Overview• Making the Case for Multicultural Competence• Defining the term• CSSA student/faculty survey responses• Cultural Center list serve responses• Practices in other fields• Finding from other schools• Infusing into competencies• Fall orientation piece
Making the Case forMulticultural Competence inStudent Affairs• ACPA and CAS standards• Multiculturalism an imperative for change
Multicultural Competencylevels of CSPA StudentsKing and Hamilton‟s Findings:• College Student Personnel (CSP) <Student Affairs Staff< Diversity Educators• CSP White students<< CSP Students of Color• Student Affairs White Staff << CSP Students of Color
King and Hamilton’sRecommendations“If students do not enter College Student Personnel programs with these skills, it is imperative that graduate programs provide the type of learning opportunities that enhance multicultural experience.”
Making the Case forMulticultural Competence inStudent Affairs• The "societal mandate" for the cultural competency movement arises from rapid demographic shifts reflected in census data.• By 2050, U.S. population will be roughly 50% people of color.
Making the Case forMulticultural Competence• In Grutter v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court held that public universities have a "compelling interest" in fostering the educational and societal benefits which flow from diverse learning environments.• The record number of amici briefs submitted emphasize reliance on public universities to produce individuals who possess awareness, knowledge, and skills consistent with cross-cultural effectiveness.
Making the Case forMulticultural Competence• The fields of K-12 education, counseling, law, health care, and corporate business increasingly provide and require cultural competency as part of professional effectiveness.
Cultural Diversity & CulturalCompetency: The Difference• Cultural diversity: the realities of the varied backgrounds, experiences and cultures of people.• Cultural competency: is an active process.
What is MulticulturalCompetence: Lit. ReviewMulticultural competence: “The awareness, knowledge and skills needed to work with others who are culturally different from self in meaningful, relevant, and productive ways” It is also having the “skills, knowledge, and awareness to address issues of multiculturalism with someone who is culturally similar” Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs, Pope, Reynolds, and Mueller (2004)
Survey questions• How would you define multicultural competence?• What do you think are the behaviors of a university staff person/student affairs professional who is practicing multicultural competence?• How do you think a university staff person can become more multiculturally competent?
CSSA Faculty SurveyResults in Themes• Great energy, excitement• “Commitment to life long learning”• “No „gold star‟ to multicultural competence”• “It is a willingness to step outside comfort zones”• “There are multiple ways to move toward multicultural competence”• Reported “resistance” from students
CSSA StudentsSurvey Responses• All current students surveyed• Themes: Similar to faculty, but more focus on finding out about other cultures rather than exploring one‟s own cultural background and biases.• General willingness to learn• Theme: Empathy from COUN 525• Example, Student Resistance
Non-CSSA Staff SurveyResponses• Staff were surprised that multicultural competency is not a current expectation for CSSA students• CSSA student resistance felt in professional settings
What is MulticulturalCompetence?: CulturalCenter Survey Responses• “Live life outside the boundaries of books, statistics and training and stepping into the world outside their own. By doing this a person is able to further grasp, first hand, the lifestyles of various groups”• “If a person of color wanted to become more multicultural competent, I would think they should explore other minority groups that they are not used to and see what elements are the same for our groups. If a white person would like to learn to be MC I think they should take Lani Roberts‟ Ethics of Diversity and learn about white privilege. This will broaden the understanding.”
Multicultural Competence:Practices in Other Fields• Counseling• Health Professions• Teaching
Practices in Health CareField: Nursing Case StudiesYou are a nurse who is working with a woman who is deaf who has had a new baby. She has a translator who signs to the patient what you are saying and then the interpreter is telling you what the patient says. You keep talking to the interpreter and directed all of your communications to the translator. The patient is irritated. 1. What is your experience with people who are deaf? 2. Why is the patient irritated? 3. What do you do? 4. Do a visual model of how this could go better 5. Preliminary tests reveal that the baby might also be deaf. Do you discuss cochlear implants with the mother? Why or why not?
Practices in Health CareField: Pro. Org. SupportAmerican Medical Student Association maintains a website called “cultural competency in medicine with resources and case studies.”Practices in Health Care Field:University of MichiganLaundry list of cultural Example: 2/14/05 Muslim Birth Customspractices and standards are deeply symbolic .. TahneekAfrican-American Illness Beliefs - Performed soon after birthChinese Buddhist Beliefs about and preferably before being fed, a small piece of softenedDeath and Dying date is gently rubbed onto theGreek Fertility Beliefs and infants upper palate. Taweez -Practices A black string with a small pouch containing a prayer, tiedNative Amer. Healing Practices around the babys wrist or neck
3 Components forMulticulturalK-12 Teacher EducationKnowledge: Teachers become literate aboutmulticulturalism.Attitude: Examine their existing attitudes andfeelings towards ethnic, racial and culturaldifferencesSkills: Translate their knowledge andsensitivities into school programs, curriculardesigns, and classroom instructional practices.
Professional AccreditationStandards for TeacherEducation Programs• Quality of instruction reflects knowledge about multicultural education.• Design of the curriculum should incorporate multicultural and global perspectives.• Faculty have developed multicultural competencies through formal study or experiences in diverse cultural settings.• Professional education faculty represent cultural diversity.
Infusion into Existing 8Competencies and Creationof the 9th Process
Knowledge of Higher Ed.Competency #1 and Student Affairs 1a. The historical and philosophical underpinnings, and the cultural and sociopolitical climate during which student affairs programs were developed and the resulting built-in biases; 1b. The primary challenges and opportunities being presented to student affairs professionals and the ability to translate that knowledge and cultural sensitivity into programs and services. 1c. Standards of good practice in student affairs and ethical responsibilities of the student affairs professional with a lifelong commitment to learning about building supportive communities that value diversity, encourage discussion, recognize accomplishments, and foster a sense of belongingness between faculty and student affairs 1d. Goals, trends, and key issues related to the future of the student affairs profession and the role of multicultural practices in creating a future society that values diversity.
Student Development inCompetency #2 Higher Education2a. Transitional issues faced by both traditional and underrepresented students before, during, and after their tenure in higher education settings;2b. The various and changing needs, goals, affinities of students within varied higher education settings (i.e. community college, private, public, religiously affiliated, Tribal Colleges, predominantly white institutions, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Hispanic-Serving Institutions, etc);2c. Diverse student populations including, but not limited to, age, socioeconomic status, gender, gender-identity, race and ethnicity, language, nationality, religion or spirituality, sexual orientation, ability, and preparedness2d. How their own cultures interface with the various student subcultures, and skills that aid in the development of students from diverse backgrounds; and2e. Theories related to student development and their potential practical applications, as well as the limitations of mainstream theories and cultural deficit models.
Competency #3 Org., Leadership, and Admin. of Student Affairs3a. Fiscal resources, budget development and management in supporting student affairs programs or services;3b. Multiculturally sensitive human resource/ personnel management, including hiring, supervising, and evaluating employee performance, as well as an understanding of the historical and contemporary issues surrounding affirmative action;3c. Organization structure and dynamics, including an understanding of the different cultural forms of organizational structures (i.e. women’s colleges, tribal colleges, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and other institutions serving traditionally underrepresented student populations), and leadership, including non-Western, post-industrial leadership practices;3d. Legal issues critical in guiding and influencing practice.3e. Campus climate issues, including administrative strategies to bring congruence between campus climate goals and realities.
Assessment andCompetency #4 Evaluation4a. Design and implement thorough assessment efforts including the identification of new key questions, resources, and target populations, with particular sensitivity to traditionally over-studied populations;4b. Create multiculturally sensitive instruments and/ or protocols for assessing important questions; and4c. Credibly convey key findings and recommendations to stakeholders and constituents in culturally appropriate language.
Competency #5 Program Planning5a. Design original programs including the identification of resources, needs, and goals, with careful consideration of underrepresented student populations;5b. Market programs appropriately, and inclusively;5c.Facilitate the implementation of culturally sensitive programs; and5d.Evaluate the effectiveness and inclusivity of programs in meeting desired goals and outcomes,
Teaching, Presentation,Competency #6 Publication6a. Develop and share ideas and concepts to students, staff, or faculty groups outside of the CSSA classroom in a culturally sensitive manner;6b. Incorporate original and innovative techniques that are appropriate in sharing these ideas;6c. Consider and incorporate the varied learning styles other than one’s own; and6d. Consider the cultural contexts, ensuring that all voices have the opportunity for participation;6e. Reflect on the experience and make constructive changes and improvements.
Individual, Group, andCompetency #7 Org. Communication7a. Positively manage, develop, and engage in working relationships with faculty, staff, and students across functional and institutional boundaries, practice culturally sensitive communication, and distinguish between the person and the performance;7b. Initiate working alliance initiatives across functional boundaries, invest in relationships with colleagues and students from non- dominant cultural backgrounds, take steps to make the campus environment inclusive, and ensure that all the voices are heard;7c. Take on key leadership roles though these partnerships and collaborations, and cultivate fluid views of leadership that allow honoring of individualistic and collectivistic cultures.7d. Serve as advocate, counselor, and/or advisor to students or student groups, engaging in culturally sensitive practices; and7e. Manage and/or mediate conflict, crisis, or problematic circumstances, paying attention to the needs and issues faced by underrepresented groups.
Competency #8 The Developing Professional8a. Seek out a multiculturally comprehensive graduate and professional experience;8b. Develop an understanding of the value of community involvement and participation beyond the OSU campus to communities that may have different cultural orientation from self;8c. Reflect on graduate, professional, and personal development experiences toward greater self- understanding with a commitment to life-long learning, especially the development of multicultural self;8d. Examine and question their “fit” within profession by clearly articulating personal strengths and potential contributions to the field; and8e. Engage in thoughtful career planning and decision making exercises while continually examining and assessing areas of growth in one’s own learning.
Competency #9:Multicultural Competence9. Multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills – graduates of the CSSA Program should be able to demonstrate multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. In meeting this competency, students should demonstrate theira. Awareness of their own cultural heritage and how it affects their worldviews, values, and assumptions.b. Knowledge of systems of privilege and oppression as well as knowledge of groups and individuals who are different from self.c. Skills to challenge and support individuals in a manner that maximizes multiculturally sensitive and develop appropriate interventions, rooted in multicultural awareness and knowledge, that influence the organizational performance.d. Ability to identify areas of personal growth and develop a lifelong commitment to improving one‟s own multicultural competence.
Findings/Recommendations• Practices at other schools• Multicultural competence as foundational piece versus a functional piece• Order of the course• Orientation
Iowa State • No multicultural competency • Theory course with project
More schools• Florida State University – No MCC course, but MCC competency• University of Florida – Several MCC Courses, No apparent MCC Competency• NYU – No apparent competencies, Required MCC course Ethnic Groups in Higher Education
Still other schools• The Miami University of Ohio• 2 Classes with student development• Core Values
Other Schools continued• University Massachusetts• Seattle University• Syracuse University• Colorado State University