are not inline with the general assumptions of the culture, this might signal trouble.Assumptions reflects the shared values within the specific culture. These values areoften ill-defined, and will oftentimes not be especially visible to the members of theculture. Assumptions and espoused values are possibly not correlated, and theespoused values may not at all be rooted in the actual values of the culture. This maycause great problems, where the differences between espoused and actual values maycreate frustrations, lack of morale and inefficiency. Core assumptions can e.g. beassumptions regarding the human nature, human relationships etc.I want to pay attention to the symbolic artifacts. Symbolic artifacts can assume severalforms that can fit in three categories: organizational practices, communication,physical artifacts.How this categories of symbolic artifact (I will consider only physical one in this work),are affected by the rise of new kind of fluid organization?Pervasive digitalization and environment fast transformation push organizations to beextremely flexible. It means that we will be in front of an hardly tuned version of whatMintzberg describes as adhocracy that seems to be the kind of organization used forFLOSS projects.In primis workplaces, as physical artifacts, will be subjected to importanttransformations. Generally, workplaces send cultural messages to organization’smembers, like where they are, what is the expected behavior, even who they are orwhat is their personal, team or organizational identity, what is their status.Thanks to pervasive digitalization, organization’s members can make their own activitynot only in given places but potentially everywhere. Referring to work activities, thismeans that work can be configured as deskless job. So, many of us, will be allowed dowork from home. Domestication of work will be a challenge, because combine moreworker freedom but an invisible subordination. If work will still represent the mostimportant part of our life we can suppose that digital workplaces can rapidly transformour society in a placeless society.Other aspects that will be subjected to important changes are communication (assymbolic artifacts) and management of not synchronized time (as organizationalpractice). Unfortunately my time is expired! 13Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com
  14. 14. REFERENCESBECK, U. (2000), Il lavoro nell’epoca della fine del lavoroBROWN B. – SIKES J. (2012),”MINDING YOUR DIGITAL BUSINESS” Business StrategySeries, vol. 9, No. 2.CASTELLS, M. (1996), The rise of network societyDOBBS R. – OPPENHEIM J. – THOMPSON F. (2012), “MOBILIZING FOR RESOURCEREVOLUTION”ELLEN MACARTHUR FOUNDATION (2012), “TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY”EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2011), “EUROPEAN FORWARD LOOKING ACTIVITIES:building the future of “Innovation Union” and European Research Area “, 2011EUROPEAN COMMISSION/HORIZON 2020 (2011) ,(http://ec.europa.eu/research/horizon2020/index_en.cfm?pg=workshops&workshop=future_and_emerging_technologies) “REPORT FROM THE “HORIZON 2020” (THE EUFRAMEWORK PROGRAMME FOR RESEARCH AND INNOVATION) WORKSHOP: Towardsmore inclusive, innovative and secure societies challenge “HAKKEN , D.J. (2004), “The cyberspace anthropology: a foreword”, in AntropologyIndonesiaINSTITUTE FOR THE FUTURE (2011) “Future work skills “INSTITUTE FOR THE FUTURE, Future work skills, 2011J.BUGHIN-M.CHUI-J.MANYICA (2010), , “Clouds, big data, and smart assets: Ten tech-enabled business trends to watchKUHN, T. (1970) “The structure of scientific revolution”KUNDA, G. (1992), Engineering Culture – Control and Commitment ina High-TechCorporationMORGAN, G. (1997), Images Of OrganizationOSTERWALDER A. PIGNEUR Y (2010), “Business model generation”SABETY H. (2009) , "THE EMERGENCE OF FOURTH SECTOR”SABETY H. (2011) , “THE FOR BENEFIT ENTERPRISE”SCHEIN, E.H. (1987), Process ConsultationSENNETT, R. (1999) The Corrosion of CharacterSTRATI, A. (2004), L’analisi organizzativaWEICK, K.E. (1995), Sensemaking in organizationWILLENIUS, M. (2008) "Taming the dragon: how to tackle the challenge of futureforesight", in 14Alessandro Bozzo - alessandrobozzo.wordpress.com

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