Pitanje 1(a) I gave them his address.(b) I regret giving them his address.Traditional definition of preterite: a tense expressing past action or state.In (a) and (b) the underlined verbs are alike in the time of the associated event, which is located in the past, but not in the form of the verb. Both verbs therefore satisfy the definition of preterite tense, but while gave is certainly a preterite form, giving is not. The notional definition includes giving from (b), but past time reference which is included in the definition is not sufficient for a word to be a preterite verb form, we need additional information to be included in the definition in order for it to be satisfactory.
Pitanje 2 Before the Fire, there had been a plague, the like of which had not been known before and has not been seen since. Cure that cold with a drink of hot lemon before you go to bed. Before = preposition because it has a NP as its complement and forms a PP together with it Like = noun because it is determined by the central determiner the and has a postmodifier in the form of PP (of which) Before = adverb, it modifies the verb in terms of identifying the time of the state expressed by the verb And = conjunction (coordinator), it connects 2 independent clauses Since = adverb, it modifies the verb in terms of identifying the time of the state expressed by the verb Cure = verb, it stands in the initial position of the clause, which is occupied by the verb in the imperative mood. The imperative is characterized by the lack of the overt subject in the clause. It is a transitive verb followed by a NP functioning as an direct object That = central determiner, it is followed by a noun With = preposition, it has a NP as its complement, together they form a PP Before = conjunction (subordinator), it introduces a subordinate clause
Pitanje 3Most of you answered this question more or less correctly.Distinction between function and form – functional labels vs. category labels on a tree diagram. See the illustration on the white board (in your norebooks)
Pitanje 4his masters voice = determiner (his relates to master)the ladies room = modifier (the relates to room, ladies’ modifies room)his masters degree = modifier (his relates to degree, master’s modifies degree)the ladies hats = determiner (the relates to ladies)
Pitanje 5See the explanation on the white board (your notebooks)
Pitanje 6(a) The verb is one of the elements in clause structure (like the subject or object); (b) a verb is a member of a word class (like a noun or an adjective)These two senses are related in the following way: a VP consists of one or more verbs as members of a word class; the VP operates (functions) as the verb as one of the elements of clause structure.
Pitanje 7 Operator is the first or only auxiliary in a finite VP When we negate a sentence, negator not comes immediately after the operator When we make an interrogative sentence, there is a subject-operator inversion The operator can carry nuclear stress to mark a finite clause as positive rather than negative: Won’t you try again? –Yes, I WILL try again. The operator functions in a range of elliptical clauses where the rest of the predicate is omitted: Won’t you try again? –Yes, I will. The main verb be and the main verb have are also operators when they are the only verb in the verb phrase. On the other hand, only the aux. do is an operator, not the main verb do. See examples on the white board (your notebooks)
Pitanje 8They are followed by the bare infinitive: You will ask the question.(b) They cannot occur in nonfinite functions, i.e. as infinitives or participles: may - *to may, *maying, *mayed.(c) They have no –s form for the third person singular of the present tense: She must write.(d) Their past forms may be used to refer to present and future time: I think they may/might be outside.Will/Would you phone him tomorrow?
Pitanje 9See the explanation on the white board (your notebook) and listen to your teacher when she explains things to youAuxiliary verbs = primary and modal aux (function words)Main verbs = lexical verbs, give meaning to the action, state or event referred to
Pitanje 10 Finite VPs = A finite verb phrase – a verb phrase in which the first or only word is a finite verb, the rest of the verb phrase (if any) consisting of nonfinite verbs. finite verb phrases can occur as the verb phrase of independent clauses; finite verb phrases have tense contrast, i.e. the distinction between present and past tenses: (1) He is a journalist now. (2) He worked as a travel agent last summer. there is person concord and number concord between the subject of a clause and the finite verb phrase (concord is agreement in person and number between the subject of a clause and the verb phrase). Concord is particularly clear with the present tense of be: (3) I am/You are/he, she, it is/we, they are here. But with most full verbs overt concord is restricted to a contrast between the 3 rd person singular present and other persons or plural number: (4) He, she, Jim reads/I, we, you, they read the paper every morning. With modal auxiliaries there is no overt concord at all: (5) I/You/She/We/They can play the cello. Finite verb phrases have mood, which indicates the factual, nonfactual, or counterfactual status of the predication.
Pitanje 10Nonfinite VPs = The nonfinite forms of the verb are: the infinitive ((to) call), the –ing participle (calling), and the –ed participle (called). Hence any phrase in which one of these verb forms is the first or only word (disregarding the infinitive marker to) is a nonfinite verb phrase.Such phrases do not normally occur as the verb phrase of an independent clause.
Pitanje 11Almost all of you answered this one correctly.
Pitanje 12Mood = način na koji subjekat rečenice posmatra radnju, stanje ili zbivanje. Jezik odražava svijet oko nas, naša razmišljanja, želje, emocije itd. Glagoli imaju različite oblike kada izražavaju činjenice, nečinjenice ili kontrafaktivna stanja. U engleskom postoje tri glagolska načina: indikativ (pomoću njega izražavamo činjenice o svijetu), imperativ (pomoću njega izražavamo naredbe, savjete, pozivamo nekoga da nešto uradi, nudimo nekome nešto), konjunktiv (engl. subjunctive) (pomoću njega izražavamo želje, nečinjenična i kontrafaktivna stanja, upotrebljava se kao mandative subjunctive i kao formulaic (optative) subjunctive (u ovoj funkciji usp. FEIs)Subjunctive:I wish I were you.If I had seen you, I would have said hello. („I didn‘t see you“)
Pitanje 13 (underline FINITE VPs,put brackets around NONFINITEVPsAfter dinner, the doctor likes (to relax) by the window. (Looking out), he can usually see Mr Yang (doing) his taiqi exercises. The Songs’ children will be playing with their black terrier, Ebony. The dog loves (to play) Fetch, (jumping) and (yelping) at the same time as the stick leaves the children’s hands. Across the road from them, Cik Hamzah will be tending to her garden. The doctor can easily spend an hour or two just (watching) his neighbours.
Pitanje 14 – time referenceTime reference: preceding, simultaneous, following, neutralSpeakers can direct their orientation towards the present, the past, the future. From this orientation they can again refer to a state or event which occurs simultaneously, which precedes their temporal orientation, or which follows their temporal orientation. The speaker can also refer to a state which can be described as a general rule and which has no temporal relation with the speaker’s time orientation.Referencing can be made from any type of time orientation
Pitanje 14 – time referenceDavid has bought a new house. (preceding)Susans leaving today. (following)He keeps talking. (neutral)I was reading an economics book last night. (preceding)They continued laughing. (preceding)I read an economics book last night. (preceding)She has finished her homework. (preceding)She was writing down what he had said. (preceding)He’s teaching in a comprehensive school. (simultaneous)I have been working on the night shift for several weeks. (preceding, and may imply simultaneous)
Pitanje 14 - aspect Progressive (trajanje) and perfect (svršenost) Past simple can be used to express progressive aspect: For several minutes he stared at his reflection in the oval mirror. What is the difference, if any, between these two clauses: I was reading an economics book last night. I read an economics book last night. He wrote for hours. How would you translate the following sentence into English: Dugo su šetali obalom. Context – very important. Sentences in isolation are not entirely natural. Context may influence the aspect of the verb. Consider the verb boil over, which indicates perfect aspect because of the particle over, but: The milk was boiling over when she got into the kitchen
Pitanje 14 - aspectTry to explain the temporal relations in the following sentences using also the concept of aspect (perfect and progressive)When she arrived, they made some fresh coffee.When she arrived, the were making some fresh coffee.
Pitanje 14 - aspectDavid has bought a new house. (perfect)Susans leaving today. (progressive)He keeps talking. (progressive)I was reading an economics book last night. (progressive)They continued laughing. (progressive)I read an economics book last night. (either perfect or progressive: Pročitao sam sinoć knjigu iz ekonomije; Čitao sam sinoć knigu iz ekonomije)She has finished her homework. (perfect)She was writing down what he had said. (progressive; perfect)He’s teaching in a comprehensive school. (progressive)I have been working on the night shift for several weeks. (progressive, perfect – PARADOX)
Pitanje 15root (or intrinsic, deontic) meaning – includes ability, permission, obligation, volition. The root meaning of modals involves some intrinsic human control over events;epistemic (or extrinsic) meaning – includes possibility, necessity, prediction. The epistemic meaning of modals involves human judgment of what is or is not likely to happen.He must leave. = (On) mora otići. (root meaning)He must be leaving. = (On) mora da odlazi. (epistemic meaning)
Vježbe I) Discuss the verb forms in the following sentences: 1. We shall be travelling all night. 2. Professor Smith retires next year. 3. My doctor won’t let me get up yet. 4. This will be the book you’re looking for. 5. The sun is going to come out soon. II) Compare the following sentences: 1. (a) I’ll work harder next term. (b) I’m going to work harder next term. 2. (a) Are you staying in London long? (b) Are you going to stay in London long? III) Discuss the possible ambiguity in: They are spending their holiday in Spain. IV) Translate into English (try to make the English sentence as idiomatic as possible) Kupi kruh kad se budeš vraćao kući.