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  • 1. Fundamentals of Investments 18 C h a p t e r Return, Risk, and the Security Market Line second edition Valuation & Management Charles J. Corrado Bradford D. Jordan McGraw Hill / Irwin Slides by Yee-Tien (Ted) Fu
  • 2. Return, Risk, & the Security Market Line
    • Our goal in this chapter is to define risk more precisely, and discuss how to measure it. Then, we will quantify the relation between risk and return in financial markets.
  • 3. Expected and Unexpected Returns
    • The return on any stock traded in a financial market is composed of two parts.
      • The normal, or expected, part of the return is the return that investors predict or expect.
      • The uncertain, or risky, part of the return comes from unexpected information revealed during the year.
    Total return – Expected return = Unexpected return R – E(R) = U or
  • 4. Announcements and News
    • The impact of an announcement depends on how much of it represents new information.
      • When the situation is not as bad as previously thought, what seems to be bad news is actually good news.
    • News about the future is what matters.
      • Market participants factor predictions into the expected part of the stock return.
    • Announcement = Expected part + Surprise
  • 5. Systematic and Unsystematic Risk Systematic risk Risk that influences a large number of assets. Also called market risk . Unsystematic risk Risk that influences a single company or a small group of companies. Also called unique or asset-specific risk . Total risk = Systematic risk + Unsystematic risk
  • 6. Systematic & Unsystematic Components of Return
    • R – E(R) = U
    • = Systematic portion
      • + Unsystematic portion
    • = m + 
    R – E(R) = m + 
  • 7. Diversification and Risk
    • In a large portfolio, some stocks will go up in value because of positive company-specific events, while others will go down in value because of negative company-specific events.
    • Unsystematic risk is essentially eliminated by diversification, so a portfolio with many assets has almost no unsystematic risk.
    • Unsystematic risk is also called diversifiable risk, while systematic risk is also called nondiversifiable risk.
  • 8. The Systematic Risk Principle
    • The systematic risk principle states that the reward for bearing risk depends only on the systematic risk of an investment.
    • So, no matter how much total risk an asset has, only the systematic portion is relevant in determining the expected return (and the risk premium) on that asset.
    What determines the size of the risk premium on a risky asset?
  • 9. Measuring Systematic Risk
    • Because assets with larger betas have greater systematic risks, they will have greater expected returns.
    • Note that not all betas are created equal.
    Beta coefficient (  ) Measure of the relative systematic risk of an asset. Assets with betas larger than 1.0 have more systematic risk than average, and vice versa.
  • 10. Measuring Systematic Risk
  • 11. Work the Web
    • Beta coefficients are widely available online. For example, check out:
  • 12. Portfolio Betas
    • The riskiness of a portfolio has no simple relation to the risks of the assets in the portfolio.
    • In contrast, a portfolio beta can be calculated just like the expected return of a portfolio.
      • In general, you can multiply each asset’s beta by its portfolio weight and then add the results to get the portfolio’s beta.
  • 13. Beta and the Risk Premium
    • Consider a portfolio made up of asset A and a risk-free asset. For asset A, E(R A ) = 20% and  A = 1.6. The risk-free rate R f = 8%. Note that for a risk-free asset,  = 0 by definition.
    • We can calculate some different possible portfolio expected returns and betas by varying the percentages invested in these two assets.
    • Note that when the investor borrows at the risk-free rate and invests the proceeds in asset A, the investment in asset A will exceed 100%.
  • 14. Beta and the Risk Premium % of Portfolio Portfolio Portfolio in Asset A Expected Return Beta 0 % 8 % .0 25 11 .4 50 14 .8 75 17 1.2 100 20 1.6 125 23 2.0 150 26 2.4
  • 15. Beta and the Risk Premium
  • 16. The Reward-to-Risk Ratio
    • Notice that all the combinations of portfolio expected returns and betas fall on a straight line.
    • Slope
    • What this tells us is that asset A offers a reward-to-risk ratio of 7.50%. In other words, asset A has a risk premium of 7.50% per “unit” of systematic risk.
  • 17. The Basic Argument
    • Consider a second asset, asset B, with E(R B ) = 16% and  A = 1.2. Which investment is better, asset A or asset B?
  • 18. The Basic Argument % of Portfolio Portfolio Portfolio in Asset B Expected Return Beta 0 % 8 % .0 25 10 .3 50 12 .6 75 14 .9 100 16 1.2 125 18 1.5 150 20 1.8
  • 19. The Basic Argument
  • 20. The Basic Argument
  • 21. The Fundamental Result
    • The situation we have described for assets A and B cannot persist in a well-organized, active market because investors will be attracted to asset A and away from asset B.
    • This buying and selling will continue, and A’s price will rise and B’s price will fall, until the two assets plot on exactly the same line.
    • So,
  • 22. The Fundamental Result
    • In general …
    • The reward-to-risk ratio must be the same for all assets in a competitive financial market.
    • If one asset has twice as much systematic risk as another asset, its risk premium will simply be twice as large.
    • Because the reward-to-risk ratio must be the same, all assets in the market must plot on the same line.
  • 23. The Fundamental Result
  • 24. The Security Market Line
    • For a market portfolio,
    Security market line (SML) Graphical representation of the linear relationship between systematic risk and expected return in financial markets. SML slope
  • 25. The Security Market Line
    • The term E(R M ) – R f is often called the market risk premium because it is the risk premium on a market portfolio.
    • For any asset i in the market,
    • This result is the capital asset pricing model .
  • 26. The Security Market Line
    • The CAPM shows that E(R i ) depends on
      • R f , the pure time value of money.
      • E(R M ) – R f , the reward for bearing systematic risk.
      •  i , the amount of systematic risk.
    Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) A theory of risk and return for securities on a competitive capital market.
  • 27. The Security Market Line
  • 28. The Security Market Line
  • 29. The Security Market Line
  • 30. A Closer Look at Beta
    • R – E(R) = m +  , where m is the systematic portion of the unexpected return.
    • m =   [ R M – E(R M ) ]
    • So, R – E(R) =   [ R M – E(R M ) ] + 
    • In other words, a high-beta security is simply one that is relatively sensitive to overall market movements, whereas a low-beta security is one that is relatively insensitive.
  • 31. A Closer Look at Beta
  • 32. A Closer Look at Beta
  • 33. Where Do Betas Come From?
    • A security’s beta depends on
      • how closely correlated the security’s return is with the overall market’s return, and
      • how volatile the security is relative to the market.
    • A security’s beta is equal to the correlation multiplied by the ratio of the standard deviations.
  • 34. Where Do Betas Come From?
  • 35. Why Do Betas Differ?
    • Betas are estimated from actual data. Different sources estimate differently, possibly using different data.
      • For data, the most common choices are three to five years of monthly data, or a single year of weekly data.
      • To measure the overall market, the S&P 500 stock market index is commonly used.
      • The calculated betas may be adjusted for various statistical reasons.
  • 36. Chapter Review
    • Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns
      • Expected and Unexpected Returns
      • Announcements and News
    • Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic
      • Systematic and Unsystematic Risk
      • Systematic and Unsystematic Components of Return
  • 37. Chapter Review
    • Diversification, Systematic Risk, and Unsystematic Risk
      • Diversification and Unsystematic Risk
      • Diversification and Systematic Risk
    • Systematic Risk and Beta
      • The Systematic Risk Principle
      • Measuring Systematic Risk
      • Portfolio Betas
  • 38. Chapter Review
    • The Security Market Line
      • Beta and the Risk Premium
      • The Reward-to-Risk Ratio
      • The Basic Argument
      • The Fundamental Result
      • The Security Market Line
  • 39. Chapter Review
    • More on Beta
      • A Closer Look at Beta
      • Where Do Betas Come From?
      • Why Do Betas Differ?