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  • 1. LEADERSHIP ‫القيادة‬An Islamic Perspective ‫نظرة إسليمية‬ ‫جاسر عودة‬ Jasser Auda jauda@qfis.edu.qa www.jasserauda.net
  • 2. Islam and the Science ofLeadership Management Science ‫علم الدارة يمن )العلوم‬ is a social science. (‫الجتماعية‬ Based on statistical facts, which reflect ‫يستند إلى واقع‬ human ‘nature/culture’ ‫يمستقرئ يمن الحصائيات‬ ‫التي تعكس طبيعة أو‬ The ‘scientific’ interpretation of the ‫ثقافة النسان‬ Quran and Sunnah is (‫)التفسير العلمي‬ compatible. ‫للقرآن والسنة يتفق يمع‬ Q: Examples? ‫نتائج علم الدارة‬ ‫سؤال: أيمثلة؟‬
  • 3. What can Islam ‫يماذا يمكن أن يقدم‬contribute to thisknowledge? ‫السلم لهذا العلم؟‬ The spiritual dimension: :‫البعد العبادي للقيادة‬ in viewing leadership ‫في نظرة المسلم إلى‬ itself: ‫القيادة نفسها‬ ‘O Abu Zarr, you are weak ‫‘يا أبا ذر إنك ضعيف وإنها‬ and it is a trust’ (hadith) ’‫أيمانة، الحديث‬ ‘Appoint me … ’ (12:55) ِ ِ َ َ ‫قال اجعلني على خزآئن‬ ََ ِ ْ َ ْ َ َ‘ (55 ‫ال َرض’ )يوسف‬ِ ْ the leader’s worldview shaped by the Islamic ‫في فهم القائد لسرار‬ paradigm = universal ‫الخلق = الكليات = السنن‬ laws = Sunnat-Allah ‫اللهية‬ ‘no deviation will you ever ’‫ولن تجد لسنة الله تبديل‬ ً ِ ْ َ ِ ّ ِ ّ ُ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ‘ find in God’s laws!’ (23 ‫)الفتح‬ (48:23)
  • 4. Universal Laws ‫السنن اللهية‬ God had created us and the universe based on a ‫خلق ا الكون بناء على‬ certain number of laws or ‫سنن وقوانين يمطردة‬ rules that govern what we, ‫تحكم حركته جميعا بما‬ or any other creature could ‫فيها حركة النسان‬ do! Universal laws apply to everything, from the sub- ‫السنن اللهية تحكم حركة‬ atomic particles, objects, planets, and galaxies, to ‫الخلية والنسان والحيوان‬ cells, humans, animals, and ‫والنبات، والكون المادي‬ plants, to individuals, !‫يمن الذرة إلى المجرة‬ societies, and civilizations! Organizations too! ‫وتحكم المؤسسات‬
  • 5. ‫‪1. Law of‬‬‫‪Change‬‬ ‫أول ً: سنة التغيير‬ ‫‪13:11 Verily, God does‬‬ ‫‪not change the condition‬‬ ‫إنح اللح الح يغيرح م اح بقومح ‬ ‫قِ َهّ َهّ ْوَ َم ُ ْوَ رِّ َم ُ ْوَ قِ ْوَ ٍمْ ح ٍ‬ ‫‪of a people unless they‬‬ ‫ْوَ َهّ َم ُ ْوَ رِّ َم ُ ٍمْ ْوَ قِْوَ ٍمْ َم ُ قِ قِ ٍمْ‬ ‫حتي ىح يغيراواح م اح بأنفسهم‬ ‫‪change their inner selves‬‬ ‫‪8:53 This, because God‬‬ ‫‪would never change the‬‬ ‫ذلكح بأنح اللح لمح يكح ‬ ‫ْوَقِ ْوَ قِْوَ َهّ َهّ ْوَ ٍمْ ْوَ َم ُ‬ ‫‪blessings with which He‬‬ ‫‪has graced a people‬‬ ‫مغيراح نعمةح أنعمه اح علي ىح ‬ ‫َم ُ ْوَ رِّ أ ً رِّ ٍمْ ْوَ أ ً ْوَ ٍمْ ْوَ ْوَ ْوَ ْوَْوَ‬ ‫‪unless they change their‬‬ ‫قومح حتي ىح يغيراواح م اح ‬ ‫ْوَ ٍمْ ح ٍ ْوَ َهّ َم ُ ْوَ رِّ َم ُ ٍمْ ْوَ‬ ‫ ‪inner selves‬‬ ‫قِْوَ َم ُ قِ قِ ٍمْ‬ ‫بأنفسهم‬
  • 6. Q: What can I change ‫تدريب: كيف يمكن أن‬in myself to better mywork? ‫أتغير حتى أغير؟‬ Examples: :‫ح أمثلة‬ 32:24 and [as] We raised among them leaders when they bore themselves with patience and had ‫ح او ْوَعلن اح منهمح أئ َهّةح يهداونح‬ َ‫ْوَج ْوَ ٍمْ ْوَ قِ ٍمْ َم ُ ٍمْ ْوَ قِم أ ً ْوَ ٍمْ َم ُ ْو‬ sure faith in Our messages, guided people in accordance with Our ‫بأمرن اح لم اح صبراواح اوك انواح‬ ُ ‫قِ ْوَ ٍمْ قِ ْوَ ْوَ َهّ ْوَ ْوَ َم ُ ْوَ ْوَ َم‬ command ‫بيآي اتن اح يوقنون‬ َ‫قِ ْوَ قِ ْوَ َم ُ قِ َم ُ ْو‬ 71:10-12 I said: "Ask your Sustainer to forgive you your sins - ْ‫فقلت استغْفروا ربكم‬ ُ َّ ُ ِ َْ ُ ُْ َ for, verily, He is all-forgiving! He will shower upon you heavenly ‫إِنه كان غفارا يرسِل‬ ِ ْ ُ ً ّ َ َ َ ُ ّ blessings abundant, and will aid you ‫السماء عليكم مدرارا‬ ً َ ْ ّ ُ ََْ َ ّ 14:7 If you thank me I shall give َ ََِ ٍ َ ْ َِ ْ ُ ْ ِ ْ َُ ‫ويمددكم بأموال وبنين‬ you more ٍ َّ ْ ُ ّ َ ْ ََ ‫ويجعل لكم جنات‬ ‫ويجعل لكم أ َنهارا‬ 65:2-3 And unto everyone who is conscious of God, He [always] grants a way out and provides for ً َ ْ ْ ُ ّ َ ْ ََ him in a manner beyond all expectation; and for everyone who ‫لئن شكرتم ل َزيدنكم‬ ْ ُ َّ ِ ْ ُْ َ َ َِ places his trust in God He [alone] is enough. ‫ومن يتق الله يجعل‬ َ ْ َ َ ّ ِ َّ َ َ ْ‫له مخرجا ويرزقه من‬ ِ ُ ْ ُ ْ ََ ً َ ْ َ ُ ّ
  • 7. ‫تدريب: كيف يمكن أن‬‫‪Q: What can we change‬‬ ‫نتغير كمؤسسة حتى‬‫‪in the organization to‬‬‫?‪better our work‬‬ ‫نغير؟‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫:‪Example‬‬ ‫ح مث ال:‬ ‫‪8:46 Do not‬‬ ‫ح اوالح تن ازعواح فتفشلواح ‬ ‫ْوَ ْوَ ْوَ ْوَ ْوَ َم ُ ٍمْ ْوَ ْوَ ٍمْ ْوََم ُ ٍمْ‬ ‫‪dispute or else‬‬ ‫‪you fail and be‬‬ ‫اوتذهبح ريحكمح ‬ ‫ْوَ ْوَ ٍمْ ْوَ ْوَ قِ َم ُ َم ُ ٍمْ‬ ‫‪patient. God is‬‬ ‫اواصبراواح إنح اللح معح ‬ ‫ْوَ ٍمْ قِ َم ُ ٍمْ قِ َهّ َهّ ْوَ ْوَ‬ ‫‪indeed with‬‬ ‫َهّ قِ قِ ْوَ‬ ‫الص ابرين‬ ‫‪those who are‬‬ ‫‪patient‬‬
  • 8. 2. The Laws of Growth ‫ثانيا: سنن النماء‬ Good work is like ‘a ‫ح ‘كشجرةح ْوَيبةح أصله اح‬ َ‫ْوَ ْوَ ْوَ ح ٍ ط رِّ ْوَ ح ٍ ْوَ ٍمَْم ُ ْو‬ good tree’. (14:24) ‫ث ابتح اوفرعه اح ف يح‬ ِ‫ْوَ قِ و ٌ ْوَ ْوَ ٍمْ َم ُ ْوَ ق‬1. Bury the seed in the ’‫السم اء‬ َ‫َهّ ْو‬ ground (the necessity ‫.1 م اح نبتح مم اح امح يدفنح‬ of the embryonic stage) ‫الح يتمح نت اجه‬2. Water the growing plant (the law of ‫.2 قليل دائم خير‬ continuity) ‫من كثير متقطع‬3. Give it time! (law of ‫.3 سنة التدرج‬ gradual change)
  • 9. ‫تدريب: كيف يمكن أن‬‫‪How can I use the‬‬ ‫أوظف سنن النماء في‬‫?‪Laws of Growth‬‬ ‫عملي؟‬
  • 10. 3. Laws of ‫ثالثا : سنة التداول‬Cycles ‫أو الدورات‬ 18:45 AND PROPOUND ِ ََ ْ َ َّ ُ َ ْ ِ ْ َ ‫واضرب لهم مثل الحياة‬ unto them the parable of َ ِ ُ َْ َ َ َ َّْ ‫الدنيا كماء أنزَلناه من‬ the life of this world: [it is] ُ ََ ِ ِ َ ََْ َ ‫السماء فاختلط به نبات‬ َ ّ like the water which We send down from the ‫ال َرض فأصبح هشيما‬ ً ِ َ َ َْ ََ ِ ْ ْ skies, and which is ُ ّ َ َ َ ُ َّ ُ ُ ْ َ ‫تذروه الرياح وكان الله‬ absorbed by the plants of ‫على كل شيء مقتدرا‬ ً ِ َْ ّ ٍ ْ َ ّ ُ ََ the earth: but in time they turn into dry stubble which the winds blow freely about. And it is God [alone] who determines all things.
  • 11. Cycles ofhumans ‫دورة النسان‬23:12-14 Now, indeed, Wecreate a human out of the َ َ ِْ َْ ََ ْ َ ََ ‫ولقد خلقنا النسان‬essence of clay, and thenWe cause him to remain as a ّ‫من سللة من طين ثُم‬ ٍ ِ ّ ٍ َ َُ ِdrop of sperm in the wombsfirm keeping, and then We ٍ َ َ ‫جعلناه نطفة في قرار‬ ِ ً َ ْ ُ ُ ََْ َcreate out of the drop ofsperm a germ-cell, and then َ َ ْ ّ َْ ََ ّ ُ ٍ ِ ّ ‫مكين ثم خلقنا النطفة‬We create out of the germ-cell an embryonic lump, and َ َ ََ ْ َْ ََ َ ً َ ََ ‫علقة فخلقنا العلقة‬then We create within theembryonic lump bones, and َ َ ْ ُ ْ َْ ََ َ ً َ ْ ُ ‫مضغة فخلقنا المضغة‬then We clothe the boneswith flesh - and then We َ‫عظاما فكَسونا العظام‬ َ ِ ْ َْ َ َ ً َ ِbring [all] this into being as a ً َْ ُ ََْ َ ّ ُ ً ْ َ ‫لحما ثم أنشأناه خلقا‬new creation: hallowed,therefore, is God, the best of ‫آخر فتبارك الله أ َحسن‬ ُ َ ْ ُ ّ َ َ َََ َ َcreators! َ ِ ِ َ ْ ‫الخالقين‬
  • 12. Cycles of water ‫دورة الماء‬ 24:43 Are you not aware thatit is God who causes the ‫أ َلم تر أ َن الله يزجي‬ ِ ْ ُ َ ّ ّ َ َ ْ َclouds to move onward, thenjoins them together, then ّ‫سحابا ثم يؤلف بينه ثُم‬ ُ ََْ ُ َّ ُ ّ ُ ً َ َpiles them up in masses, until َ‫يجعله ركاما فترى الودق‬ ْ َ ْ َ ََ ً َ ُ ُ َُ ْ َthou can see rain come forthfrom their midst? And He it is َ‫يخرج من خلله وينزل من‬ ِ ُ ّ ََُ ِ ِ َ ِ ْ ِ ُ ُ ْ َwho sends down from the ‫السماء من جبال فيها من‬ ِ َ ِ ٍ َِ ِ َ ّskies, by degrees, ‫برد فيصيب به من يشاء‬ َ َ َ ِ ِ ُ ِ َُ ٍ َ َmountainous masses [ofclouds] charged with hail, ‫ويصرفه عن من يشاء‬ َ َ ّ َ ُ ُ ِ ْ ََstriking therewith whomever ُ َ ْ َ ِ ِ ْ َ ََ ُ َ َ ‫يكاد سنا برقه يذهب‬He wills and averting it fromwhomever He wills, [the ‫بال َْبصار‬ ِ َ ْ ِwhile] the flash of Hislightning well-nigh deprives[humans of their] sight!
  • 13. Cycles ofplanets ‫دورة الفلك‬ 9:36 BEHOLD, the number ofmonths, in the sight of God, is ِ ّ َ ِ ِ ُ ّ ‫إِن عدة الشهور عند الله‬ َ ّ ِ ّtwelve months, [laid down] in Gods ِ َِ ‫اثنا عشر شهرا في كتاب‬ ِ ً ْ َ َ َ َ َْdecree on the day when Hecreated the heavens and the earth; ‫الله يوم خلق السماوات‬ َ َ ّ َ ََ َ ْ َ ِ ّ[and] out of these, four are sacred ‫وال َرض منها أ َربعة حرم‬ ٌ ُ ُ ٌ َ َْ َ ِْ َ ْ َ36:38-40 And [they have a sign in]the sun: it runs in an orbit of its ّ َ َْ ُ ِ ِ ْ َ ُ ْ ّ َ ‫والشمس تجري لمستقر‬own that is laid down by the will of ِ ِ َ ْ ‫لها ذلك تقديرُ العزيز‬ ِ ْ َ َ َِ َ ّthe Almighty, the All-Knowing; and[in] the moon, for which We have ُ َْ ّ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ َِ ْ ‫العليم والقمرَ قدرناه‬determined phases [which it must ِ‫منازل حتى عاد كالعرجون‬ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ َ َ َّ َ ِ ََtraverse] till it becomes like an olddate-stalk, dried-up and curved: ‫القديم ل الشمس ينبغي‬ ِ َ َ ُ ْ ّ َ ِ ِ َ ْneither may the sun overtake the ََ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ ْ ُ َ َ َ ‫لها أن تدرك القمر ول‬moon, nor can the night usurp thetime of day, since all of them orbit ‫الليل سابق النهار وكل في‬ ِ ّ ُ َ ِ َ ّ ُ ِ َ ُ ّْthrough space in accordance with َ‫فلك يسبحون‬ ُ َْ َ ٍ ََOur laws.
  • 14. Cycles of ‫دورة الملك‬power ( ‫) تداول اليام‬ 3:140 If misfortune touches you, [know that] similar ْ َ َ ٌ ْ َ ْ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ‫إن يمسسكم قرح فقد‬ misfortune has touched [other] people as well; for it ُ ُّْ ٌ ْ َ َ ْ َ ْ ّ َ ‫مس القوم قرح مثله‬ is by turns that We apportion unto people such َ َْ َ ُِ َ ُ ُ ّ َ َِْ ‫وتلك اليام نداولها بين‬ days ِ ّ ‫الناس‬ 30:2-3 … 11 Defeated have been the Byzantines in the ‫غلبت الروم في أ َدنى‬ َْ ِ ُ ّ ِ َُِ lands close-by; yet it is they who, notwithstanding this ‫ال َرض وهم من بعد‬ ِ ْ َ ّ ُ َ ِ ْ ْ their defeat, shall be victorious … GOD ‫غلبهم سيغلِبون في‬ ِ َ ُ ْ ََ ْ ِ ََِ CREATES in the first instance, and then brings ‫بضع سنين لله ال َمر‬ ُ ْ ْ ِ ِّ َ ِِ ِ ْ ِ the creation forth anew ... ‫من قبل ومن بعد‬ ُ ْ َ ِ َ ُ َْ ِ ‫الله يبدأ ُ الخلق ثم‬ ّ ُ َ َْ ْ َ َْ ُ ّ
  • 15. ‫تدريب: كيف يمكن أن‬Q: What cycles do I ‫أوظف سنن الدورات في‬deal with and howcan I utilize that? ‫عملي؟‬