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Tecw students 11 0422

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  • “it is with great pleasure to have you all here today, this is quite the group!”Who is here?Mention website
  • Play video
  • CEUs
  • Train and certify 20 Approved Trainers
  • Explain why…First step, we formed a focus group of professionals and asked why no IECC 2009?too expensivenot practicalconfusingnothing mandatory - politicalenergy = environment, eco, green, LEED, etcmust make good business sense, and be market proofmarket driven
  • Energy use in buildings makes up a very significant piece of the pie. Thus, it has a direct impact on the greatest challenges of our time, including:Economic well-being for individuals, businesses, and governmentsDependence on foreign oil and national security Global climate change. Even human health is at stake—for many families, rising energy costs make it unaffordable to sustain a comfortable, conditioned indoor environment. Some sobering statistics help drive home the reality of building energy use:Nearly 5 million commercial buildings and 115 million residential households in the United States consume over 40 percent of the nation’s total primary energyBuildings consume 70 percent of electricity in the United StatesIn 2007, carbon dioxide emissions attributable to lighting, heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, water heating, and other building services totaled 2517 million metric tons—40 percent of the U.S. total and 8 percent of the global total.Clearly, building energy use must be addressed to protect the interests of individual consumers, our nation, and the world. Building energy codes are a critical component of the effort to curb the ever-growing impacts of building energy use. But why codes?
  • DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program is here to help, from the development of more energy-efficient codes and technical assistance to the states, to their practical end-user application in building projects.Federal funding has included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, through which energy efficiency funding has been made available to support model building energy codes that reduce energy consumption, create jobs, and spur economic growth. But funding isn’t an automatic answer; thus, federal support is not limited to funding. Of the bullets listed here, BECP’s role includes the following:Provide compliance toolsProvide information and resources, compliance products, training, and energy code-related news.Let’s take a quick look BECP’s compliance tools in the next two slides.
  • Building energy codes set minimumefficiency boundaries that bring about vital, tangible benefits.Not surprisingly, better codes mean better benefits. Recent research shows that if building energy codes* were upgraded to be 30 to 50 percent more stringent, adopted among states, and effectively implemented, excellent progress would be made in the areas of energy consumption, cost savings, and CO2 emissions reduction: Reduced energy consumption—by approximately 0.5-quadrillion Btu per year by 2015, and 3.5-quadrillion Btu per year by 2030. This is equivalent to the power generated by 260 medium power plants.Rising cost savings—more than $4 billion per year back in homeowners’ pockets by 2015, a figure that could rise to over $30 billion per year by 2030. Even accounting for increased up-front efficiency investment costs, net benefits are quite significant.Reduced CO2 emissions—by roughly 3 percent in terms of the projected national CO2 emissions in 2030.  *2006 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA5 Standard 90.1-2004
  • According to the International Code Council (ICC), the intent of the IECC is to establish an energy code that:
  • Despite these clear benefits, the road to achieving them is challenging. To be effective, building energy codes must first be painstakingly developed, then go through a complex, coordinated process that includes code adoption, implementation, compliance, and enforcement by states and other jurisdictions.  One example of a code challenge is that code adoption is not automatic in most states. Without statewide adoption, localjurisdictions are left without state guidance or resources, and builders on the ground can face a confusing patchwork of codes across their region. Adding complication, the challenges of implementation, compliance, and enforcement vary with different jurisdictions; lack of both training and manpower are often cited as roadblocks to proper enforcement.  As with any aspect of building codes, plan review and inspections take time, and this must be accounted for in department staffing. Training is also critical across the design, building, and enforcement communities. Not only is there a need for understanding new code language, but new construction techniques,materials, and technologies must also be considered and learned.
  • When people speak in general about Building Energy Codes, they may be referring to:ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Standards The International Energy Conservations Code, or IECCState and locally adopted codes.So, what building features are covered?
  • From “Green Building Codes 101” presentation 2/24/11 (USGBC, ICC, ASHRAE, AIA)
  • SpawGlass Construction Corporate Headquarters is calculated to be 56 percent more efficient than the baseline standard due to building orientation, window protection, a light-colored roof, and electrical and HVAC choices.What is the relationship between beyond-code programs and the baseline energy codes and standards?Designers, builders, plan review and inspection staff, and all interested parties still need to thoroughly understand the underlying baseline energy code when working with a stretch- or beyond-code program.Most above-code programs use the IECC and/or ASHRAE 90.1 as a baseline, with additional requirements beyond that. Jurisdictions are both mandating the programs and offering them as voluntary compliance tools. These codes vary widely in scope—from a simple requirement to comply 10% above the current IECC, to comprehensive programs such as Green Globes and the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED). As of August2009, there were over 300 such beyond-code programs adopted by states and jurisdictions nationwide. Building energy efficient materials and methods that are included in stretch and above-code programs are often submitted to the IECC or ASHRAE development process for consideration. Above-code programs are used to the make efficiency improvements in the residential and commercial building marketplace.Once the efficiency features have saturated the market and have become common practice, it is then proposed as a change to the code so that it will become mandatory for all buildings. High efficacy lighting systems for residential homes is an example of this. The New Building Institute’s Core Performance Guide has also been codified and submitted as proposed code change to increase the efficiency of commercial buildings.
  • Building energy codes are minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated residential and commercial buildings. Using them doesn’t necessarily equal (what some refer to as) “green” building. Building energy codes are a solid baseline of requirements—but they do set the standard by which “above-code” efforts are defined. So, what specific parts of buildings do they cover?Simply put, they apply to abuilding’s envelope (the materials that make up its outer shell) as well as its systems and built-in equipment. These will be described in more detail later in this presentation. The life cycle of a building is decades or even centuries long. As minimum requirements in these vital areas are improved, future generations will receive more efficient and less costly living and working environments.
  • The code states that additions, alterations, renovations or repairs can’t create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems.
  • Climate zones are unchanged from 2006 IECC.U.S. counties are defined entirely by county boundaries; every county is homogenous.There are 8 temperature oriented zones, crossed with 3 moisture regimes (moist, dry, marine), for a theoretical 24 possible zones.2009 IECC Figure 301.1 – Climate Zones (p. 10)
  • Note: The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling.Heating degree day (HDD) is a measurement designed to reflect the demand for energy needed to heat a home or business. Heating degree days are defined relative to a base temperature - the outside temperature above which a building needs no heating. The most appropriate base temperature for any particular building depends on the temperature that the building is heated to, and the nature of the building (including the heat-generating occupants and equipment within it). Base temperature for HDDs is 65°F.Cooling degree day (HDD) is a measurement designed to reflect the demand for energy needed to cool a home or business. Base temperature for CDDs is 50°F.
  • Windows & skylights usually have the lowest R values (highest U value)Major contributor to infiltration of outdoor air, which add to winter heating & summer cooling loadsU valuetakes the following into account: heat flow rates between center- and edge-of-glass, frame portions of a unit & construction, size of air gap between glazings, coatings, gas fill in gapNFRC ratings take all of these variables into account when determining the U value.The smaller the U value, the lower the heat flow for a given temperature difference.
  • - The denser the material, the more readily it conducts heat. - Air and other common gasses are poor conductors and thus good insulators. (double paned windows)- Because conduction depends on the transfer of vibrating energy between adjacent molecules, no conduction can occur in the absence of molecules (vacuum). (Thermos bottle)
  • - When molecules on the surface of a substance vibrate, they give off (emit) radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.- Molecules travel from surfaces at the speed of light.- The vibration of surface molecules is slowed when their thermal energy is converted into wave (radiant) energy, thus cooling the surface. - These molecules travel until they strike a surface and are absorbed. (night sky radiation for cooling strategy)- No molecular adjacency is required. Radiation occurs most ready in a vacuum.
  • - As a substance is heated, its molecules vibrate faster. As a general rule, in response to this greater activity, the molecules separate themselves further & further apart. This results in the expansion of the substance. Solids & liquids increase in volume. - Technically, convection is a form of radiation & conduction in combination with the motion of fluid.
  • Measuring ConductanceThe conducting ability of the material itself. (generally, the greater the density and the less air entrained, the more heat conducted)The temperature difference. (the greater the difference on each side of the material, the more heat conducted)The thickness of the material. (the less the thickness, the more heat conducted)The exposed area of the material. (the greater the area of the substance exposed to the temp. difference, the more conducted)The duration of exposure. (the longer the exposure, the more heat conducted)Thermal conductivity(k)is the heat transfer by conduction through a substance of a given thickness in a given time when a given temperature difference is applied to a given area. the units are Btu-inches per square foot per °F difference per hour OR(Btu*in)/(ft2*hr* °F)Thermal resistivity(r)is the reciprocal of conductivity. Thermal conductance (C) isthe heat transferred by conduction through a substance of a particular thickness per unit of time when a given temperature difference is applied to a given area. the units are Btu per square foot per °F difference per hour OR Btu/(ft2*hr* °F)Thermal transmittance(U)is the unit measure of the heat transferred through a building assembly per unit of time per unit of area and is the same as conductance.Conductances (C) cannot be summed to determine the transmittance U.Thermal resistance(R)is the reciprocal of conductance or transmittance. R-values can be added for an assembly R-value. To obtain an assembly U-value, take the reciprocal of the summed R-value, 1/R = U
  • The measures involved are unitless between 0.0 and 1.0.When you add the values for reflected, absorbed & transmitted radiation, the total must equal the amount of incident radiation hitting the surface.
  • Natural Convection: As the fluid is heated, it expands & rises. Once it reaches the apex, the fluid will cool and thus get heavy and drop to the bottom. Natural convection is gravity dependent.Forced Convection The fluid motion required for forced convection is caused by an external force such as a fan, pump or wind. Forced convection is not dependent on gravity and, therefore, heat flow can occur in any direction.
  • A single solid material illustrates the transfer of heat from the warmer to the cooler particles by conduction.As air is warmed by the warmer side of the air space, it rises. As it falls down along the cooler side, it transfers heat to this surface. Radiant energy is transferred from the warmer to the cooler surface. The rate depends upon the relative temperature of the surfaces and upon their emissive and absorptive qualities. Direction is always from the warmer to the cooler surface.The convective action in the air space of a roof is similar to that in a wall, although the height through which the air rises and falls is usually less. The radiant transfer is up in this case because the direction is always to the cooler side.When the higher temperature is at the top of a horizontal air space, the warm air is trapped at the top and, being less dense than the cooler air at the bottom, will not flow down to transfer its heat to the cooler surface. This results in little flow by convection. The radiant transfer in this case is down because that is the direction from the warmer surface to the cooler one.The final example of a wall illustrates the several methods by which heat is lost through a composite assembly of materials. Conduction at varying rates in different materials is accounted in the materials themselves. Convection currents and radiation carry the heat across the air space.
  • Francis D.K. Ching “Building Construction Illustrated” p 8.21
  • In Climate Zones 5-6, if structural sheathing covers ≤ 25% of the exterior, insulated sheathing isn’t required. If structural sheathing covers > 25% of the exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2.Performance R-valuei.e. spray foam insulation calculates the vapor barrier into their claimed R-value
  • Exemptions do not apply to U-factor or Total UA alternatives.Default values are very conservative and should only be used if absolutely necessary.State where default tables are located
  • Refer back to hard limits in Table.
  • SHGC: An area-weighted average of fenestration products > 50% glazed is permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirementsU-factor. An area-weighted average of fenestration products is permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements.SHGC – Ch 2 definition: The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted, or convected into the space
  • The baffle prevents the lose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened and provides a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-vale of the loose fill insulation.Drop downs have to be insulated to the same value as the rest of the ceiling.
  • Conditioned attic will not be found in IECC.
  • From Chapter 2High efficacy lamps: compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:60 lumens per watt for lamps > 40 watts50 lumens per watt for lamps > 15 watts, but < 40 watts40 lumens per watt for lamps < 15 watts
  • Whole-house pressure test section includes instructions for setting up. For example: Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors to be closed but not sealed.Field verification states that the code official can require an approved party, independent from the insulation installer, inspect the air barrier and insulation.Whole house testing will be required in 2012. ACH50 will be lower. When a building becomes so tight, must train on mechanical ventilation.
  • From IECC – air barrier & insulation component criteria
  • Capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different set points at different times of the day.
  • Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat to have controls that except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.
  • These tests apply only if the ducts are located in unconditioned space.
  • Requirements apply when systems are supplied through energy service to the building.
  • Section 503: Building Mechanical SystemsSection 504: Service Water Heating
  • Aside from these important compliance tools, a wealth of other resources are provided by BECPat www.energycodes.gov. BECP is an information resource on national model energy codes. We work with other government agencies, state and local jurisdictions, national code organizations, and industry to promote stronger building energy codes and help states adopt, implement, and enforce those codes.The program recognizes that energy codes maximize energy efficiency only when they are fully embraced by users and supported through education, implementation, and enforcement. We encourage you to visit our website and explore some of the resources and tools available to you.
  • DOE’s easy-to-use code residential compliance software, REScheck, along with associated training and support resources, is available for download at no cost at www.energycodes.gov/software.stm.
  • Entering mechanical equipment is optional, however should be done to use the UA alternative.
  • If REScheck's compliance bar indicates that your building passes the code, you may proceed to print a compliance report, even if one of the indexes is negative.
  • Performance alternative allows trade offs for U value and SHGC for windows. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using trade-offs from Section 402.1.4 or 405 are 0.48 in Zones 4 and 5 and 0.75 in Zones 4 through 8 for skylights. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration SHGC permitted using trade-offs from Section 405 in Zones 1 through 3 is 0.50.Resource: http://resourcecenter.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/ResourceCenter/article//114
  • If REScheck's compliance bar indicates that your building passes the code, you may proceed to print a compliance report, even if one of the indexes is negative.
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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Energy Code Workshop
      Students
    • 2. Welcome
      www.tecworkshop.com
    • 3. Video – TECW Intro
    • 4. Objectives
      OJECTIVE: To raise awareness of building energy codes throughout Arizona based on the 2009 IECC
    • 5. What it’s not
      The Energy Code Workshop is NOT about…
      Advocacy
      Policy
      Eco
      LEED
      Creating experts
      Compliance
      Enforcement
      Environment
      Green Rating Systems
    • 6. What is it?
      The Energy Code Workshop is…
      • Market driven
      • 7. CEU approved
      • 8. Certifying 20 Approved Trainers - Statewide
      • 9. Training1200 individuals prior to June 10, 2011
      • 10. Raising energy code awareness throughout Arizona
    • Continuing Education
    • 11. 20 Approved Trainers
    • 12. Market Driven
      Current Market Trends
      “U.S. new home sales hit record low, outlook gloomy”
      March 23, 2011
      “New home sales tumble to record low”
      March 23, 2011
      “Office vacancy rates in Valley hit record”
      Oct 15, 2009
    • 13. Code Adoption in Arizona
      107 Municipalities in Arizona35 have adopted a code (2000-2006)4 have adopted the IECC 2009Only 1 ICC Instructor in Arizona
    • 14. Energy Codes Trends
    • 15. U.S. Energy Use
      Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change
    • 16. DOE Support
      DOE and Federal Support includes:
      Participation in development andupdating of codes andstandards
      Provision of financial andtechnical assistance toadopt, implement, andenforce codes and standards.
      Provide compliancetools.
      Provide information andresources, complianceproducts, training, and energycode related news.
    • 17. Code Benefits
      Reduced energy consumption by approximately 0.5-quadrillion Btu per year by 2015,and 3.5-quadrillionBtu per yearby 2030.
      Reduced CO2 emissionsby roughly 3 percent in terms of the projected national CO2 emissions in 2030.
      Rising cost savingsmore than $4 billionper year back inhomeowners’ pockets by 2015, a figure that could rise to over $30 billion per year by 2030
    • 18. Energy Conservation Codes Are…
      Minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction:
      Residential and commercial
      New and renovations
      A component of a complete set of building regulations:
      Structural, plumbing, electrical, energy, and more
      Energy-efficiency baselines for:
      Building envelope, mechanical equipment, service water heating and lighting systems
    • 19. Intent of IECC
      Effectively conserves energy
      Minimizes increases in construction costs
      Allows the use of new materials, products, or methods of construction
      Eliminates preferential treatment for particular industries or types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction
    • 20. Code Challenges
      Code Development
      Reaching consensus on the details
      Code Adoption
      Not automatic in many states
      Code Compliance
      Learning to design using new standards and techniques
      Implementing new requirements at the jobsite
      Providing staff and resources to plan, review, and inspect
    • 21. Building Energy Codes
      International Energy Conservation Code
      ASHRAE Standard 90.1
      State and Locally Adopted Codes
    • 22. Energy Codes & Standards
      History of U.S. Residential Energy Code
    • 23. Baseline: IECC and ASHRAE 90.1
      Both IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 apply, ASHRAE 90.1 likely used
      IECC applies
      Both IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 apply, either used to comply
    • 24. Going Above and Beyond Code
      SpawGlass Construction Corporate Headquarters, Houston, TX
      ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings, 2008
    • 25. What Do Building Energy Codes
      and Standards Cover?
      For both residential and commercial:
    • Structure of IECC
      Chapter 1 Administrative
      Chapter 2 Definitions
      Chapter 3 Climate Zones
      Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
    • 30. Scope
      • IECC covers one- and two-family residences ≤ 3 stories
      • 31. All buildings that are not “residential” by definition are “commercial”
      • 32. Includes additions, alterations, renovations and repairs
      101.4
    • 33. Administrative
      Exempted Buildings
      • Existing buildings (Section 101.4.1)
      Electrical power, lighting, and mechanical systems still apply
      • Buildings designated as historic (Section 101.4.2)
      101.4.1, 101.4.2, 101.5.2
    • 34. Administrative
      Additions, Alterations, Renovations, Repairs
      Code applies to any new construction
      Unaltered portion(s) do not need to comply
      Additions can comply alone or in combination with existing building
      101.4
    • 35. Administrative
      Additions
      • Treat as a stand-alone “building”
      • 36. Additions must meet the prescriptive requirements in Table 402.1.1 (or U-factor or total UA alternatives)
      101.4.3
    • 37. Administrative
      Additions, Alterations, Renovations, Repairs
      Exceptions
      • Storm windows over existing fenestration
      • 38. Glass-only replacements
      • 39. Exposed, existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities if already filled with insulation
      • 40. Where existing roof, wall or floor cavity isn’t exposed
      • 41. Reroofing for roofs where neither sheathing nor insulation exposed
      • 42. Insulate above or below the sheathing
      • 43. Roofs without insulation in the cavity
      • 44. Sheathing or insulation is exposed
      • 45. Lighting alterations if:
      • 46. <50% of luminaries in a space are replaced
      • 47. Only bulbs and ballasts within existing luminaries are replaced (provided installed interior lighting power isn’t increased)
      Any non-conditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space is required to be brought into full compliance with code.
      101.4.3
    • 48. Administrative
      Space Conditioning
      Any non-conditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code
      Examples:
      • Converting a garage to a family room
      • 49. Heating an unfinished basement
      101.4.5
    • 50. Administrative
      Mixed Use Buildings
      • Treat the residential occupancy under the applicable residential code
      • 51. Treat the commercial occupancy under the commercial code
      101.4.6
    • 52. Administrative
      Exempted Buildings – Thermal Envelope
      • Very low energy use buildings (<3.4 Btu/h-ft2 or 1 watt/ft2) (Section 101.5.2)
      • 53. Buildings (or portions of) that are neither heated nor cooled (Section 101.5.2)
      101.4.1, 101.4.2, 101.5.2
    • 54. Structure of IECC
      Chapter 1 Administrative
      Chapter 2 Definitions
      Chapter 3 Climate Zones
      Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
    • 55. Definitions Examples
      • Air barrier – Materials “assembled and joined together”, a single material or combination of materials, i.e. sealants, acting as a system.
      • 56. Basement wall – “…enclosing conditioned space.” If unconditioned, is classified as a crawl space.
      • 57. Fenestration – includes skylights & doors.
      • 58. U-value/R-value – Reciprocal values between transmittance and resistance. Note that U-value includes air films. U-value is calculated through a “component or assembly”, and R-value through a “body”. 402.1.2 (components) and 402.1.3 (assembly) make the difference more clear. C-factoris very similar to U-value (surface to surface instead of air to air) and is used in SHGC calculations.
      • 59. High-efficacy lamps – minimum lumens/watt requirement
      • 60. Labeled and Listed – borrowed from the IBC
    • Structure of IECC
      Chapter 1 Administrative
      Chapter 2 Definitions
      Chapter 3 Climate Zones
      Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
    • 61. General Requirements
      Climate Zones
      Figure 301.1
    • 62. General Requirements
      Climate Zones
      CDD50°F – Interior base temperature = 50°F for CDD
      HDD65°F – Interior base temperature = 65°F for HDD
      Table 301.3(2)
    • 63. General Requirements
      Arizona Climate Zones
    • 64. Additional Provision: Windows
      • National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) provide a thermal rating for windows and skylights in the U.S.
    • Thermal Envelope Basics
    • 65. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer
      Heat always flows from warmer to cooler substances. Heat is transferred by three means:Conduction Radiation Convection
    • 66. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Conduction
      Conduction is the transfer of vibrating energy (heat) between adjacent molecules. Transfer is always from warmer to cooler substances. Transfer is independent of gravity and can occur in any direction (up, down, sideways).
    • 67. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Radiation
      Radiation is the transfer of heat (molecular vibrating energy) by electro-magnetic waves. Transfer is always from warmer to cooler substances. Transfer is independent of gravity and can occur in any direction (up, down, sideways).
      Surfaces must have a “line of sight” to each other for the transfer of energy.
    • 68. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Convection
      Convection is the transfer of heat (molecular vibrating energy) by a moving fluid medium (water, air). Transfer is always from warmer to cooler substances. Energy is transferred by the physical relocation of molecules as the fluid moves.
    • 69. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Conduction
      Thermal conductivity (k)
      Thermal conductance (C)
    • 70. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Resistance
      • Thermal resistance (R, or R-value) is the reciprocal of thermal conductance.
      • 71. The units are hour-square foot-°F per Btu OR (hr*ft2*°F)/ (Btu)
      • 72. The greater the R-value, the greater the thermal insulation.
    • Thermal Envelope Basics Heat Transfer: Radiation
      • Infrared, both near & far are invisible to the eye.
      • 73. Far IR is emitted from warm surfaces.
      • 74. Radiation in either of these spectrums that is transmitted or reflected retains similar wavelength characteristics.
      • 75. Radiation that is absorbed is converted to heat which is then conducted, convected, or reradiated.
      • 76. This re-radiation only occurs in far IR spectrum.
    • Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Radiation
      Incident Radiation
      Reflection – retains similar wavelength propertiesas the originating radiative energy Absorption – converted to heat and is then conducted, convected, or reradiated Transmission – retains similar wavelength propertiesHeat Loss – to the exterior and to the interior
      When adding reflection, absorption and transmission percentages, the value must equal 1.0.1
    • 77. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Emissivity
      • Emissivity is the measure of the ability of a surface to emit radiation at a given surface temperature
      • 78. The range of unitless values is 0.0 (no emittance possible) to 1.0 (ideal maximum – a “black body”).
      • 79. At any given temperature, a surface’s emissivity is exactly equal to its absorptance
    • Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer: Convection
      Natural Convection
      Forced Convection
    • 80. Thermal Envelope Basics Heat Transfer
      Roof or Floor
      Walls
    • 81. Thermal Envelope Basics
      Heat Transfer
    • 82. Chapter 4Residential Energy Efficiency
    • 83. Structure of IECC
      Chapter 1 Administrative
      Chapter 2 Definitions
      Chapter 3 Climate Zones
      Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency
      Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
    • 84. Residential
      Relationship Between IRC & IECC
      • IECC addresses only energy
      • 85. IRC addresses all topics (structural, plumbing, etc.)
      • 86. Allows builder to carry only one code book
      • 87. Chapter 11 covers energy efficiency
      • 88. IRC allows compliance with IECC as an alternative to Chapter 11
      • 89. IECC addresses both residential and commercial; IRC addresses subset of residential, detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses 3 stories or fewer
      • 90. Energy requirements in IRC and IECC almost identical
      • 91. IRC requires 0.35 SHGC in Climate Zones 1-3; IECC requires 0.30
      • 92. IRC has less stringent foundation requirements in northern zones
      • 93. Other minor differences
    • Residential Scope –
      Overview of Structure
      IECC Terminology
      • Prescriptive
      Required, but can be lessened or eliminated in trade for compensating improvements elsewhere
      • Mandatory
      Required and cannot be traded down, even in the simulated performance path
      Some elements have “hard limits”
      • aka, “trade-off limits”
      • 94. a prescriptive requirement that can only be traded so far
      • 95. performance requirements can only be traded so far
      402, 403
    • 96. Residential
      Overview of Residential Code Requirements
      • Focus is on building envelope
      Ceilings, walls, windows, floors, foundations
      Sets insulation and fenestration levels, and solar heat gain coefficients
      Infiltration control - caulk and seal to prevent air leaks
      • Ducts – seal and insulate
      • 97. Limited space heating, air conditioning, and water heating requirements
      Federal law sets most equipment efficiency requirements, not the I-codes
      • No appliance requirements
      • 98. Lighting equipment – 50% of lamps to be high-efficacy lamps
      Chapter 4
    • 99. Residential Compliance
      Certificate
      • Permanently posted on or in the electrical distribution panel
      • 100. Don’t cover or obstruct the visibility of other required labels
      • 101. Includes the following:
      R-values of insulation installed for the thermal building envelope, including ducts outside conditioned spaces
      U-factors for fenestration
      SHGC for fenestration
      HVAC efficiencies and types
      Water heating equipment
      401.3
    • 102. Residential Scope
      Overview of Structure
      Mandatory Requirements (apply everywhere):
      Climate-Specific Requirements:
      • Foundations
      Basements
      Slabs
      Crawlspaces
      • Above grade walls
      • 108. Skylights, windows, and doors
      • 109. Roofs
      • 110. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient in warm climates
      Chapter 4
    • 111. 59
      Residential Scope
      Compliance Pathways
      Mandatory Provisions
      Prescriptive
      Section 403.2.1 & 404.1
      Envelope Section 402
      Envelope Provisions
      Section 402.2, 402.3.3 thru 402.3.6 & 402.5 (As Applies)
      Simulated Performance Section 405
      Fenestration
      Insulation Requirements
      OR
      OR
      Section 402.1.3 & 402.1.4 (Trade-Off)
      Section 402.1.1 & 402.1.2 (Tabular)
      Section 402.3.1 & 402.3.2 (Trade-Off)
      Table 402.1.3
      Project Complies
    • 112. Thermal Envelope
    • 113. Residential Envelope
      Insulation & Fenestration by Climate Zone
      Table 402.1.1Insulation and Fenestration Requirements by Component
      Note: Most of the tables have footnotes which can also contain requirements.
      Table 402.1.1
    • 114. Residential Envelope
      Insulation & Fenestration by Climate Zone
      a. R-values are minimums, U-factors and SHGC are maximums, R-19 batts compressed into a nominal 2 x 6 framing cavity such that the R-value is reduced by R-1 or more shall be marked with the compressed battR-value in addition to the full thickness R-value.
      b. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
      c. “15/19” means R-15 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-19 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall. “15/19” shall be permitted to be met with R-13 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall plus R-5 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home. “10/13” means R-10 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall.
      d. R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs. Insulation depth shall be the depth of the footing or 2 feet, whichever is less in Zones 1 through 3 for heated slabs.
      e. There are no SHGC requirements in the Marine Zone.
      f. Basement wall insulation is not required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure 301.1 and Table 301.1.
      g. Or insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity, R-19 minimum.
      h. “13+5” means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2.
      i. The second R-value applies when more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.
      j. For impact rated fenestration complying with Section R301.2.1.2 of the IRC or Section 1608.1.2 of the IBC, maximum U-factor shall be 0.75 in Zone 2 and 0.65 in Zone 3.
      Table 402.1.1
    • 115. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 120. Residential Envelope
      Floors Over Unconditioned Space
      Exception: If framing members are too small to accommodate R-30, insulation that fills the framing cavity, not less than R-19, complies
      Table 402.1.1
    • 121. Residential Envelope
      Floors Over Unconditioned Space
      Unconditioned space includes unheated basement, vented crawlspace, or outdoor air
      *
      *
      Insulation must maintain permanent contact with underside of subfloor
      * Exception
      Climate Zones 4c-8 R-19 permitted if cavity completely filled
      402.2.8
    • 122. Residential Envelope
      Steel-Frame Floors
      Cold-Formed Steel
      Equivalent R-value
      Wood Frame R-value
      Table 402.2.5Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation (R-Value)
      Steel Truss Ceilings
      R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
      R-30
      R-49 or R-38 + 3
      R-38
      Table keys on the wood-frame requirement for the corresponding building component
      R-38 + 5
      R-49
      Steel Joist Ceilings
      R-38 in 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8
      R-49 any framing
      R-30
      • “R-X + Y” means R-X cavity plus R-Y continuous
      • 123. Exception: In climate zones 1 and 2, the continuous R-value can be reduced to R-3 for walls on 24” centers
      R-49 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8, or 2x10
      R-38
      Steel Framed Wall
      R-13 + 5 or R-15 +4, or R-21 +3 or R-0+10
      R-13
      R-13 + 9 or R-19 +8 or R-25 +7
      R-19
      R-13 +10 or R-19 +9 or R-25 +8
      R-21
      Steel Joist Floor
      R-19, 2x6
      R-19 + 6 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-13
      R-19 + 6 in 2x6
      R-19 +12 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-19
      Table 402.2.5
    • 124. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 129. Residential Envelope
      Slab Edge Insulation
      Figure 2
      Flashing
      Protection
      Board
      RigidInsulation
      Applies to slabs with a floor surface < 12 inches below grade
      • R-10 (typically 2 inches) insulation in Zones 4 and above
      • 130. Must extend downward from top of slab a minimum of 24” (Zones 4 and 5) or 48” (Zones 6, 7, and 8)
      • 131. Insulation can be vertical or extend horizontally under the slab or out from the building
      • 132. Insulation extending outward must be under 10 inches of soil or pavement
      An additional R-5 is required for heated slabs
      Insulation depth of the footing or 2 feet, whichever is less in Zones 1-3 for heated slabs
      Slab
      Figure 3
      Slab
      RigidInsulation
      Figure 4
      Slab
      RigidInsulation
      402.2.8
    • 133. Residential Envelope
      Slab Edge Insulation
      Bevel Cut
      Slab
      RigidInsulation
      402.2.8
    • 134. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 139. Residential Envelope
      Crawlspace Wall Insulation
      Implies an unvented crawlspace (aka, conditioned crawlspace)
      • Space must be mechanically vented or receive minimal supply air (see Section R408 of the IRC)
      • 140. Exposed earth must be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder
      402.2.9
    • 141. Residential Envelope
      Vented and Unvented Crawlspaces
      Vented Crawlspace Requirements:
      • The raised floor over the crawlspace must be insulated.
      • 142. A vapor retarder may be required as part of the floor assembly.
      • 143. Ventilation openings must exist that are equal to at least 1 square foot for each 150 square feet of crawlspace area and be placed to provide cross-flow (IRC 408.1, may be less if ground vapor retarder is installed).
      • 144. Ducts in crawlspace must be sealed and have R-6 insulation.
      Unvented Crawlspace Requirements:
      • The crawlspace ground surface must be covered with an approved vapor retarder (e.g., plastic sheeting).
      • 145. Crawlspace walls must be insulated to the R-value requirements specific for crawlspace walls (IECC Table 402.1.1).
      • 146. Crawlspace wall insulation must extend from the top of the wall to the inside finished grade and then 24” vertically or horizontally.
      • 147. Crawlspaces must be mechanically vented (1 cfm exhaust per 50 square feet) or conditioned (heated and cooled as part of the building envelope).
      • 148. Ducts are inside conditioned space and therefore don’t need to be insulated.
      IECC & IRC
    • 149. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 154. Residential Envelope
      Walls
      • Exterior above-grade walls
      • 155. Attic kneewalls
      • 156. Skylight shaft walls
      • 157. Perimeter/rim joists
      • 158. Basement walls
      • 159. Garage walls (shared with conditioned space)
      Section 202, Tables 402.1.1, 402.1.3 & 402.2.5
    • 160. Residential Envelope
      Above Grade Walls
      Insulate walls including those
      next to unconditioned spaces
      Don’t forget to insulate rim joists
      Section 202, Tables 402.1.1, 402.1.3 & 402.2.5
    • 161. Residential Envelope
      Wood Frame Walls
      Required R-value can be met with any combination of cavity or continuous insulation
      Exception in zones 5-6: R-13 cavity plus R-5 sheathing meets R-20 requirement
      h. “13+5” means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2.
      Table 402.1.1
    • 162. Residential Envelope
      Steel-Frame Walls
      Cold-Formed Steel
      Equivalent R-value
      Wood Frame R-value
      Table 402.2.5Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation (R-Value)
      Steel Truss Ceilings
      R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
      R-30
      R-49 or R-38 + 3
      R-38
      Table keys on the wood-frame requirement for the corresponding building component
      R-38 + 5
      R-49
      Steel Joist Ceilings
      R-38 in 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8
      R-49 any framing
      R-30
      • “R-X + Y” means R-X cavity plus R-Y continuous
      • 163. Exception: In climate zones 1 and 2, the continuous R-value can be reduced to R-3 for walls on 24” centers
      R-49 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8, or 2x10
      R-38
      Steel Framed Wall
      R-13 + 5 or R-15 +4, or R-21 +3 or R-0+10
      R-13
      R-13 + 9 or R-19 +8 or R-25 +7
      R-19
      R-13 +10 or R-19 +9 or R-25 +8
      R-21
      Steel Joist Floor
      R-19, 2x6
      R-19 + 6 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-13
      R-19 + 6 in 2x6
      R-19 +12 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-19
      Table 402.2.5
    • 164. Residential Envelope
      Mass Walls
      What type
      • Concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form (ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth*, and solid timber/logs
      Provisions
      • Are assumed to be above grade walls
      * Earth includes adobe, compressed earth block, and rammed earth
      402.2.4
    • 165. Residential Envelope
      Mass Wall Requirements
      Second (higher) number applies when more than half the R-value is on the interior of the mass (i.e., when the thermal mass is insulated from the conditioned space)
      Table 402.1.1
    • 166. Residential Envelope
      Defining Below-Grade Walls
      Basement Wall –>50% below grade
      Below grade
      Basement wall
      Exterior Wall –
      <50% below grade
      202, 402.2.7
    • 167. Residential Envelope
      Below-Grade Walls
      • ≥ 50% below grade
      • 168. Otherwise treat as above-grade wall
      Insulated from top of basement wall down to 10 ft below grade or basement floor, whichever is less
      202, 402.2.7
    • 169. Residential Envelope
      Below-Grade Walls
      • “X/Y” means R-X continuous or R-Y cavity
      • 170. 15/19 requirement can be met with R-13 cavity (interior) plusR-5 continuous (exterior)
      • 171. In zone 3, no insulation required in warm-humid counties
      Table 402.1.1
    • 172. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 177. Residential Envelope Fenestration
      Doors and windows
      • NFRC rating or default table
      If not labeled with U-factor and SHGC, use default table (Tables 303.1.3(1), 303.1.3(2) & 303.1. 3(3))
      • No glass area limits
      • 178. Exemptions (prescriptive path only)
      Up to 15 ft2 of glazing per dwelling unit (Section 402.3.3)
      One side-hinged opaque door assembly up to 24 ft2(Section 402.3.4)
      303.1.3, Tables 303.1.3(1), 303.1.3(2), 303.1.3(3)
    • 179. Residential Envelope
      Skylights
      402.3.5
    • 181. Residential Envelope
      Locations with Window SHGC Requirements
      0.30 SHGC
      Equal to climate zones 1A, 2A, 2B, 3A & 3B
      Table 402.1.1
    • 182. Residential Envelope Fenestration: Area Weighted Average
      • Can be used to satisfy U-factor and SHGC requirements
      • 183. Subject to hard limits, even in trade-offs
      404.3.1, 402.3.2
    • 184. Residential Envelope Fenestration Trade-off Limits
      Hard limits on U-factor in northern U.S. (cannot be exceeded, even in trade-offs)
      • U-0.75 for skylights in Zones 4-8
      • 185. U-factors of individual windows or skylights can be higher if maximum area-weighted average is below these limits.
      402.5
    • 186. Residential Envelope Fenestration Trade-off Limits, cont’d
      Hard limit on Solar Heat Gain Coefficient in southern U.S. (Zones 1-3)
      • SHGC cannot exceed0.50, even in performance trade-offs
      402.5
    • 187. Residential Envelope
      Sunrooms
      Less stringent insulation
      R-value and glazing
      U-factor requirements
      Sunroom definition:
      • One story structure
      • 188. Glazing area >40% glazing ofgross exterior wall and roof area
      • 189. Separate heating or coolingsystem or zone
      • 190. Must be thermally isolated(closeable doors or windows tothe rest of the house)
      • 191. Can always meet Table 402.1.1 requirements with unlimited glass
      202, 402.2,11, 402.3.5
    • 192. Residential Envelope
      Sunrooms
      • Ceiling Insulation
      Zones 1-4 R-19
      Zones 5-8 R-24
      • Wall Insulation
      All zones R-13
      • Fenestration U-Factor
      Zones 4-8 0.50
      • Skylight U-Factor
      Zones 4-8 0.75
      402.2.11, 402.3.5
    • 193. Residential Envelope
      Specific Requirements
      Building Envelope consists of:
      Above grade
      Below grade
      Mass walls
      attic
      Conditioned Space
    • 198. Residential Envelope
      Ceilings
      Requirements based on
      • Assembly type
      • 199. Continuous insulation
      • 200. Insulation between framing
      (cavity insulation)
      Meet or exceed R-values
      402.2.1, 402.2.2, Tables 402.1.1 & 402.1.3
    • 201. Residential Envelope
      Ceilings
      R-values are to be printed on the batt insulation or rigid foam board.
      Blown-in insulation must have an insulation certificate at or near the opening of the attic.
      The certificate should include:
      • R-value of installed thickness
      • 202. Initial installed thickness
      • 203. Installed density
      • 204. Settled thickness/settled R-value
      • 205. Coverage area
      • 206. Number of bags installed
      Insulation markers must be installed every 300 square feet and be marked with the minimum installed thickness and affixed to the trusses or joists.
      303.1.1, 303.1.1.1, 303.1.2
    • 207. Residential Envelope
      Ceilings with Attics
      Possibility ofice dam formations
      Ceiling insulation requirementsin R-value table assumestandard truss systems
      Insulation
      Cold corners contributeto condensation andmold growth insome locations
      Insulation
      402.2.1, Table 402.1.1
    • 208. Residential Envelope
      Ceilings with Attics, cont’d
      Insulation at fullthickness over
      exterior
      walls
      Prescriptive R-value path encourages
      raised heel truss (aka, energy truss)
      Insulation
      • If insulation is full height over exterior wall top plate
      • 209. R-30 complies where R-38 is required
      • 210. R-38 complies where R-49 is required
      Insulation
      Note: this reduction ONLY applies to the R-value prescriptive path, not the U-factor or Total UA alternatives
      402.2.1, Table 402.1.1
    • 211. Residential Envelope
      Ceilings without Attic Spaces (e.g., vaulted)
      • Where insulation levels are required > R-30, and
      • 212. The design of the roof/ceiling does not allow sufficient amount of space to meet higher levels,
      • 213. R-30 allowed for 500 ft2 or 20% total insulated ceiling area, whichever is less
      Note: This reduction ONLY applies to the R-value prescriptive path, not the U-factor or Total UA alternatives
      402.2.2, Table 402.1.1
    • 214. Residential Envelope
      Steel-Frame Ceiling
      Cold-Formed Steel
      Equivalent R-value
      Wood Frame R-value
      Table 402.2.5Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation
      (R-Value)
      Steel Truss Ceilings
      R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
      R-30
      R-49 or R-38 + 3
      R-38
      Table keys on the wood-frame requirement for the corresponding building component
      R-38 + 5
      R-49
      • “R-X + Y” means R-X cavity plus R-Y continuous
      • 215. Exception: In climate zones 1 and 2, the continuous R-value can be reduced to R-3 for walls on 24” centers
      Steel Joist Ceilings
      R-38 in 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8
      R-49 any framing
      R-30
      R-49 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8, or 2x10
      R-38
      Steel Framed Wall
      R-13 + 5 or R-15 +4, or R-21 +3 or R-0+10
      R-13
      R-13 + 9 or R-19 +8 or R-25 +7
      R-19
      R-13 +10 or R-19 +9 or R-25 +8
      R-21
      Steel Joist Floor
      R-19, 2x6
      R-19 + 6 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-13
      R-19 + 6 in 2x6
      R-19 +12 in 2x8 or 2x10
      R-19
      Table 402.2.5
    • 216. Residential Envelope
      Access Hatches & Doors)
      Weatherstrip and insulate doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces)
      • Insulate to level equivalent to surrounding surfaces
      e.g., required ceiling insulation = R-38, then attic hatch must be insulated to R-38
      Provide access to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation
      Install a wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer when loose fill insulation is installed
      402.2.3
    • 217. Residential Envelope Conditioned Attics
      Conditioned attic will not be found in the IECC
      Refer to the IRC for requirements
      • Insulate at roof deck
      • 218. Refer to IRC for ventilation (IRC Section R806.4)
      • 219. Insulation for condensation control (IRC Table R806.4)
    • Lighting
    • 220. Residential Lighting
      Lighting Equipment: Prescriptive
      A minimum of 50 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be high-efficacy lamps
      404.1
    • 221. Air Leakage
    • 222. Residential Envelope
      Mandatory Requirements: Air Leakage
      Ceiling
      Chimney
      Lights
      Penetrations
      Attic Hatch
      Exterior
      Door
      Window
      Wiring
      Floor
      Foundation
      Plumbing
      402.4
    • 226. Residential Envelope
      Air Leakage Control
      Building thermal envelope
      Durably sealed
      402.4.1
    • 231. Residential Envelope
      Areas for Air Leakage: Infiltration
      402.4
    • 239. Residential Envelope
      Air Sealing & Insulation
      Two options to demonstrate compliance
      • Whole-house pressure test
      Air leakage <7 ACH when tested at pressure of 50 Pascals
      Testing may occur any time after rough in and installation of building envelope penetrations
      • Field verification of items listed in Table 402.4.2.
      402.4.2.1, 402.4.2.2, Table 402.4.2
    • 240. Residential Envelope
      Air Sealing & Insulation
      Table 402.4.2
    • 241. Residential Envelope
      Mandatory: Fenestration Air Leakage
      Exceptions
      • Site-built windows, skylights, and doors
      402.4.4
    • 242. Residential Envelope
      Fireplaces
      New wood-burning fireplaces shall have
      gasketed doors and outdoor combustion air
      402.4.3
    • 243. Residential Lighting
      Recessed Fixtures
      • Type IC rated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm of air movement
      • 244. Sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering
      402.4.5
    • 245. Systems & Equipment
    • 246. Residential Mechanical
      Systems & Equipment
      Equipment efficiency set by Federal law, not the I-Codes
    • 247. Residential Systems
      Mandatory: Programmable Thermostat Controls
      If primary heating system is a forced-air furnace
      • At least one programmable thermostat/dwelling unit
      • 248. Capability to set back or temporarily operate the systemto maintain zone temperatures
      down to 55ºF (13ºC) or
      up to 85ºF (29ºC)
      • Initially programmed with:
      heating temperature set point nohigher than 70ºF (21ºC) and
      cooling temperature set point nolower than 78ºF (26ºC)
      403.1.1
    • 249. Residential Systems
      Heat Pump Supplementary Heat: Controls
      Prevent supplementary electric-resistance heat when heat pump can meet the heating load
      Exception
      • During defrost
      403.1.2
    • 250. Residential Systems
      Ducts
      • Insulation (Prescriptive)
      Supply ducts in attics: R-8
      All other ducts: R-6
      • Sealing (Mandatory)
      Joints and seams shall comply with IRC, Section M1601.4.1
      All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed (Section 403.2.2)
      • Building framing cavities shall not be used as supply ducts
      403.2
    • 251. Residential Systems
      Duct Location & Insulation: Examples
      403.2
    • 252. Residential Systems
      Duct Tightness Tests
      Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:
      • Post construction test
      Leakage to outdoors: ≤8 cfm/per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area or
      Total leakage: ≤12 cfm/per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area
      tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 in w.g. (25Pa) across entire system, including manufacturer’s air handler enclosure
      All register boots taped or otherwise sealed
      • Rough-in test
      Total leakage ≤6 cfm/per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area
      tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 in w.g. (25Pa) across roughed-in system, including manufacturer’s air handler enclosure
      all register boots taped or otherwise sealed
      if air handler not installed at time of test
      Total air leakage ≤4 cfm/per 100 ft2
      Exceptions: Duct tightness test is not required if the air handler and all ducts are located within conditioned space
      403.2.2
    • 253. Residential Systems
      Piping Insulation
      • R-3 required on
      HVAC systems
      Exception: Piping that conveys fluids between 55 and 105°F
      • R-2 required on
      All circulating domestic hot water systems
      Systems also require a readily accessible manual switch
      403.3
    • 254. Residential Systems
      Ventilation & Equipment Sizing
      • Ventilation
      Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating
      • Equipment Sizing
      IECC references Section M1401.3 of the IRC
      Load calculations determine the proper capacity (size) of equipment
      Goal is big enough to ensure comfort but no bigger
      Calculations shall be performed in accordance with ACCA Manual J & S or other approved methods
      403.5, 403.6
    • 255. Residential Systems
      Snow Melt System Controls
      Snow- and ice-melting system controls
      • Automatic shutoff when pavement temperature is > 50F and no precipitation is falling
      • 256. Automatic or manual shutoff when outdoor temperature is > 40F
      403.8
    • 257. Residential Systems
      Pools
      • Pool heaters
      with a readily accessible on-off switch
      fired by natural gas not allowed tohave continuously burning pilot lights
      • Time switches to automaticallyturn off and on heaters andpumps according to a presetschedule installed on swimmingpool heaters and pumps
      Exceptions
      Public health standards requiring 24-hour pump operation
      Pumps operating pools with solar-waste-heat recovery heating systems
      403.9
    • 258. Residential Systems
      Pool Covers
      On heated pools
      • If heated to >90°F, vapor-retardant pool cover at least R-12
      Exception:
      • If >60% of energy from site-recovered or solar energy source
      403.9.3
    • 259. Residential Systems
      Multiple Dwelling Units
      Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections 503 and 504 in lieu of Section 403
      403.7
    • 260. U-Factor & Total UA Alternatives
    • 261. Residential Envelope
      U-Factor and Total UA Alternatives
      U-factor Alternative
      • Similar to Prescriptive R-Value but uses U-factors instead
      Allows for innovative or less common construction techniques such as structural insulated panels or advanced framing
      Allows no trade-offs between building components
      Total UA Alternative
      • Same as U-factor alternative but allows trade-offs across all envelope components
      Primary approach used in REScheck software
      UA – U factor x area of assembly
      402.1.3, 402.1.4
    • 262. Residential Envelope
      Climate Zone Requirements: U-Factor Table
      Table 402.1.3
    • 263. Climate Zones
      U-Factor Minimum
      1
      0.17
      2
      0.14
      3
      0.12
      0.10
      4 except Marine
      4 Marine
      0.57 same as above grade frame wall
      5-8
      Residential Envelope
      Mass Walls: U-Factor
      Provisions
      • When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors:
      0.57 same as above grade frame wall
      Table 402.1.3 Footnote b
    • 264. Simulated Performance
    • 265. Residential Envelope
      Simulated Performance Alternative
      • Requires computer software with specified capabilities (local official may approve other tools)
      • 266. Includes both envelope and some systems
      • 267. Are treated equally in standard and proposed design
      • 268. Allows greatest flexibility
      Can trade-off tight duct systems
      • Defines compliance based on equivalency of calculated energy or energy cost
      • 269. Section 405 specifies “ground rules”
      These will generally be “hidden” in compliance software calculation algorithms
      Very similar ground rules are used in home federal tax credits and ENERGY STAR Home guidelines
      Section 405
    • 270. Software Tools for ComplianceREScheck™
    • 271. www.energycodes.gov
    • 272. REScheck™ DOE’s residential compliance software
      Desktop Software Tools
      Web-Based Tools
      (Windows or Mac version)
      No-cost, easy-to-use software that will demonstrate compliance.
      www.energycodes.gov/software.stm
    • 273. REScheck™
      Overview of Tool
      Various Screen and Options
      Compliance Methods
      AreaCalc Spreadsheet
      Reports
    • 274. REScheck™
      MAIN STEPS
      Select the Appropriate Code
      Complete Project Screen: location, building characteristics, and project details (optional)
      Enter Building Components
      In many cases, components with the same construction characteristics can be totaled and entered as one component.
      Example: If all exterior walls are wood frame 16"o.c. with R-13 cavity insulation, sum the gross area of every exterior wall and enter one wall component
      4. Enter Mechanical Equipment (Optional)
      5. View/Print the Compliance Report
      6. Save the Data File and the Report
    • 275. REScheck™
      PREFERENCES
      • Edit Menu
      General
      File Options
      Beyond Code
      Version Update
    • 276. REScheck™
      PREFERENCES
      • Edit Menu
      Project Details
      Set default settings for ENVELOPE and CODE
      Orientation is primarily required for the performance compliance method.
    • 277. REScheck™
      PREFERENCES
      • Edit Menu
      Applicant
      Input information about the
      Owner and Designer
    • 278. REScheck™
      PREFERENCES
      • Edit Menu
      Reports
      Signature Lines
      Email report
    • 279. REScheck™
      REScheck provides the option of 2 Compliance Paths-
      • UA Tradeoff -- The traditional REScheck trade-off approach is based on trading thermal conductance (U-factor times surface area) between envelope components.
      • 280. Equipment Performance -- Involves an hour-by-hour energy simulation to determine whether the HVAC efficiency improvements make up for an otherwise failing envelope.
      • 281. REScheck requires a few additional inputs (e.g., orientation) to support the energy simulation.
      • 282. To comply with the 2009 IECC, you must pass by EITHER the UA Tradeoff index OR the Equipment Performance index, but you do not need to pass both.
    • REScheck™
      Compliance Methods
      - UA Trade Off
      - Performance Alternative
      UA Trade Off-
      U Value – Table 402.1
      SHGC – Table 402.1
      Performance Alternative
      Specify – Wall orientations
      Existing Buildings cannot be Analyzed using REScheck
      Only New Construction
      Mechanical Systems
      SHGC Permitted – 0.50 (Climate Zones 1-3)
    • 283. REScheck™
      Envelope Screen
      • Changes based on code and/or location selected
      – SHGC column
      – Orientation
      For the Performance Alternative
      • Need to Specify Orientation of All walls and Windows
      • 284. Need to specify efficiency of heating and cooling systems
    • REScheck™
      Mechanical tab in REScheck is optional.
      • Mechanical systems entered in REScheck should be the primary HVAC system.
      • 285. Emergency back up heat-should not be entered in REScheck.
      • 286. If equipment efficiency exceeds minimum requirements- high-efficiency equipment credit is applied as a percent increase in the code house UA.
    • REScheck™ Screen Operations
      Screen Operations
      Color : Red
      • Indicative of Non-Compliance
      • 287. Indicative of Incomplete information
      Color: Green
      • Indicative of Compliance
      Color: Blue
      • TBD
      Compliance Bar
      Status Bar
    • 288. REScheck™ Area Calc Spreadsheet
      • A spreadsheet-like interface is used to calculate window, door, skylight, roof, wall, and floor areas.
      • 289. These areas can then be transferred directly into REScheckwhere the code compliance results for those assemblies can be displayed.
    • REScheck™ View/Print Reports
      View/Print Reports
      • Compliance Certificate
      • 290. Inspection Checklist
      • 291. Panel Certificate
    • REScheck™
      DEMONSTRATION
    • 292. REScheck™ Compliance Certificate
    • 293. REScheck™ Compliance Certificate
    • 294. REScheck™ Compliance Certificate
    • 295. REScheck™ Compliance Certificate
    • 296. REScheck™ Inspection Checklist
      Inspection Checklist
      • Mandatory requirements
      • 297. Code presumes these
      requirements are met
      • Moisture control
      • 298. Building mechanical systems and equipment
      • 299. Service water heating
      • 300. Duct construction and insulation
    • The Shifting Arizona Market
    • 301. Single-Family Building Permits:
      Phoenix and Maricopa County
    • 302. Case Study Residential Remodel& photo tour
    • 303. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
    • 304. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      Before Retrofit Building Features
      • 2 x 4 wood framed construction, R-13 batt insulation
      • 305. Wood framed roof construction, no attic insulation
      • 306. Single pane windows, vinyl and wood frame
      • 307. Gas furnace, low-efficiency air conditioner
      • 308. INEFFICIENT HOUSE
      • 309. LEAKY AND UNINSULATED
      • 310. HIGH ENERGY BILLS
      • 311. PRE-RETROFIT HERS INDEX: 238
    • 312.
    • 313.
    • 314. YouthBuild
    • 315.
    • 316. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      STRATEGY
      • Reduce Building Envelope Heat Gain and Loss
      • 317. Reduce Internal Heat Gains
      • 318. Reduce Air Infiltration and Leakage
      Consequently,
      Heating & Cooling Loads were significantly LOWERED
      - Install high efficiency heating and cooling system
    • 319. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      BUILDING ENVELOPE
      • Windows
      Previously: single pane, with high U-value
      Replaced by: double pane, low-e insulating glass
      • Attic
      Previously: negligible, misaligned roof insulation
      Replaced by: R-38
      blown-in roof insulation
      INSULATION: BEYOND CODE
      FENESTRATION: BEYOND CODE
      STRATEGY: REDUCE ENVELOPE LOADS
    • 320. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      INFILTRATION AND DUCT LEAKAGE
      • Air Infiltration- a major cause of energy loss in homes
      • 321. Cracks and crevices allow for air leakage – leading to higher heating and cooling loads.
      • 322. Up to 40% of the home’s energy can be lost through the attic.
      • 323. The EnergyComplete system used in the case study project reduces whole house infiltration
      INFILTRATION: Significantly BETTER
      STRATEGY: REDUCE INFILTRATION
    • 324. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      INTERNAL LOADS
      • High efficiency lighting
      • 325. EnergyStar certified appliances
      • 326. Dishwasher
      • 327. Refrigerator
      STRATEGY: REDUCE INTERNAL LOADS
    • 328. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM
      • High efficiency heating and cooling systems.
      • 329. Old Domestic Hot Water System Replaced by an Instant Hot water system, Natural Gas, 0.80 EF.
      HEATING & COOLING: BEYOND CODE
      STRATEGY: REDUCE INTERNAL LOADS
    • 330. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      After Retrofit Building Features
      • Reduced Infiltration and duct leakage
      • 331. Insulated supply and return ducts
      • 332. EFFICIENT HOUSE
      • 333. POST-RETROFIT HERS INDEX: 58
      • 334. 2 x 4 wood framed construction, R-13 batt insulation
      • 335. R-5 exterior continuous insulation
      • 336. R-38 roof insulation
      • 337. Double pane windows
      • 338. Gas furnace, high-efficiency 94 AFUE
      • 339. High-efficiency AC – 16 SEER
    • Residential Case Study
      NAHB National Green Building Program
      Pre-retrofit
      238
      180% more efficient
      42% more efficient
      58
      Post-retrofit
      HERS Index is a scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET)
    • 340. Residential Case Study
      NAHB National Green Building Program
      Estimated Monthly Electricity Charge
      HERS Ratings
      Estimated Annual
      Utility SAVINGS
    • 341. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      1204 E Oregon
      purchase price – 55k
      sales price – 160k
      days on market - 25
    • 342. Residential Case Study
      Retrofit of Existing Building: Central Phoenix
      Video – Case Study
    • 343. Resources
    • 344. Resources
      http://www.iccsafe.org
      http://www.energycodes.gov
      http://bcap-energy.org
      http://www.naseo.org
      http://www.eere.energy.gov
      https://energycode.pnl.gov/REScheckWeb/
      https://energycode.pnl.gov/COMcheckWeb/
      http://resourcecenter.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/ResourceCenter
    • 345. Welcome
      www.tecworkshop.com