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Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment
 

Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment

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    Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment Human Resource Development In A Cultrually Diverse Environment Presentation Transcript

    • HRD in a Culturally Diverse Environment Chapter 14
    • Questions to Consider - 1
      • What is the current status of women and people of color in the U.S. workforce?
      • Is there a “glass ceiling” that limits the advancement of women and people of color in U.S. organizations?
    • Questions to Consider - 2
      • How do equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, and managing diversity differ?
      • How effective are the diversity training programs that are used by organizations?
    • Questions to Consider - 3
      • What can organizations do to better prepare their employees to deal with cross-cultural issues, especially if they are sent to work in another country?
      • What types of HRD programs can organizations use to develop and promote a more culturally diverse workforce?
    • Workforce Diversity
      • Increased attention to recruiting, hiring, and developing a more diverse workforce.
        • Greatest amount of attention has been paid to racial and gender diversity.
        • Other forms of diversity are increasingly being considered:
          • Nationality
          • Language
          • Ability/Disability
          • Religion
          • Lifestyle
    • Organizational Culture
      • Definition:
      • “A set of shared values, beliefs, norms, artifacts and patterns of behavior that are used as a frame of reference for the way one looks at, attempts to understand, and works within an organization.”
    • Organizational Culture and Workforce Diversity
      • What is the impact of increasing workforce diversity on organizational culture?
      • People from diverse cultures (or subcultures) often possess different assumptions, values, beliefs and experiences.
        • What can be gained from this richness of experience?
        • What are the potential problems with such diversity?
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Two main forms of discrimination:
      • Access discrimination
      • – Jobs are unavailable (or less available) to people with certain characteristics or backgrounds.
      • Treatment discrimination
      • – People are treated differently after they are hired (e.g., in the training or promotion opportunities available).
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Treatment discrimination against women in organizations
        • Promotion
        • Pay
        • Sexual Harassment
      • What evidence is there of progress in these areas?
      • Where are there still significant disparities or problems?
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Sexual harassment
        • Unwanted sexual comments or behavior at work.
        • Two main forms:
          • Quid pro quo
          • Hostile work environment
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Treatment discrimination against minorities in organizations
        • Promotion
        • Racial Harassment
      • What evidence is there of progress in these areas?
      • Where are there still large disparities or problems?
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
        • Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and other federal laws make it generally unlawful for employers to make decisions based on:
          • Race
          • Color
          • Sex
          • National origin
          • Age
          • Disability/Handicap
          • Veteran’s Status
          • Pregnancy
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
      • Equal Employment Opportunity
        • Monitored by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
        • Federal Civil Rights laws cover:
          • All races
          • All colors
          • Both genders
        • Glass ceiling – An invisible but impenetrable boundary preventing women and minorities from advancing to senior management levels.
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Affirmative Action Programs
        • Initiated in 1965 by Executive Order 11246.
        • Focus on government agencies and contractors.
        • Monitored by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP).
        • Promotes efforts “to bring members of underrepresented groups… into a higher degree of participation in some beneficial program.”
        • Most often targeted at women and minorities.
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Steps to meet Affirmative Action (AA) requirements:
        • Written policy statement on EEO/AA.
        • Designated AA officer.
        • Publicized EEO/AA policy statement.
        • Labor market analysis.
        • Goals and timetables established for any underrepresented group.
        • Specific programs to achieve these goals.
        • Internal reporting system.
        • Internal and external support systems for AA.
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Why is Affirmative Action such a volatile topic in the U.S.?
      • What is happening in the courts and in State legislation that is impacting affirmative action?
      • How effective have affirmative action efforts been in promoting racial and gender diversity in the U.S. workforce?
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Valuing differences and diversity training
        • Creating an environment where “each person’s cultural differences are respected” (Walker).
        • Basis for much of the diversity training conducted since 1980.
        • Goal: to make employees aware of their attitudes towards others, and increase their understanding and acceptance of others.
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Effectiveness of diversity training programs:
        • Anecdotal evidence of increasing awareness from “valuing differences” approach.
        • Concern for lack of tangible outcomes from this approach, plus charges that it is too often driven by a “political” agenda.
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Managing diversity :
        • “ A comprehensive managerial process for developing an organizational culture that works for all employees” (Thomas).
        • Seeks to “create a level playing field for all employees without regard to cultural distinction.”
        • Goes beyond affirmative action or valuing diversity.
    • Comparing Affirmative Action and Diversity Management
      • Affirmative Action
      • Reactive, based on law/moral basis
      • Not directly linked to team building
      • Emphasizes women and people of color
      • Emphasizes employees
      • Diversity Management
      • Proactive
      • Emphasizes building diverse teams
      • Inclusive
      • Diversity internally and externally
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Requirements for managing diversity:
        • A long-term commitment to change.
        • Substantive changes in the organizational culture.
        • A modified definition of the leadership and management roles.
        • Both individual and organizational adaptation.
        • Structural changes. (Ivancevich & Gilbert, 2000)
    • Adapting to Demographic Changes
      • Effectiveness of managing diversity approaches:
        • Anecdotal evidence of success using this approach.
        • Lack of strong empirical evidence for overall effectiveness.
        • Must ensure that efforts are strategic, proactive, and grounded in solid empirical and theoretical research.
    • Cross-Cultural Education and Training Programs
      • Impact of globalization: numerous employees sent on expatriate assignments.
      • Common elements of cross-cultural training:
        • Raise awareness of cultural differences.
        • Focus on ways that attitudes are shaped.
        • Provide factual information about each culture.
        • Build skills (e.g., language, non-verbal communication, stress management, and adjustment skills).
    • HRD Programs for Culturally Diverse Employees
      • Existing HRD programs can be used to promote cultural diversity:
        • Socialization and orientation
        • Career development
        • Mentoring women and minorities
        • Sexual and racial harassment training
    • Some Concluding Thoughts on HRD and Cultural Diversity - 1
      • The past forty years have seen real progress in promoting cultural diversity in the U.S. workforce.
      • However, this progress has occurred very slowly, and there is still a long way to go.
    • Some Concluding Thoughts on HRD and Cultural Diversity - 2
      • Legal efforts (EEO, AA) have had some impact.
      • Efforts based on moral imperatives (“The right thing to do,” AA, diversity training) have had some impact.
      • Efforts based on economic arguments (diversity management) have had some impact.
    • Summary
      • Managing a culturally diverse workforce requires a long-term, integrated effort.
      • Success is most likely with:
        • Top management commitment.
        • An inclusive view of diversity.
        • Actions based on a combination of legal, moral, and economic arguments.
        • Coordinated HRD efforts that promote diversity.
      • Diversity defines our world. How will you respond?