Teaching sounds

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  • 2. MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION• (i) effective use of visual aids• (ii) adequate eye contact : size of the audience• (iii) clarity in pronunciation and fluency• (iv) maintaining a proper speed of presentation• (v) posture and body movements suggesting confidence• (vi) seeking and making proper use of visual feedback• (vii) noting down important points arising out of discussion
  • 3. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS• 1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison• Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions• Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins, fonts
  • 4. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)• 2. Pronunciation of Words:(a) vowel and consonant sounds• (comparison of sounds with letters a-z);The letter “a” in : fat /æ/, father /a:/, fate /eɪ /, about /ə/Or the letters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/.Also notice(b) word-stress: ‘language, communi’cation
  • 5. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)• 3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary: International Phonetic Alphabet: free downloading is possible• Dictionaries on CD : listening to the pronunciation and it variety (e.g. British & American) now possible
  • 6. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued)4. Pronunciation of Sentences:intonation and rhythmINTONATION: rising / (yes /) falling (yes ) combination / (yes /)RHYTHM: de dum de dum x ’ x ’
  • 7. Vowel sounds of English• (Pure Vowels/Monophthongs) initially medially finally• 1. /i:/ east sheet key• 2. /I/ it hit duty• 3. /e / end send• 4. /æ/ and sand• 5. /a:/ art heart car• 6. /ɒ/ ox fox
  • 8. Vowel sounds of English (continued) initially medially finally7. /ɔ:/ all ball saw8. /U/ put9. /u:/ ooze choose chew10./∧/ up cup11./з:/ earn learn stir12. /ə/ ago police maker
  • 9. Vowel sounds of English (continued) Diphthongs• 13. /eɪ / eight straight stay• 14. /aɪ / ice mice my• 15. /əʊ / oak joke slow• 16./aʊ / out shout how• 17. /ɔɪ / oil boil boy• 18. /ɪ ə/ ears beard peer• 19. /eə/ airs paired hare
  • 10. Consonant sounds of English• initially medially finally• 1. /p/ pin spin keep• 2. /b/ bin tubs club• 3. /t/ tell stick light• 4. /d/ day heads laid• 5. /k/ keep skill stick• 6. /g/ get jugs bag
  • 11. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 7. /ʧ/ chin reached teach• 8. / ʤ / joke hinged large• 9. /m/ met smoke team• 10. /n/ net snake tin• 11. /ŋ/ rings sing• 12. /l/ lot fling full
  • 12. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 13 /f/ fan soft if• 14. /v/ van leaves thief• 15. /ɵ/ thin months bath• 16./ð/ then clothes bathe
  • 13. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 17. /s/ sip list less• 18. /z/ zip loser buzz• 19. /ʃ/ ship rushed hush• 20. /ʒ/ measure rouge
  • 14. Consonant sounds of English (continued)• initially medially finally• 21. /h/ hot behave• 22. /r/ rot try• 23. /w/ watt sweat• 24. /j/ yatch tune
  • 15. Word-stress• Two-syllable words • ‘surface• Stress on first • ‘furnace syllable • ‘husband• ‘bargain • ‘butcher• ‘govern • ‘proverb• ‘secret • ‘thorough• ‘mischief • ‘oven• ‘message • ‘onion• ‘cabbage • ‘compass
  • 16. Word-stress (continued) Two-syllable words• Stress on second • ag’ree syllable • se’lect• ad’mit • re’quest• for’bid • pre’fer• suc’ced • re’fer• sup’press • oc’cur• po’lice • ar’rest• pay’ee • com’mence• dis’miss • per’haps
  • 17. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable wordsStress on first syllable Stress on second syllable• ’advertise • ad’venture• ’educate • com’mercial• ’illustrate • de’cision• ’furniture • ex’ternal• ’government • in’ternal• ’literature • per’mission• ’recognize • re’vision• ’signature • spec’tator• ’tentative • um’brella
  • 18. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on third syllable• ,addres’see• ,ciga’rette• ,coin’cide• ,devo’tee• ,engi’neer• ,guaran’tee• ,recim’mend
  • 19. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on first Primary Stress on syllable second syllable• ’applicable • ad’vertisement• ’accurately • ap’preciate• ’comfortable • a’rithmetic• ’honourable • e’xaggerate • par’ticipate • pho’tography
  • 20. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable wordsPrimary Stress on • Primary Stress on third syllable fourth syllable• acci’dental • dedica’tee• appli’cation • exami’nee• exhi’bition• inde’pendent• indi’vidual
  • 21. Word-stress (continued) words with more than four syllablesPrimary Stress on first Primary Stress on third syllable syllable• ‘favouritism • elec’tricity• ‘cannibalism • irre’sponsible• ‘secularism • popu’larityPrimary Stress on second Primary Stress on fourth syllable syllable• ad’venturousness • acade’mician• en’thusiasm • civili’zation• con’servatism • pactici’pation
  • 22. Word-stress (continued): stress change according to part of speech• COMPARE:Noun/Adjective Verb• ’absent ab’sent• ’accent ac’cent• ’concert con’cert• ’conflict con’flict• ’export ex’port• ’produce pro’duce• ’subject sub’ject
  • 23. Attributes of good oral communication• 1.Sounds and sound combinations• 2. Stress• 3. Rhythm• 4. Intonation• 5. Speed: pausing• 6. Clarity of articulation• 7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech)