0
HomonymyA case of homonymy – a case of an ambiguous word   whose different senses are apart from each other and   not obv...
PolysemyA case of polysemy – a case where a word has several   very closely connected senses, i.e. a native speaker of   ...
Polysemy of fixed expressionsPolysemous FEIs – those that have two or more non-   compositional meanings, in addition to ...
Polysemy of fixed expressionsout of one’s depth:(1)in water insufficiently shallow for standing(2)in a difficult situatio...
Polysemy of fixed expressionsPolysemous FEIs – often associated with different   collocations or realizations of subject ...
Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) X clears the air = resolve a misunderstandingSTORM clears the air = make things feel fres...
Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) on the rocks = (of drinks) served with ice           = (of relationships, enterprises, et...
Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) X turns SOMETHING/Y upside down = change    completelyX turns SOMEWHERE upside down = ran...
MetonymyMetonymy – a kind of non-literal language in which   one entity is used to refer to another entity that is   asso...
MetonymyMost FEIs involving metonyms – relate to parts of the body. The particular body part represents the whole person,...
Further examples of FEIs involvingmetonyms relating to body partsAbsence makes the heart grow fonderFight tooth and nail...
Other metonymic FEIs Other metonymic FEIs involve objects and places thatrepresent actions, activities, or results, or inv...
PersonificationA few FEIs involve personification, and these are also culturally determinedIn the following examples, su...
Animal metaphorsMany FEIs contain metaphors which refer to animals, denoting and connoting supposed characteristics or qu...
Animal metaphorsdead as a dodo – obsolescencetreat someone like a dog, a dog’s life – ill-treatmenteat like a horse – a...
Animal metaphorsAnimal metaphors generally refer to undesirable traits, reflecting human views on animals as lower forms ...
Idiomi, lecture 04, 12 13
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Idiomi, lecture 04, 12 13

126

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
126
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Idiomi, lecture 04, 12 13"

  1. 1. HomonymyA case of homonymy – a case of an ambiguous word whose different senses are apart from each other and not obviously related to each other in any way with respect to native speaker’s intuitionBank is a very clear case of homonymy – it has two meanings:(1)financial institution(2)the side of a river or streamThere is no obvious conceptual connection between the two meanings.
  2. 2. PolysemyA case of polysemy – a case where a word has several very closely connected senses, i.e. a native speaker of the language has clear intuitions that the different senses are related to each other in some way.mouth is a clear case of polysemy:(1)mouth of a river(2)mouth of an animalThe two senses are clearly related by the concepts of an opening from the interior of some solid mass to the outside, and of a place of issue at the end of some long narrow channel.
  3. 3. Polysemy of fixed expressionsPolysemous FEIs – those that have two or more non- compositional meanings, in addition to any literary ones.Most of the polysemous FEIs have two meanings.The most typical cases – where one meaning is an anomalous collocation and the other a metaphor:abandon ship:(1)leave a ship that is sinking(2)give up on an enterprise
  4. 4. Polysemy of fixed expressionsout of one’s depth:(1)in water insufficiently shallow for standing(2)in a difficult situationtread water:(1)stay upright while floating in water(2)do nothing
  5. 5. Polysemy of fixed expressionsPolysemous FEIs – often associated with different collocations or realizations of subject or object. These different collocations or realizations of subject or object are very effective in disambiguating polysemous FEIs:(1)X catches the sun = tan(2)PLACE catches the sun = be sunny, be in an open position, be exposed to sunlight(3)SOMETHING catches the sun = flash, scintillate
  6. 6. Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) X clears the air = resolve a misunderstandingSTORM clears the air = make things feel fresher(1) BUILDING/PLACE goes up in smoke = catch fire, burn downPLAN/ASPIRATION goes up in smoke = be destroyed(1) X has a go (at SOMETHING) = tryX has a go (at Y) = attack, nag
  7. 7. Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) on the rocks = (of drinks) served with ice = (of relationships, enterprises, etc.) in trouble, shaky(1) X puts ANIMAL out its misery = kill, for humane reasonsX puts Y out of Y’s misery = give someone the information they have been waiting for
  8. 8. Polysemy of fixed expressions(1) X turns SOMETHING/Y upside down = change completelyX turns SOMEWHERE upside down = ransack, search thoroughly
  9. 9. MetonymyMetonymy – a kind of non-literal language in which one entity is used to refer to another entity that is associated with it in some way(1)The ham sandwich in the next booth is waiting for his bill. (The person who ordered the ham sandwich is waiting for his bill. Here, we refer to the person by what he ordered)(2)We enjoy watching Hitchcock more than Spielberg.(3)The White House refused to answer the question.(4)Hollywood keeps putting out mediocre movies.
  10. 10. MetonymyMost FEIs involving metonyms – relate to parts of the body. The particular body part represents the whole person, as well as foregrounding the physical sense or ability which constitutes the central part of the meaning of a FEI.For example, lend an ear – ear indicates both the person and his attention; hard on someone’s heels – heels indicate a person and the part most visible in running; get one’s head round something – head indicates a person and his mind or understanding
  11. 11. Further examples of FEIs involvingmetonyms relating to body partsAbsence makes the heart grow fonderFight tooth and nailHave a nose for somethingHave one’s eye on somethingLend a handLong in the toothNot lay a finger on someoneTwo heads are better than one
  12. 12. Other metonymic FEIs Other metonymic FEIs involve objects and places thatrepresent actions, activities, or results, or involve otherpart and whole relationships:At the wheelDaily breadFrom the cradle to the graveHearth and homeTake the floorThe pen is mightier than the sword
  13. 13. PersonificationA few FEIs involve personification, and these are also culturally determinedIn the following examples, subjects are given in cases where their animacy or inanimacy would be inappropriate in literal contexts:dice with deathlook SOMETHING in the eyelike death warmed upnecessity is the mother of inventiontime flies
  14. 14. Animal metaphorsMany FEIs contain metaphors which refer to animals, denoting and connoting supposed characteristics or qualities which are then applied to people and human situations:FEI CONNOTED CHARACTERISTICas blind as a bat – weak eyesightlike a bear with a sore head – irritabilityas busy as a bee, a busy bee – industrya red rag to a bull – rageshed crocodile tears - insincerity
  15. 15. Animal metaphorsdead as a dodo – obsolescencetreat someone like a dog, a dog’s life – ill-treatmenteat like a horse – appetitea leopard does not change its spots – immutability of bad qualitiesas stubborn as a mule – obstinacyeat like a pig – greedinessplay possum – pretencelike sheep – slavish obedience, lack of individualitya snake in the grass – deceitfulness, despicability
  16. 16. Animal metaphorsAnimal metaphors generally refer to undesirable traits, reflecting human views on animals as lower forms of life.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×