Perinatal Nutrition, Appetite And Food Preferences

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The food ingested by the mother during pregnancy and lactation has a major role on the appetite and food preferences in the adulthood of the newborns.

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Perinatal Nutrition, Appetite And Food Preferences

  1. 1. Perinatal Nutrigenomics Nutrition, Appetite and Personalizedand Food Preferences Nutrition Alejandra Ponce Garza Itxaso Vázquez Varona
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS Appetite:  The natural instinctive desire for food.  It should be distinguished from hunger (need for food) Food Preferences :  Prefer one food to another. Perinatal nutrition :  Nutrition that happens pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth  Starts: 20 th -28 th week of gestation  Ends: 1-4 weeks after birth. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 2 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  3. 3. BACKGROUND1.Bellinger, Leanne, and Simon C. Langley -Evans. "Fetal Programming of Appetite byExposure to Maternal Low-protein Diet in theRat." Clinical Science 109 (2005): 413-20. Print.2. Brion, M.-J. A., A. R. Ness, I. Rogers, P.Emmett, V. Cribb, G. Davey Smith, and D. A.Lawlor. "Maternal Macronutrient and EnergyIntakes in Pregnancy and Offspring Intake at 10Y: Exploring Parental Comparisons and PrenatalEffects." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition91.3 (2010): 748-56. Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 3 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  4. 4. BACKGROUND (1)Epidemiological observations of associations between early life nutrition and long-term disease risk have prompted detailed experimental investigation of the biological basis of programming.  Animal experiments  Human interventions:  Global food restriction determine a consistent  Protein restriction cluster of disorders in the resulting offspring  Micronutrient restriction  Excess fat feeding Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 4 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  5. 5. BACKGROUND (2)Maternal macronutrient (carbohydrate, fat, and protein) andenergy intakes potentially influence fetal growth andprogram future appetiteEncouraging pregnant women to engage in healthy dietarybehaviors may be of benefit to the development of the fetusand to later dietary habits of their children. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 5 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  6. 6. MECHANISMS1. Langley-Evans, Simon C., Leanne Bellinger, and Sarah McMullen. "Animal Models of Programming: Early Life Influences on Appetite and Feeding Behaviour." Maternal and Child Nutrition 1 (2005): 142-482. Vucetic, Z., J. Kimmel, K. Totoki, E. Hollenbeck, and T. M. Reyes. "Maternal High-Fat Diet Alters Methylation and Gene Expression of Dopamine and Opioid- Related Genes." Endocrinology 151.10 (2010): 4756- 764. Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 6 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  7. 7. APPETITE: MOLECULAR BASIS (1) Persistent hyperphagic state in animals exposed to:  Fetal undernutrition  Early postnatal overfeeding Non-optimal nutrition at critical phases of development may promote  1. Adaptive responses 2. Modification of the structures of key hypothalamic nuclei responsible for appetite control. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 7 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  8. 8. APPETITE: MOLECULAR BASIS (1) Exposure of the rat fetus to a low protein diet modifies vascularization of the cerebral cortex.  Bennis-Taleb et al (1999)  Offsrping of rats fed with low protein diet: Increased Rats fed low protein diets neural density in the PVN throughout gestation and and VMN, with fewer NPY lactation showed differences and CCK neurons. in whole brain volume and  Langley-Evans et al (2005) volume of the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.  Plagemann et al., (2000) Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 8 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  9. 9. APPETITE.: MOLECULAR BASIS (1) Structural adaptations  Permanently predispose the animal to increased appetite Gene microarray studies indicate that the expression of a relatively narrow profile of genes in the hypothalamus is programmed by fetal exposure to a maternal low protein diet Langley-Evans, Simon C., Leanne Bellinger, and Sarah McMullen. "Animal Models of Programming: Early Life Influences on Appetite and Feeding Behaviour." Maternal and Child Nutrition 1 (2005): 142-48 Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 9 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  10. 10. MECHANISMS AND DNA (2)Human study: n=4000  Hypothesis:  Molecules that participate in regulating consumption of palatable foods (dopamine and opioids) maybe altered in offspring from mothers fed a HF diet.  Mechanisms: Maternal consumption of HF diet would alter DNA methylation either globally or within the promoter regions of dopamine- and opioid-related genes.  The study examines the potential underlying mechanisms linking maternal consumption of HF diet to adverse offspring development. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 10 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  11. 11. MECHANISMS AND DNA (2) HF diet during pregnancy and lactation associated with altered expression:  Opioid receptor  The opiate ligand preproenkephalin,  Genes specifically linked to the intake of palatable foods. Epigenetic modification (promoter region hypomethylation) as a potential mechanism for increased long-term expression of dopamine and opioid-related genes (DAT, MOR, and PENK) Vucetic, Z., J. Kimmel, K. Totoki, E. Hollenbeck, and T. M. Reyes. "Maternal High- Fat Diet Alters Methylation and Gene Expression of Dopamine and Opioid- Related Genes." Endocrinology 151.10 (2010): 4756-764. Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 11 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  12. 12. MECHANISMS AND DNA (2) Decreased methylation of the promoter region of GH secretagogue receptor.  Effect persisting into at least the second generation suggesting the possibility that our observed epigenetic effects on dopamine and opioid gene expression may extend beyond the F1 generation. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 12 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  13. 13. SALTY1. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites andfeeding behavior. Stylianos Nicolaïdis. Metabolism Clinicaland Experimental 57 (Suppl 2) (2008) S22–S262. Crystal SR, Bernstein IL. Morning sickness: impact onoffspring salt preference. Appetite 1995;25:231-40. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 13 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  14. 14. APPETITE FOR SALTY (1,2)Sodium appetite increases in response to hypovolemic and hypoosmotic deficits.When these deficits recur, hypernatriophilia develops.Hypernatriophilia:  Hypothesis that extracellular dehydration imposed on a pregnant rat could bring about hypernatriophilia in its offspring when they reach adulthood. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 14 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  15. 15. APPETITE FOR SALTY (1,2)Hypothesis was successfully verified by  Crystal and Bernstein  cohort of 169 students: reported higher salt use were precisely the ones whose mothers had experienced vomiting during pregnancy.  Kochli and coworkers.  Curtis and associates have shown in the rat that manipulations of dietary NaCl levels during gestation and the early postnatal period lead to persistent changes both in “need-free” and stimulated NaCl intake by adult rats. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 15 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  16. 16. FLAVORS1. Trout, K. K., and L. Wetzel -Effinger. "FlavorLearning in Utero and Its Implicat ions for FutureObesity and Diabetes." Current Diabetes Reports 12.1(2012): 60+. Print.2. Mennella, J. A., C. P. Jagnow, and G. K. Beauchamp."Prenatal and Postnatal Flavor Learning by HumanInfants." Pediatrics 107.6 (2001): E883. Mannella, J. A., C. E. Griffi n, and G. K. Beauchamp."Flavor Programming During Infanc y." Pediatrics 113.4(2004): 840-45. Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 16 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  17. 17. FLAVORS (1,3)Flavors in the mother diet  Amniotic fluid.  Amniotic fluid swallowed by the fetus.  PREFERENCES.  Persisten during infancy Childhood  AdulthoodEarly exposure to different flavors can lead to increased acceptance of and preferences for these flavors in later life. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 17 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  18. 18. FLAVORS (3) Hydrolyzed protein formulas. Mannella, J. A., C. E. Griffin, and G. K. Beauchamp. "Flavor Programming During Infancy." Pediatrics 113.4 (2004): 840-45. Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 18 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  19. 19. FLAVORS (2) First experimental study that demonstrates that prenatal flavor experiences enhances the acceptances and enjoyment of similarly flavored foods during weaning. Groups: 46 women. Drank  300ml Pregnancy Lactation 1 - CW Carrot Juice Water 2 - WC Water Carrot Juice 3 - WW Water Water Babies: CW  weaning period  enjoyment of carrot-flavored cereal. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 19 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  20. 20. JUNK FOOD1. Bayol, Stéphanie A., Samantha J. Farrington, andNeil C. Stickland. "A Maternal ‘junk Food’ Diet inPregnancy and Lactation Promotes an ExacerbatedTaste for ‘junk Food’ and a Greater Propensity forObesity in Rat Offspring." British Journal of Nutrition98.04 (2007). Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 20 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  21. 21. JUNK FOOD (1)Bayol, Stéphanie A., Samantha J. Farrington, and Neil C. Stickland. "A Maternal ‘junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancyand Lactation Promotes an Exacerbated Taste for ‘junk Food’ and a Greater Propensity for Obesity in RatOffspring." British Journal of Nutrition 98.04 (2007). Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 21 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  22. 22.  A maternal junk food diet before weaning promotes an exacerbated preference for junk food and leads to a greater propensity for obesity in the offspring.  Palatability  Protection against hyperphagia when mother was fed –at some point- with a control diet. JUNK JJJ FOOD CCJ (1) JCJ CCC JJC JCCBayol, Stéphanie A., Samantha J. Farrington, and Neil C. Stickland. "A Maternal ‘junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancy and LactationPromotes an Exacerbated Taste for ‘junk Food’ and a Greater Propensity for Obesity in Rat Offspring." British Journal ofNutrition 98.04 (2007). Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 22 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  23. 23. JUNK FOOD (1)Palatability  Major role in appetite regulation.  Inhibit the satiety signal while promoting hunger and stimulating the reward centres. Bayol, Stéphanie A., Samantha J. Farrington, and Neil C. Stickland. "A Maternal ‘junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Promotes an Exacerbated Taste for ‘junk Food’ and a Greater Propensity for Obesity in Rat Offspring." British Journal of Nutrition 98.04 (2007). Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 23 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  24. 24. JUNK FOOD (1) Lactation: important period for the programming of an exacerbated intake of junk food.  Key role in influencing long-term appetite.  Milk intake and composition might be key regulators of the development and maturation of the central Bayol, Stéphanie A., Samantha J. Farrington, and Neil C. Stickland. "A Maternal ‘junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Promotes an and peripheral control of Exacerbated Taste for ‘junk Food’ and a Greater Propensity for Obesity in appetite. Rat Offspring." British Journal of Nutrition 98.04 (2007). Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 24 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  25. 25. PALATABILITY1. Langley-Evans , Simon C., Leanne Bellinger, and Sarah McMullen . "Animal Models of Programming: Early Life Influences on Appetite and Feeding Behaviour." Maternal and Child Nutrition 1 (2005): 142-482. Vucetic , Z., J. Kimmel, K. Totoki, E. Hollenbeck, and T. M. Reyes. "Maternal High -Fat Diet Alters Methylation and Gene Expression of Dopamine and Opioid-Related Genes." Endocrinology 151.10 (2010): 4756-764. Print3. Teegarden , S.l., A.n. Scott, and T.l. Bale. "Early Life Exposure to a High Fat Diet Promotes Long -ter m Changes in Dietary Preferences and Central Reward Signaling." Neuroscience 162.4 (2009): 924-32. Print Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 25 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  26. 26. HIGH-FAT FOOD (1) First evidence of perturbation of the nutritional environment in utero:  12 week old female offspring of rats fed with low-protein diet during gestation and lactation preferred a high-fat diet over a high-protein or a high-carbohydrate diet. Langley-Evans, Simon C., Leanne Bellinger, and Sarah McMullen. "Animal Models of Programming: Early Life Influences on Appetite and Feeding Behaviour." Maternal and Child Nutrition 1 (2005): 142-48 Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 26 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  27. 27. HIGH-FAT AND HIGH- CARBOHYDRATE FOOD (2) Effect of HF diet and/or maternal obesity on hypothalamic neuropeptides that affect food intake  Increased expression of NPY, AgRP, NPY Y1 receptor, and MC4Rand, more consistently, an increase in POMC.  Increase neurogenesis, specifically neurons that express galanin, enkephalin, dynorphin, orexin, and MCH  Differential expression of dopamine- related genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).  Little examination of circuitry outside the hypothalamus Animal studies have shown that maternal consumption of a palatable diet can increase the preference for fat and sugar in the offspring Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 27 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  28. 28. HIGH-FAT AND HIGH- CARBOHYDRATE FOOD (3) Examination of the effects of early life exposure to a high fat diet on adult macronutrient preferences in mice: Mice were exposed to a high fat diet for one week, from postnatal days 21-28:  The time during which they begin to consume solid food and are no longer dependent on the dam for nutrition  Hypothalamic development is complete, In a 10-day macronutrient choice preference test, high fat diet early - exposed mice showed  A significantl y greater preferenc e for a high fat diet as adults  No differenc es in total daily caloric intake or weight gain during the macronutrient choice preference period Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 28 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  29. 29. HIGH-FAT AND HIGH- CARBOHYDRATE FOOD (3)Possible mechanisms:  Reduced dopamine signal transmission in the ventral striatum in these mice may result in an increased preference for the high fat diet in an attempt to normalize dopamine levels.  Exposure to a palatable, high fat diet during early life may lead to long-term reprogramming of the reward system,  Risk for maladaptive eating habits  Risk for disorders of the reward system. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 29 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  30. 30. CONTRADICTION1. Bellinger, Leanne, and Simon C. Langley -Evans. "Fetal Programming of Appetite byExposure to Maternal Low -protein Diet in theRat." Clinical Science 109 (2005): 413-20.Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 30 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  31. 31. LOW-PROTEIN  HIGH-FAT FOOD (1) Low protein diets:  LP-Early: 0-7 day of gestation  LP-Medium: 8-14 day gestation  LP-Late: 15-22 day of gestation At 4 weeks of age: offspring were weaned on to standard chow diet. At 12 weeks of age, two male and two female offspring from each litter were self-selection diet protocol to assess appetite and food preferences. Bellinger, Leanne, and Simon C. Langley-Evans. "Fetal Programming of Appetite by Exposure to Maternal Low-protein Diet in the Rat." Clinical Science 109 (2005): 413-20. Print. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 31 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition
  32. 32. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Guidelines for nutrition during pregnancy and lactation  Flavors. Infant formulas  Flavors Investigate more about mechanisms. Itxaso Vázquez Varona * Alejandra Ponce Garza 32 MSc. Nutrigenomics and Personalized Nutrition

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