Uvod u morfosintaksu, lecture 11, 12 13

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Uvod u morfosintaksu, lecture 11, 12 13

  1. 1. Conditional clausesIn general, conditional clauses convey a DIRECT CONDITION – the situation in the matrix (main) clause is directly related to the situation in the subordinate clause, i.e. it is directly contingent on the situation in the subordinate clause (direktno ovisi o situaciji u zavisnoj klauzi):  SUBORDINATE CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE(1) If you put the baby down, she’ll scream.
  2. 2. Subordinators (zavisni veznici) forconditional clausesThe most common subordinators for conditional clauses are: if, unless. They are also used with nonfinite and verbless clauses.(2) Marion wants me to type the letter if possible.(3) If not, I can discuss the matter with you now.(4) Unless the strike has been called off, there will be no trains tomorrow.(5) Unless otherwise instructed, you should leave by the back exit.
  3. 3. Subordinators for conditionalclauses Other conditional subordinators are restricted to finite clauses: given (that), granted (that) <formal written style, particularly in argumentation>, on condition (that), in case (that), provided (that), providing (that), supposing (that), assuming (that), just so (that) <informal>, as long as, so long as: (6) Given that x = y, then n(x + a) = n(y +a) must also be true. <in formal argumentation> (7) CompuServe offers anyone a free month’s trial, on condition that they provide credit card or bank account details. (8) In case you want me, I’ll be in my office till lunchtime. (9) You may leave the apartment at any time, provided that you give a month’s notice or pay an additional month’s rent. (10) Assuming that the movie starts at eight, shouldn’t we be leaving now? (11) He doesn’t mind inconveniencing others just so he’s comfortable. <informal> (12) So long as you are very careful, you may drive the car.
  4. 4. Subordinators for conditionalclauses Nonfinite and verbless clauses with with or without as subordinator may express a conditional relationship: (13) Without me to supplement your income, you wouldn’t be able to manage. (14) With them on our side, we are secure. Unless introduces a negative condition. The unless-clause is roughly equivalent to a negative if-clause. With unless there is a greater focus on the condition as an exception (‘only if … not’). There are therefore contexts in which the unless-clause cannot occur: (15) I’ll feel much happier, if he doesn’t come with us/*unless he comes with us. (16) If you hadn’t studied hard, you would have failed the exam. (17) *Unless you had studied hard, you would have failed the exam.
  5. 5. Conditional clauses expressing anindirect condition Some conditional clauses express an INDIRECT CONDITION, in that the condition is not related to the situation in the matrix clause: (18) His style is florid, if that’s the right word. (19) If you remember your history lessons, the war was started by the other side. (20) If you are going my way, I need a lift. (21) She’s far too considerate, if I may say so. In uttering (21), the speaker does not intend the truth of the assertion ‘She’s far too considerate’ to be dependent on obtaining permission from the hearer. Rather, the condition is dependent on the implicit speech act of the utterance: ‘I’m telling you, if I may, that she’s far too considerate.’ In conventional politeness, the speaker is making the utterance of the assertion dependent on obtaining permission from the hearer, though the fulfillment of that condition is taken for granted.
  6. 6. Types of conditional clausesType 0: cause and effectType 1: open conditionType 2, 3: tentative, hypothetical, unreal condition
  7. 7. Type 0(22) Oil floats if you put it on water.(23) If he says “yes”, he means “yes”.(24) If you work in the kitchen, you have to wear an apron and a cap.These sentences are statements of universal truth or general validity.In this type of conditional clauses, if corresponds closely in meaning to when(ever).The tenses in both the conditional and the main clause are the same.
  8. 8. Type 1: open conditionOpen conditions are neutral: they leave unresolved the question of the fulfillment or non fulfillment of the condition, and hence also the truth of the proposition expressed by the matrix clause:(25) If Colin is in London, he is undoubtedly staying at the Hilton.(26) If we catch the 10 o’clock train, we will (can, may, etc.) get there by lunch time.(27) If you wake up before me, give me a call.Sentence (25) leaves unresolved whether Colin is in London, and hence it leaves unresolved whether he is staying at the Hilton.In the if-clause we use the simple present tense, and in the main clause a modal verb + present infinitive (most frequently will), present progressive, or imperative.
  9. 9. Type 1: variations(28) If you should change your mind, just give me a call. OR Should you change your mind, just give me a call.Should in the conditional clause has the effect of making it seem less likely that the condition will be fulfilled. We can substitute by any chance for should:(29) If by any chance you change your mind, …
  10. 10. Type 1: variations(30) If you will teach me French, I’ll teach you English.(31) We’ll finish the work quickly if you will give us a hand.Will in the conditional clause introduces the idea of ‘your’ agreeing, or being willing, to do what is suggested.
  11. 11. Type 1: alternative formsThe imperative may be equivalent to an if-clause:(32) Set your alarm clock, and you won’t oversleep. = If you set your alarm clock, you won’t oversleep.(33) Set your alarm clock, or (else) you’ll oversleep. = If you don’t set your alarm clock, you’ll oversleep.
  12. 12. Type 2: tentative, hypothetical,unreal condition(34) If we took a taxi, we would/could/might catch the train.(35) If I came into a fortune, I would give up working.(36) If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do.In the above sentences, the conditional clauses express what is possible (34), what is hypothetical/imaginary (35), or what is contrary to present fact (36). The verb form in the conditional clause expresses the attitude of the speaker towards the condition; it does not express time.In the if-clause we use the simple past tense, in the main clause a modal verb + present infinitive, most
  13. 13. Type 2: tentative, hypothetical,unreal conditionIn sentence (34) the speaker either regards catching a taxi as improbable, or he wishes to put forward in a more tentative or polite way the suggestion of catching it. It does not necessarily follow that the condition is in fact unlikely to be fulfilled.Sentence (35) is much more hypothetical: it is a form of day-dreaming.Sentence (36) expresses a totally unreal situation with reference to the time of speaking: it implies that I don’t, in fact, know how it works, so I can’t tell you what to do.
  14. 14. Type 2: tentative, hypothetical,unreal conditionA hypothetical condition in this type of conditional clause conveys the speaker’s belief that the condition will not be fulfilled, (for future condition) or is not fulfilled (for present condition:(37) If he changed his options, he’d be a more likeable person. = “He very probably won’t change his options.”(38) They would be here with us if they had the time. = “They presumably don’t have the time.”
  15. 15. Type 2: variationsWas to or were to followed by the present infinitive expresses future hypothetical condition in more formal contexts:(39) If it was/were to rain, the ropes would snap. They’re far too tight.Should + present infinitive also expresses future hypothetical condition in more formal contexts:(40) If a serious crisis should arise, the public would have to be informed of its full implication.Both was/were to and should in an if-clause have overtones of tentativeness.
  16. 16. Type 2: variations(41) If you would reserve seats, we would be sure of a comfortable journey.Would in the if-clause expresses a more tentative or polite form of will as used in the conditional clause of Type 1. It introduces the idea of your agreeing, or being willing, to do what is suggested.
  17. 17. Type 3: hypothetical, unrealcondition(42) If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.A hypothetical condition conveys the speaker’s belief that the condition was not fulfilled (for past conditions). The past perfect tense is used to indicate past unreality = “You didn’t listen to me, and that’s why you made so many mistakes”In the if-clause we use the past perfect tense, in the main clause a modal verb (most frequently would) + perfect infinitive.
  18. 18. Some other ways of expressinga present or past hypotheticalsituation, or a wish/suggestion(43) I wish (that) I were in Italy now. (=“I am not in Italy now”)(44) I wish (that) you had told me the truth. (=“You didn’t tell me the truth”)(45) If only I were rich! (=“I am not rich”)(46) I’d rather they went there themselves. (=“I would like them to go there themselves”)(47) It’s time we told him the truth.(48) It’s about time we left.(49) It’s high time we were leaving.
  19. 19. Would in expressing a wish(50) I wish you would stop smoking.(51) I wish it would stop raining.(52) If only it would stop raining.
  20. 20. InversionConditional clause may have subject-operator inversion without a subordinator if the operator is were, should and had:(53) Were she in charge, she would do things differently.(54) Should you change your mind, no one would blame you.(55) Had I known, I would have written before.
  21. 21. Rhetorical conditional clausesRhetorical conditional clauses give the appearance of expressing an open condition, but they actually make a strong assertion (like rhetorical questions).Two types:(I) if the proposition in the main clause is absurd, the proposition in the conditional clause is shown to be false:(56) If they’re Irish, I’m the Pope. (“Since I’m obviously not the Pope, they’re certainly not Irish”)
  22. 22. Rhetorical conditional clauses(II) if the proposition in the conditional clause is true, the proposition in the main clause is shown to be true. The if-clause is in final position:(57) He’s ninety if he’s a day. (“If you’ll agree that he’s at least a day old, perhaps you’ll take my word that he’s ninety”)
  23. 23. Direct and indirect speech Direct speech gives the exact words that someone utters or has uttered in speech or writing. Indirect speech conveys a report of what has been said or written, but does so in the words of a subsequent reporter: (1) David said to me after the meeting: “In my opinion, the arguments in favour of radical changes in the curriculum are not convincing.” (1a) David said to me after the meeting that in his opinion the arguments in favour of radical changes in the curriculum were not convincing. (1b) David told me after the meeting that he remained opposed to any major changes in the curriculum.
  24. 24. Direct and indirect speechThe report may be a representation of mental activity, which by its nature is unspoken:(2) “Should I tell them now,” I thought to myself, “or should I wait until they’re in a better mood?”(2a) He asked himself whether he should tell them then or wait until they were in a better mood.
  25. 25. Backshift in indirect speechSeveral changes are usually made in converting direct speech to indirect speech.If the time of reporting is expressed as later than the time of the utterance, there is generally a change of verb forms. This change is termed BACKSHIFT, and the resulting relationship of verb forms in the reporting and reported clauses is known as the SEQUENCE OF TENSES.
  26. 26. Backshift in indirect speech DIRECT SPEECH BACKSHIFTED IN INDIRECT SPEECHPresent PastPast Past or past perfectPresent perfect Past perfectPast perfect Past perfect
  27. 27. Backshift in indirect speech (3) “I am being paid by the hour,” she said. (3a) She said she was being paid by the hour. (4) “The exhibition finished last week,” explained Ann. (4a) Ann explained that the exhibition finished/had finished the preceding week. (5) “I’ve been waiting over an hour for you”, she told him. (5a) She told him that she had been waiting over an hour for him. (6) “I had studied French for four years at school before I abandoned the subject,” I said. (6a) I said that I had studied French for four years at school before I abandoned the subject.
  28. 28. Backshift in indirect speechBackshift is optional when the time-reference of the original utterance is valid at the time of reporting:(7) Their teacher had told them that the earth moves around the sun.(8) Sam told me last night that he is now an American citizen.(9) They thought that prison conditions have improved.(10) I didn’t know that our meeting is next Tuesday.(11) She said that they are being discriminated against.(12) The waiter told me that lunch is now being served.
  29. 29. Backshift in indirect speechThe reporting verb may be in the present tense for communications in recent past time:(13) She says she was too busy to join us last night.The present tense is also used for report attributed to famous works or authors which have present validity:(14) Chaucer somewhere writes that love is blind.Verbs of cognition may also be used in the reporting clause in the present tense:(15) I know they don’t care.
  30. 30. Other changes in indirectspeechThe reference to persons in indirect speech must be appropriate to the situation at the time reporting. There may therefore be changes in pronouns or nouns:(16) “I’ll behave myself,” he promised.(16a) He promised that he’d behave himself.
  31. 31. Other changes in indirectspeechOther changes may be necessary to adjust the references to time or place:yesterday → last Monday; the previous day, the day beforenow → thenhere → theretomorrow → the next daytoday → that dayago → beforethese → thosethis → that
  32. 32. Indirect statements, questions,exclamations, directivesINDIRECT STATEMENT: subordinate that-clauseINDIRECT QUESTION: subordinate wh-clause or if/whether-clauseINDIRECT EXCLAMATION: subordinate wh-clauseINDIRECT DIRECTIVE: subordinate that-clause or to-infinitive clause
  33. 33. Indirect statements, questions,exclamations, directives(17) “Are you ready yet?” asked John.(17a) John asked (me) whether I was ready yet.(18) “When will the plane leave?” I wondered.(18a) I wondered when the plane would leave.(19) “What a brave boy you are!” Margaret told him.(19a) Margaret told him what a brave boy he was.(20) “Tidy up the room at once,” I said to Tom.(20a) I insisted that Tom tidy up/should tidy up the room at once.(20b) I told Tom to tidy up the room.
  34. 34. Conditionals in indirect speech Type 1 conditional clause becomes Type 2 in indirect speech: (21) “If we take a taxi, we’ll catch the 10 o’clock train,” Ann said. (21a) Ann said that if we took a taxi we would catch the 10 o’clock train. Type 2 conditional clause remains the same in indirect speech: (22) “They would be here with us if they had the time,” my mother said. (22a) My mother said that they would be here/there with us if they had the time. Type 3 conditional clause remains the same in indirect speech : (23) “If I had seen you, I would have said hello,” my friend said. (23a) My friend assured me that if she had seen me she would have said hello.

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