Globalization - PPT (By alent1998 )


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Globalization - PPT (By alent1998 )

  1. 1. Globalization is arguably the most important factor currently shaping the world economy. Although it is not a new phenomenon (waves of globalization can be traced back to the 1800s) the changes it is bringing about now occur far more rapidly, spread more widely and have a much greater business, economic and social impact than ever before.
  3. 3. Some special features of globalization in present days  Growing interdependence of all processes  Establishing of a global financial-economic area  Information technologies - WWW  Change in the state’s functions – vanishing of the national boarders  Universality of the world – dissemination of the democratic system and socio – cultural values
  4. 4. SUB. Trade Migration Telecommunications Nature Flows of physical goods Flows of people Flows of information Types Raw materials, energy, food, parts and consumption goods Permanent, temporary (migrant workers), tourism, business transactions Communication, power exchanges, symbolic exchanges Medium Transport modes and terminals (freight) Transport modes and terminals (passengers) Transport modes and terminals (postal), telecommunication systems Network Hub and spoke with interconnections Hub and spoke Redundant and diffuse (point to point) Main Gateways Ports Airports Global cities Speed Low to average Slow to fast Instantaneous Capacity Very large Large Almost unlimited
  5. 5. There are three main types of flows in a global economy: Concerns flows taking place to satisfy material demands ranging from raw materials to finished goods. This is mainly assumed by maritime shipping, which is supported by port infrastructures acting as the main gateways of this flow system, but airports play an important role in the trade of high value goods. The flows of people taking place for a variety of reasons, most of them related to tourism with air transportation being the dominant mode supporting such flows. The global air transport system can handle about four million passengers per day  Freight (trade).  Passengers (migration).
  6. 6. The complex and extensive flows of information used for communication, power exchanges (e.g. an online order) and symbolic exchanges (e.g. education). Information flows can both take a physical (e.g. parcels) and non-physical form, which are dominantly articulated by a network of global cities.  Information (telecommunications).
  7. 7. Today, it seems that globalization is an irresistible process. Some people believe that globalization has brought some positive side in our life such as free trade and environmental protection. However, others argue that the process of globalization has negative effects in terms of culture and economy. Who is right or wrong? In this, I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of globalization relating to cultural globalization, economical globalization and political globalization.
  8. 8. Impact on Culture/Community • Positive effects • Increased cultural exposure and understanding • Closer cross- border ties  Negative effects  More mobility disrupts social life, particularly in remote or rural communities  Disintegration of local communities  Cultural homogenization and monoculture / reduced cultural diversity
  9. 9. Impact on the Environment  Positive effects  More efficient use of resources  Increased demand for and transfer of more efficient technologies  Increased incomes lead to greater concern for environmental protection  Increased consumption  Advertising creates artificial needs  Greater use of fossil fuels (increased travel)  Increased surplus and scarcity  Increased degradation from unregulated businesses  More factories require more infrastructure
  10. 10. Impact on the Government  Positive effects  Increased economic development  Expanded infrastructure  Transfer of modern management techniques  Greater interdependence among business partners o Negative effects  MNC power increased  MNCs externalize cost to countries  Competition results in too many concessions  MNCs influence local policies  Companies incorporate in low tax countries  Pressure to reduce social benefits
  11. 11. • Positive effects • Increased job opportunities • Upgraded education system • Increased training  Negative effects  Job displacement  Loss of industries or economic groups  Lowered labor standards  Downward wage pressure  Decreased union power  Diminished social contract
  12. 12.  Consumers also profit from globalization. Products become cheaper and you can get new goods more quickly.  Globalization lets countries do what they can do best. If, for example, you buy cheap steel from another country you don’t have to make your own steel. You can focus on computers or other things.  Globalization gives you a larger market. You can sell more goods and make more money. You cancreate more jobs.
  13. 13.  Globalization causes unemployment in industrialized countries because firms move their factories to places where they can get cheaper workers.  Globalization may lead to more environmental problems. A company may want to build factories in other countries because environmental laws are not as strict as they are at home. Poor countries in the Third World may have to cut down more trees so that they can sell wood to richer countries.
  14. 14.  Globalization can lead to financial problems . In the 1970s and 80s countries like Mexico, Thailand, Indonesia or Brazil got a lot of money from investors who hoped they could build up new businesses there. These new companies often didn’t work, so they had to close down and investors pulled out their money.  Some of the poorest countries in the world, especially in Africa, may get even poorer. Their population is not as educated as in developed countries and they don’t have the new technology that we do.  Human, animal and plant diseases can spread more quickly through globalization.
  15. 15. 1. Alent Cheria Varghese ----} LEADER 2. Edwin Alias 3. Eldhose Cherian Babu 4. Deepthi Saji 5. Sandra Susan 6. Alisha Maria Shaji 7. Mintu Susan 8. Stella Kuriakose