Stakeholder perception of impact of tourism on health and biodiversity in Costa Rica.

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Stakeholder perception of impact of tourism on health and biodiversity in Costa Rica. Thesis presentation

Stakeholder perception of impact of tourism on health and biodiversity in Costa Rica. Thesis presentation

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  • 1. Stakeholder perception of impact of tourism onhealth and biodiversity in Costa Rica. Felipe Mejía Medina Academic Supervisor: Valérie R. Louis, PhD RUPRECHT-KARLS UNIVERSITÄT HEIDELBERG Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health Master of Science in International Health
  • 2. is this what you think when you think of TOURISM?
  • 3. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 4. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 5. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 6. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 7. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 8. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 9. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 10. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 11. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 12. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 13. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 14. Maybe, this is what you do not think when you think of TOURISM.
  • 15. Costa Rica
  • 16. Costa Rica
  • 17. Costa Rica
  • 18. Costa Rica
  • 19. Costa Rica
  • 20. Travel is a Public Health issue.
  • 21. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.
  • 22. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.Costa Rica is a developing country.
  • 23. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.Costa Rica is a developing country.Costa Rica is positioned as one of the leading eco-touristicdestinations.
  • 24. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.Costa Rica is a developing country.Costa Rica is positioned as one of the leading eco-touristicdestinations.The number of tourists since 1999 has increased by 92%.
  • 25. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.Costa Rica is a developing country.Costa Rica is positioned as one of the leading eco-touristicdestinations.The number of tourists since 1999 has increased by 92%.22% of the working population belong to the tourismindustry.
  • 26. Travel is a Public Health issue.Tourism is one of the most important world’s economicactivities especially for developing countries.Costa Rica is a developing country.Costa Rica is positioned as one of the leading eco-touristicdestinations.The number of tourists since 1999 has increased by 92%.22% of the working population belong to the tourismindustry.There is no further analysis about the impact on health andits relations to biodiversity and water, energy, waste andinfrastructure utilization.
  • 27. •To identify common tendencies in stakeholders’ perceptionsabout the touristic industry impacts.
  • 28. •To identify common tendencies in stakeholders’ perceptionsabout the touristic industry impacts.•To identify specific tendencies in stakeholders’ perceptionsabout touristic industry impacts.
  • 29. •To identify common tendencies in stakeholders’ perceptionsabout the touristic industry impacts.•To identify specific tendencies in stakeholders’ perceptionsabout touristic industry impacts.•To assess the relevance on the stakeholders’ perceptions ofthe certification in sustainable tourism.
  • 30. Closed In-depth Unstructured Stakeholder Number* Number* Number* questionnaire Interview interviews People in Poas Yes - P 91 No 0 Yes 5 VolcanoPeople In Alajuela Yes - P 36 No 0 No 0 People in Hotels Yes - P 16 Yes - P 4 No 0 People in Tour Yes - P 25 Yes - P 4 No 0 operators Related people Yes 10 No 0 Yes 10 Total 178 -- 8 -- 15Yes-P, includes a pilot testing. * Does not include the pilot testing.Related, refers to shops, communication companies, travel agencies, NGOs and associations.
  • 31. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism asa positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals.
  • 32. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism asa positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals.Locals perceived tourism as a convenient and positiveactivity with no truly important negative impacts.
  • 33. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism asa positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals.Locals perceived tourism as a convenient and positiveactivity with no truly important negative impacts.Healthy or ecologically conscious behaviors are alsoperceived as an influence on the locals.
  • 34. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism as a positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals. Locals perceived tourism as a convenient and positive activity with no truly important negative impacts. Healthy or ecologically conscious behaviors are also perceived as an influence on the locals.The concept of health impact may be misunderstood because the word healthis related to health system and hospitals. It was often associated with theconcept of medical tourism.
  • 35. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism as a positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals. Locals perceived tourism as a convenient and positive activity with no truly important negative impacts. Healthy or ecologically conscious behaviors are also perceived as an influence on the locals.The concept of health impact may be misunderstood because the word healthis related to health system and hospitals. It was often associated with theconcept of medical tourism.Influence on local’s behavior seems to be neglected or misunderstood.
  • 36. Group of tourists did not always perceive tourism as a positive activity, neither for tourists nor for locals. Locals perceived tourism as a convenient and positive activity with no truly important negative impacts. Healthy or ecologically conscious behaviors are also perceived as an influence on the locals.The concept of health impact may be misunderstood because the word healthis related to health system and hospitals. It was often associated with theconcept of medical tourism.Influence on local’s behavior seems to be neglected or misunderstood.Bias about sexual tourism in relation to sexual behavior was identified. Ingeneral, people related topics such as “sexual transmitted diseases”, “unwantedpregnancies” or “use of condom” with sex tourism.
  • 37. The perception of the negative impact is not always thesame for all stakeholders, especially regarding a new topicsuch as health impact.
  • 38. The perception of the negative impact is not always thesame for all stakeholders, especially regarding a new topicsuch as health impact.There is confusion among the groups about the healthconsequences on the locals because of the presence oftourists in the region.
  • 39. The perception of the negative impact is not always the same for all stakeholders, especially regarding a new topic such as health impact. There is confusion among the groups about the health consequences on the locals because of the presence of tourists in the region.Health impact do not seem to be an issue to thestakeholders, maybe because of the lack of properinformation.
  • 40. The perception of the negative impact is not always the same for all stakeholders, especially regarding a new topic such as health impact. There is confusion among the groups about the health consequences on the locals because of the presence of tourists in the region. Health impact do not seem to be an issue to the stakeholders, maybe because of the lack of proper information.There are no major concerns about negative health impacts or impacts notrelated to ecological consciousness.
  • 41. The perception of the negative impact is not always the same for all stakeholders, especially regarding a new topic such as health impact. There is confusion among the groups about the health consequences on the locals because of the presence of tourists in the region. Health impact do not seem to be an issue to the stakeholders, maybe because of the lack of proper information.There are no major concerns about negative health impacts or impacts notrelated to ecological consciousness.There may be an increase in the risk of any touristic activity or action boosted bythe tourism, if there is the perception that negative impacts are unlikely.
  • 42. I Indicator CR Chile USA Year Source1 Population under 15 years (%) 26 23 36 2008 WHO2 Population 16-49 years (%) 27 31 20 2008 WHO3 Physician density (per 10 000 population) 13 11 27 2009 WHO4 Nurse and midwifes density (per 10 000 population) 9 6 98 2009 WHO5 Life expectancy at birth both sexes (years) 78 78 78 2008 WHO6 Total expenditure on health as % of 8.1 6.2 15.7 2007 WHO7 Malaria Number of reported cases 732 -- -- 2008 WHO8 HIV Prevalence among adults aged 15–49 years (%) 0,4 0.3 0.6 2009 WHO9 Mortality diarrhea Number of reported cases 45 -- -- 2008 MOH10 Mortality Respiratory diseases. (per 1000 population) 0,3 -- -- 2009 MOH11 Dengue Number of reported cases 8277 25 -- 2007 PAHO12 Yellow fever Number of reported cases 0 0 -- 2008 WHO Alcohol consumption among adults aged ≥15 years13 4.2 6.8 5.2 2005 WHO (litres of pure alcohol per person per year) Prevalence of smoking any tobacco product among 25.7/ 42.0/ 23.8/14 2006 WHO adults aged ≥15 years (%) male/female 7.3 33.8 4.015 Population with improved drinking-water sources (%) 97 96 99 2008 WHO16 Population using improved sanitation (%) 95 96 100 2008 WHO
  • 43. Selection of method according to the stakeholder. Closed In-depth Informal Stakeholder Number* Number* Number* questionnaire Interview conversationPeople in Poas Volcano Yes - P 91 No 0 Yes 5 People In Alajuela Yes - P 36 No 0 No 0 People in Hotels Yes - P 16 Yes - P 4 No 0People in Tour operators Yes - P 25 Yes - P 4 No 0 Related people Yes 10 No 0 Yes 10 Total 178 -- 8 -- 15 Yes-P, includes a pilot testing. * Does not include the pilot testing. Related, refers to shops, communication companies, travel agencies, NGOs and associations.
  • 44. Sample of calculation for question 7 Question Q7 Group G1 G2 G3 Frecuency 54 64 54 Standard deviation 0.910 1.005 1.022 Individual mean 3.037 2.578 2.556 Total mean 2.715 Coeficiente variación 30.0% 39.0% 40.0% F 4.240 F crítico 3.049 Probability 0.016 ANOVA - SchefféScheffé (when Groups F Probability it requires) Test G1-G2 -0.458912 0.043 G1-G3 -0.481481 0.041 G2-G3 -0.022569 0.992
  • 45. ANOVA results for all questions without demographics, Q17 and Q19. F SchefféQuestion F P value Scheffé Test Question F F critic P value critic Test 1 0.009 3.049 0.991 No 22 6.942 3.049 <0.001 Scheffé 2 1.076 3.049 0.343 No 23 2.031 3.049 0.134 No 3 0.716 3.050 0.490 No 24 0.236 3.049 0.790 No 4 0.551 3.049 0.578 No 25 1.251 3.049 0.289 No 5 0.560 3.050 0.572 No 26 0.203 3.049 0.817 No 6 1.262 3.049 0.286 No 27 0.027 3.050 0.973 No 7 4.240 3.049 0.016 Scheffé 28 0.394 3.049 0.675 No 8 10.807 3.050 <0.001 Scheffé 29 2.161 3.049 0.118 No 9 3.408 3.049 0.035 Scheffé 30 2.876 3.049 0.059 No 10 2.826 3.049 0.062 No 31 2.443 3.050 0.090 No 11 1.654 3.049 0.194 No 32 5.739 3.050 0.004 Scheffé 12 4.273 3.049 0.015 Scheffé 33 2.880 3.049 0.059 No 13 9.901 3.049 <0.001 Scheffé 34 2.371 3.049 0.097 No 14 5.449 3.049 0.005 Scheffé 35 2.209 3.049 0.113 No 15 0.249 3.049 0.780 No 36 3.465 3.049 0.034 Scheffé 16 4.443 3.049 0.013 Scheffé 37 1.730 3.050 0.180 No 18 4.322 3.051 0.015 Scheffé 38 6.304 3.050 0.002 Scheffé 20 14.665 3.049 <0.001 Scheffé 39 4.114 3.049 0.018 Scheffé 21 9.841 3.049 <0.001 Scheffé 40 0.430 3.049 0.652 No