Lexical and Grammatical          Form      Lexical Form
Lexis and AnomalyThe vocabulary of FEIs has a distributionthat is different from that of the lexicon ingeneral.Some words ...
Cranberry CollocationsThere are a few lexemes that never occuroutside FEIs – cranberry collocations.Several groups of cran...
Rare fossil words, or wordsborrowed from other languagesrun amokin cahoots with someoneby dint of somethingin high dudgeon...
Rare fossil words, or wordsborrowed from other languageskith and kinat loggerheadssleight of handcock a snookspic(k) and s...
Lexemes unique to the FEI but homographic      with other independent items be at someone’s beck and call to boot come a c...
Cranberry items have compositional orfamiliar morphemic structure, but occur only                 in FEIs in accordance wi...
FEIs, grammatical in function, containing      unanalysable or unique itemson someone’s behalf, on behalf ofsomeonefor som...
Cranberry CollocationsThe description above is synchronic. However,diachronically, these FEIs may be well formed.For examp...
Ill-formed FEIsFEIs that cannot be parsed according tonormal syntactic rules are non-compositional: they are the grammatic...
Ill-formedness arises from odd phrasestructures, ellipsis, inflections, or from an               archaic moodat allbe that...
Ill-formedness arises from odd phrasestructures, ellipsis, inflections, or from an               archaic moodhow do you do...
FEIs that contain strange uses of           wordclassesA non-nominal word or sense may be used as a noun, or an adjective ...
FEIs that contain strange uses of           wordclasseson the alerton the makeon the up and upplay fairstand easystate the...
One or more component words in an FEIdeviate from their usual syntactic behaviour Countable nouns may be used without dete...
One or more component words in an FEIdeviate from their usual syntactic behaviour rain cats and dogs sweat blood stand som...
Structures are correct syntagmatically but           not paradigmaticallyThe valencies and collocational well-formedness a...
Grammatical Types and     Structures
Predicate FEIsThey consist of clause elements, and thus can be said tohave the syntactic structure of clauses. The mainele...
Nominal groupsa blessing in disguisea flash in the pana foregone conclusionivory towera world of differencethe salt of the...
Predicative adjectival groupsThey occur either postnominally or after acopula; they are actually adjective phrases thatare...
ModifiersThey function in prenominal position, i.e. theymodify a head noun in a noun phrase:a thousand and oneall-singing ...
AdjunctsThey are adverbials (priloške oznake):above boardby heartby the skin of one’s teethfrom memoryhigh and dryin cold ...
Adjunctson the spur of the momentfrom time to timelittle by littletime and againonce in a blue moonfrom afarwithin spittin...
Sentence Adverbialsby definitionfor the most partin effectno doubtto be sureby the wayin other wordsso much for -----talki...
Conventions, exclamations, and     subordinate clausesThe commonest of these FEIs in everydaycommunication are those that ...
Conventions, exclamations, and     subordinate clausesSome of these FEIs express reactionsand opinions:it’s nothingpigs mi...
Conventions, exclamations, and     subordinate clausesProverbs and sayings are classified asconventions:every cloud has a ...
Conventions, exclamations, and     subordinate clausesFEIs functioning as subordinate clauses:as if X owns the placeif the...
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Idiomi, lecture 03, 12 13

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Idiomi, lecture 03, 12 13

  1. 1. Lexical and Grammatical Form Lexical Form
  2. 2. Lexis and AnomalyThe vocabulary of FEIs has a distributionthat is different from that of the lexicon ingeneral.Some words (and so concepts, images,structures) feature strongly in FEIs , oroccur relatively more often in FEIs than infreely formed text.
  3. 3. Cranberry CollocationsThere are a few lexemes that never occuroutside FEIs – cranberry collocations.Several groups of cranberry collocations
  4. 4. Rare fossil words, or wordsborrowed from other languagesrun amokin cahoots with someoneby dint of somethingin high dudgeonin fine/good fettleto and frogrist to one’s millgo/be haywireput the kibosh on somethingout of kilter/off kilter
  5. 5. Rare fossil words, or wordsborrowed from other languageskith and kinat loggerheadssleight of handcock a snookspic(k) and spanon tenterhooksin a tricetake umbragewend one’s way somewhereof yore
  6. 6. Lexemes unique to the FEI but homographic with other independent items be at someone’s beck and call to boot come a cropper curry a favour hue and cry leave someone in the lurch queer someone’s pitch (by) the scruff of someone’s neck be no slouch (at something) have no truck with someone/something
  7. 7. Cranberry items have compositional orfamiliar morphemic structure, but occur only in FEIs in accordance with something make amends at gunpoint irrespective of at/from the outset in retrospect give someone the run-around in triplicate unbeknownst to someone
  8. 8. FEIs, grammatical in function, containing unanalysable or unique itemson someone’s behalf, on behalf ofsomeonefor someone’s/something’s sake, for thesake of someone/somethingin someone’s stead
  9. 9. Cranberry CollocationsThe description above is synchronic. However,diachronically, these FEIs may be well formed.For example, dint in by dint of something meant‘a blow’, or ‘the dealing of blows’, then ‘dent’ or‘impression’, but these meanings have becomeobsolete in many varieties of English (althoughthe latter survives in Australian English)Cranberry collocations can be compared toforeign phrases, which are borrowed wholesaleinto English but retain their original wording andalien syntagmatic structure
  10. 10. Ill-formed FEIsFEIs that cannot be parsed according tonormal syntactic rules are non-compositional: they are the grammaticalequivalents to cranberry FEIs.Diachronically, they may be fossils ofearlier uses, but they are aberrantsynchronically. There are several groupsof ill-formed FEIs
  11. 11. Ill-formedness arises from odd phrasestructures, ellipsis, inflections, or from an archaic moodat allbe that as it maybe seeing youby and byby and largecome to think of itcome what maycuriouser and curiouserdog eat dogevery which wayfar be it from megive someone what forgo for brokehard done byhow come
  12. 12. Ill-formedness arises from odd phrasestructures, ellipsis, inflections, or from an archaic moodhow do you do?I’ll be blowedlet alone ____mind youmore fool youneedless to sayplease Godpoint takenquote unquoteshame on ___so long!to do withto each X’s ownto the manner bornwrit large
  13. 13. FEIs that contain strange uses of wordclassesA non-nominal word or sense may be used as a noun, or an adjective as anadverb:all of a suddenat the readybeyond comparedo the dirty on someonefor freehave a down on someoneifs and butsin briefin generalin the knowof lateof oldonce in a while
  14. 14. FEIs that contain strange uses of wordclasseson the alerton the makeon the up and upplay fairstand easystate the obviousswear blindthe back of beyondthe dos and don’tsthe ins and outsthe whys and whereforesthrough thick and thintrip the light fantastic
  15. 15. One or more component words in an FEIdeviate from their usual syntactic behaviour Countable nouns may be used without determiners in the singular, or verbs may be used in aberrant tranisitivity patterns: bag and baggage bring someone to book (by) word of mouth come a cropper fight tooth and nail (not) go a bundle on something go (the) whole hog in all weathers in case keep body and soul together put pen to paper
  16. 16. One or more component words in an FEIdeviate from their usual syntactic behaviour rain cats and dogs sweat blood stand someone in good stead stay put to hand turn and turn about under lock and key to date
  17. 17. Structures are correct syntagmatically but not paradigmaticallyThe valencies and collocational well-formedness aredisturbed; some FEIs are literally impossible, and thegrammar reinforces their violation of truth conditions:clap eyes on someonedo a runnerlive a lielook daggers at someonemake heavy weather of somethingput one’s best foot forwardturn turtlewhen push comes to shove
  18. 18. Grammatical Types and Structures
  19. 19. Predicate FEIsThey consist of clause elements, and thus can be said tohave the syntactic structure of clauses. The mainelements are subject and verb and they are obligatory,while other elements vary (direct and indirect object,adjunct, complement, catenated predicator, objectcomplement). For example:X admits defeatX takes Y to taskThe coast is clearX teaches Y a lessonAlarm bells ringSparks fly
  20. 20. Nominal groupsa blessing in disguisea flash in the pana foregone conclusionivory towera world of differencethe salt of the earthTrojan horse
  21. 21. Predicative adjectival groupsThey occur either postnominally or after acopula; they are actually adjective phrases thatare used predicatively:alive and kickingbone idlecut and trieddressed to killfree and easylong in the toothwet behind the earswide awake
  22. 22. ModifiersThey function in prenominal position, i.e. theymodify a head noun in a noun phrase:a thousand and oneall-singing all-dancingany oldcommon or gardendim and distanthard and fastprecious little, precious fewthe one and only
  23. 23. AdjunctsThey are adverbials (priloške oznake):above boardby heartby the skin of one’s teethfrom memoryhigh and dryin cold bloodon horsebackout of the questionunder the counterunder the weatherup for grabswith one’s bare handsat oncefor the time being
  24. 24. Adjunctson the spur of the momentfrom time to timelittle by littletime and againonce in a blue moonfrom afarwithin spitting distancein vainto be on the safe sideto smithereensby farfar and awaythrough and through
  25. 25. Sentence Adverbialsby definitionfor the most partin effectno doubtto be sureby the wayin other wordsso much for -----talking of ------above allafter allin facton the contrary
  26. 26. Conventions, exclamations, and subordinate clausesThe commonest of these FEIs in everydaycommunication are those that encodegreetings, apologies, refusals, expressionsof sympathy, etc.:by all meansdon’t mention itexcuse mego for it!good morningnever mindno comment
  27. 27. Conventions, exclamations, and subordinate clausesSome of these FEIs express reactionsand opinions:it’s nothingpigs might flythose were the dayswho cares?you can say that again
  28. 28. Conventions, exclamations, and subordinate clausesProverbs and sayings are classified asconventions:every cloud has a silver liningfirst come first servedthe end justifies the meansyou can’t have your cake and eat it
  29. 29. Conventions, exclamations, and subordinate clausesFEIs functioning as subordinate clauses:as if X owns the placeif the worst comes to the worstuntil the cows come homewhen push comes to shovewhen the chips are down
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