precious stone consis,ng of a clear and typically colorless crystalline form of pure carbon, it is the only well known gem made from a single element and the hardest natural occurring substance. Diamonds are thought to have been ﬁrst recognized and mined in India, where the stone could be found many centuries ago along the rivers Penner, Kisgna and Godavari. Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India but the popularity of diamonds has risen since the XIX century because as we know, in the mid XIX century was discovered a huge supply of diamonds in South Africa, also the cuEng and polishing techniques were improved as well as the world economy.
The tradi,on of giving a diamond engagement ring is traced back to 1477 when Archduke Maximilian of Austria presented Mary of Burgundy with a simple gold band set with a diamond represen,ng pure, ﬁery beauty. He placed it on the third ﬁnger of her leO hand, believing it contained a vein that coursed directly to his beloveds heart. Over ,me, this royal tradi,on gained popularity around the world. Today, according to a recent De Beers survey, four out of ﬁve brides receive a diamond engagement ring. For centuries diamonds have appeared in royal treasures. Adventurers have journeyed thousands of miles to hunt them. Men and women have killed for them. Countries have ﬂourished and regimes have fallen because of them. Diamonds have always been far more than jewels, they are history twinkling on the skin.
…Lies the blood covered stories of innocent people. Or “conﬂict diamonds” are diamonds mined in a war zone and sold to ﬁnance an insurgency usually in Africa during the 1900’s including conﬂicts in Angola, Sierra Leone and Democra,c Republic of Congo. Conﬂict diamonds as those “that originate from areas controlled by forces or fac,ons opposed to legi,mate and interna,onally recognized government, and are used to fund military ac,on in opposi,on to those governments, or in contraven,on of the Security Council”. The United Na,ons imposed sanc,ons against Na,onal Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) but inves,ga,ons detailed how the movement was able to con,nue ﬁnancing its war eﬀorts through the sale of diamonds on the interna,onal market. The UN tried to cancel the sanc,ons breaking trade but instead all diamond-‐producing states met in Kimberley, South Africa, to discuss ways to stop trade in blood diamonds and make sure that diamond purchases were not helping violence so is here when the Kimberley Process Cer,ﬁca,on Scheme (KPCS) was created.
Is the process designed to cer,fy the origin of rough diamonds from sources which are free of conﬂict funded by diamond produc,on. Is a unique interna,onal coopera,ve arrangement between governments, retail jewelers, NGOs and diamond industry. This process contributes on the diamond industry and civil society. It is a response to public concerns that their diamond purchases were contribu,ng to war and human rights abuses in Africa. aims to ensure that conﬂict diamonds do not become intermixed with the diamonds not controlled by such rebel groups. This is done by requiring diamond-‐producing countries to provide proof that the money they make from selling the diamonds is not used to fund criminal or revolu,onary ac,vi,es.
At the basic level, states par,cipa,ng in the Kimberley Process have to meet minimum requirements through the representa,on of na,onal ruling and make sure this ins,tu,ons meet certain standards and processes. This includes import and export ins,tu,ons as well as internal controls. Member states must also commit to full and transparent exchange of sta,s,cal data. The Kimberley Process Cer,ﬁca,on Scheme requires rough diamonds to be transported in sealed, altera,on free containers with fraud resistant cer,ﬁcates. Issued by the expor,ng country’s government, each cer,ﬁcate has a unique serial number. They are backed by a system of internal controls in the producing countries, as well as those countries that trade, cut and polish rough diamonds. The shipments should be exported to other KPCS par,cipant countries. Failure to make these procedures may lead to the removal of the non-‐complying member country
AOer the point of export of the rough diamonds, however, diamonds are only subject to the voluntary System of Warran,es originally planed by the World Diamond Council. This system requires all other traders in diamonds, from the rough diamond importers to in-‐country traders, polishers, dealers, and manufacturers, to adhere to a warranty system by which the invoice for the diamonds is printed with the following language: "The diamonds herein invoiced have been purchased from legi,mate sources not involved in funding conﬂict and in compliance with United Na,ons resolu,ons. The seller hereby guarantees that these diamonds are conﬂict free, based on personal knowledge and/or wrihen guarantees provided by the supplier of these diamonds.” The system of warran,es is founded by several commitments, including: 1. to limit trade only to those companies that include the required warranty on their invoices 2. to avoid buying any diamonds origina,ng in non-‐par,cipant countries or from unknown or suspect suppliers 3. to avoid purchasing diamonds from sources found through due process to have violated government regula,ons governing conﬂict diamonds 4. to avoid buying diamonds from any region that is under an advisory from a governmental authority sta,ng that conﬂict diamonds have originated there
5. to refrain from knowingly engaging in the purchase or sale of conﬂict diamonds or assis,ng others in doing so 6. to ensure that all company employees engaged in the diamond trade are well informed of the resolu,ons and government regula,ons governing the trade. By June 2005, a total of 67 countries, were par,cipants in the Kimberley Process and had established na,onal export-‐import controls for keeping out conﬂict diamonds. The current Kimberley Chair is Russia. The three Working Groups are Monitoring, Sta,s,cs, and Diamond Experts, while the two Commihees are Par,cipa,on and Selec,on. The en,re group meets in plenary session once annually in October. The UN General Assembly consistently invites the Kimberley Process Chair countrys Permanent Representa,ve to the United Na,ons to report on the progress of implemen,ng the KPCS to the Assembly at its annual session.
“In southern Africa, diamonds are an engine for growth, employment and prosperity. The World Diamond Council believes that, in addi,on to comba,ng the scourge of conﬂict diamonds, the Kimberley Process has helped to safeguard these beneﬁts that are shared and enjoyed by thousands of people in communi,es across the region.” Eli Izhakoﬀ, Chairman of the World Diamond Council “It is now es,mated that less than 1% of diamonds traded are "conﬂict diamonds" — compared to es,mates of 15% during the 1990s.” European Commission Diamond revenues enable every child in Botswana to receive free educa,on up to the age of 13. Ministry of Educa,on, Botswana 2006
Jay Epstein, Edward. “ The Rise and Fall of Diamonds” (1982). Simon and Schuster. NY J. Weisbroat, Paul. “Diamond Folklore” hhp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond#Mining hhp://www.brilliantearth.com/kimberley-‐process/ hhp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kimberley_ProcessHistory hhp://www.theglobalist.com/globalicons/syndica,on/sample.htm
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