blank                this page intentionally left blank        @alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
how to think clearly           about (cyber) security                    @alecmuffett                 www.alecmuffett.com ...
how to think clearly about                        security@alecmuffett                       www.greenlanesecurity.com
how to think clearly about                     cybersecurity@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
why cybersecurity is rubbish@alecmuffett                        www.greenlanesecurity.com
...a bit too polemical?@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
thesis:@alecmuffett             www.greenlanesecurity.com
1           there is a word cybersecurity@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
2           this word is both a metaphor          and a model for thinking about           the challenges of information  ...
3 this model, with perhaps one exception, is unsuited to describe the challenges of     information and network security@a...
4       this model has been adopted by       state actors as key to discussion        and/or strategic consideration     o...
5       strategy based upon this model    tends to be misconceived, expensive,          and of an illiberal nature@alecmuf...
6   unless diluted with other perspectives,        this model provides a lever for          greater state control over    ...
end thesis@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
thesis defence@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
1       cybersecurity: what does it mean?@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
a long time ago in a novel far far away...@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neuromancer_(Book).jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberspace@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
not cybernetic@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sixmilliondollar1.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
virtual reality,               a real virtuality@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
hackers movie                @alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tron_poster.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
spinoff words@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet-related_prefixes@alecmuffett                                                    cybe...
cyberpunk@alecmuffett               www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wargames.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hackersposter.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Matrix_Poster.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
cypher-punk ?                   PGP!@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyber-everything!@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cybercrime@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
cybercriminals@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
cybersex@alecmuffett              www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberchildren               “digital natives”@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberbullying@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberterrorists@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberattacks@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberwarfare@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberweapons@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberespionage@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
...and so forth@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
AN OBSERVATION@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
word prefixes ...@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
digital, virtual = interesting, virtuous@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
virtual reality@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
e-something = dull@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
e-mail@alecmuffett            www.greenlanesecurity.com
iSomething@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
iPrefer this logo@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyber = bad/profane?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
are we meant or predisposed                to dislike ‘cyber’ ?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
“information superhighway”                    was always boring@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
pop(@stack);@alecmuffett              www.greenlanesecurity.com
2          what model does it represent?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
not cyber-space@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
but cyber-space@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
a near-tangible virtual world@alecmuffett                        www.greenlanesecurity.com
described as a space@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
people meet in a space@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
battles are fought in a space@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
wars are waged in a space@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
humans understand space@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
underlying assumption is that  cyberspace is sufficiently like realspace    and much the same rules can apply@alecmuffett ...
but, alas...@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
3  the model is a mostly-bad fit to reality?@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberspace is not like realspace@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
example 1: theft@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberspace theft is not commutative@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
theft in realspace               • if I steal your phone                • you no longer have it                 • it is go...
theft in cyberspace               • if I steal your data                • you still have it                  • unless I al...
later debate:           is intellectual property theft            actually theft (ie: crime) ...@alecmuffett              ...
... or is it like copyright infringement          and/or patent infringement               (ie: typically a tort)?@alecmuf...
(ask a lawyer. pay him.)@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
example 2: cybersize@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
social media as a medium: Twitter@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
@AlecMuffett               ~ 1300 followers@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
@MailOnline               ~29,000 followers@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
@GuardianNews               ~223,000 followers@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
Can a case for newspaper regulation   to be applied to newspaper twitterers?@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecur...
@StephenFry               ~3,120,000 followers@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
Why regulate newspapers & journalists               on Twitter,      yet not regulate Stephen Fry?@alecmuffett            ...
On Twitter               everyone is the same size                 0 = no twitter account                   1 = twitter ac...
On Twitter           everyone has equal capability     tweet, or not-tweet, that is the question@alecmuffett              ...
On Twitter          some have much greater reach          which is not the same thing as size@alecmuffett                 ...
a maths/compsci analogy:@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
graph theory →               euclidean geometry →                      twitter@alecmuffett                   www.greenlane...
wp:directed_graph                    @alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
a node/vertex/twitterer is a point         and is of zero dimension;   hence all twitterers are the same size@alecmuffett ...
a line/edge/follow is that        which joins two nodes/twitterers@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
the degree of a twitterer          is the number of followers,       the number of people with whom               you comm...
the only metrics on twitter               • volume                • number of tweets               • indegree             ...
so which of these three metrics          should trigger state regulation              of your twitterfeed -         regula...
if none, perhaps regulation should     pertain to the author & his message           rather than the medium@alecmuffett   ...
if the medium is irrelevant and open,   why discuss regulation of the medium          rather than of its users?@alecmuffet...
example 3: sovereignty@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
“Where are the boundaries of  British (or American, etc) Cyberspace?”@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
(we will return to this)@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
precis       society is still adjusting to the net@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
4      what model has the state adopted?@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
2011 - 1984 = 27@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
if it is a place, it can be policed@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
if it is a theatre, war can be prosecuted@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
EXPERIMENT@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
Cyberspace lies at the heart of modern society; it impacts our personalhttp://www.cpni.gov.uk/threats/cyber-threats/      ...
posit:               internet → communications@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
so replace:          cyberspace → telephoneworld                 cyber → phone@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanese...
Telephoneworld lies at the heart of modern society; it impacts ourhttp://dropsafe.crypticide.com/article/4933             ...
The UK should dominate Telephoneworld              Cyberspace!@alecmuffett              www.greenlanesecurity.com
If cyberspace is communication...@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
to control communication:               • you must define it               • ...and/or...               • you must inhibit...
to define communication               • propaganda                • a bad word in government lingo                • also m...
to inhibit communication               • censorship                • likewise a bad word@alecmuffett                      ...
it’s safer for government to pretend           that cyberspace is a space             filled with bad people@alecmuffett  ...
metaphor drives perception@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
land → army@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
sea → navy@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
sky → air force@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
cyberspace → up for grabs@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
to achieve dominance   the internet must be widely perceived      as a space which can be policed,       as a battleground...
...but what are its boundaries?@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
“Where are the boundaries of            British (etc) Cyberspace?”@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
depends on what you mean by:               “Boundary”                “British”@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesec...
is British Cyberspace the union of   every Briton’s ability to communicate?@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecur...
...then Stephen Fry is very large indeed.@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
is cyberspace the boundary of storage        of every and all Britons’ data?@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecur...
...then British Cyberspace extends into  GMail and Facebook servers in the USA.@alecmuffett                www.greenlanese...
is British Cyberspace the sum over     digital/cyberactivities of all Britons?@alecmuffett                    www.greenlan...
...then the State seeks to constrain        legal (or, non-criminal) activities         and amend/remove civil rights.@ale...
Government is curiously unwilling            to clarify this matter.@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
5  “expensive, misconceived and illiberal”@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
key, critical, strategic quotes:@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://goo.gl/MXCsG - computerworld                                         The cost of cybercrime to the global          ...
http://goo.gl/nGPvW - computerworld                                        The annual cost of cybercrime is about         ...
http://goo.gl/A14px - symantec                                                   Symantec Sums                            ...
http://goo.gl/qrmDn - detica                                In our most-likely scenario, we estimate                      ...
http://goo.gl/eQcVS - itpro                              Cyber criminals will cost the UK economy                         ...
$1000bn vs: $388bn vs: $114bn?               £27bn vs: £1.9bn ?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
wtf?@alecmuffett          www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://goo.gl/AJMMX - cabinet office                                       @alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
“the £27bn report”@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://goo.gl/vKk3S - detica                                 The theft of Intellectual Property (IP) from business,       ...
This gave an overall figure for fiscal fraud by              cyber criminals of £2.2bn. p19@alecmuffett                   ...
Our total estimate for industrial espionage                        is £7.6bn p20@alecmuffett                            ww...
Overall, we estimate the most likely impact   [of online theft is] £1.3bn per annum, with the best           and worst cas...
Cyber crime      Economic impact               Identity theft       £1.7bn               Online fraud         £1.4bn      ...
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
but...@alecmuffett            www.greenlanesecurity.com
“The proportion of IP actually stolen cannot at present be measured with any          degree of confidence”@alecmuffett   ...
“It is very hard to determine what proportion of industrial espionage          is due to cybercrime”@alecmuffett          ...
“Our assessments are necessarily basedon assumptions and informed judgements    rather than specific examples of cybercrim...
also, do you remember...@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
“malware is being introduced     at a rate of 55,000 pieces per day”@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
Compare...@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://goo.gl/YwjT0                        You just have to look at some of the figures, in                       fact ove...
http://goo.gl/vK331                                            Symantec                                        “Global Int...
In 2009, Symantec created 2,895,802 new malicious code   signatures (figure 10). This is a 71 percent increase over 2008, ...
“code signatures” up 51%          therefore “malware” up 51% ?@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
it doesn’t work like that.@alecmuffett                       www.greenlanesecurity.com
(“polymorphic” malware)@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
So: 55,000/day ?@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
http://goo.gl/M09Ik                                     McAfee Threat Report:                                      Fourth ...
Malware Reaches Record NumbersMalicious code, in its seemingly infinite forms and ever expanding targets, is the largest t...
politicians & generals are using            glossy marketing reports                to bolster strategy@alecmuffett       ...
government response ?@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
“£640m over 4 years”@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
OCSIA                     Office of                 Cyber Security and               Information Assurance@alecmuffett    ...
£640m               • cyberinvestment breakdown                • operational capabilities 65%                • critical in...
“...but the US is spending                $9bn* on cybersecurity;               are we spending enough?”                  ...
Of the £640m           9% (£58m) goes to cybercrime                65% (£416m) goes to               operational capabilit...
maybe the proportions reflect         the actually perceived threats?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity....
6 harmful to evolution of network security@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
there is clearly some reality                     to cybersecurity@alecmuffett                        www.greenlanesecurit...
CNI: Critical National Infrastructure@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
CNI Events@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
1941: Battle of the Atlantic@alecmuffett                        www.greenlanesecurity.com
1943: Dambusters@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
Gulf Wars: Iraq Power Stations@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
...pursuant to an invasion, or             with a kinetic component@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity....
The [Enemy] will crash our systems              and then bomb us.@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
@alecmuffett   www.greenlanesecurity.com
Maybe-CNI Events               • 2007: Estonia                • no banks, services, food               • 2009: Russia/Ukra...
Non-CNI Events               • 2011: Aurora/GMail                • espionage                 • who died?@alecmuffett      ...
Nonetheless there is clearly           some risk of being blindsided@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity....
there is land-war@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
there is sea-war@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
there is air-war@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
so there is cyber-war,   but it should not dominate all strategy@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
compare: air supremacy@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
You might ask:              where’s the harm     in cyber/space/security philosophy?@alecmuffett                 www.green...
If not to the exclusion of all others?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
1) expansion of the state@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
What’s a politician more likely       to tell the public?             1) “you’re on your own”         2) “we’re sorting it...
Who is better to be responsible for a family’s cybersecurity?               1) the family members                2) state ...
2) interference in evolution/education@alecmuffett                 www.greenlanesecurity.com
karmic cycle               • technologies change                • people complain               • problems arise          ...
people always complain,                but they use and learn.@alecmuffett                     www.greenlanesecurity.com
3) tunnel vision@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
let me present          an alternative spending model@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
...it’s actually a terrible idea -       but bear with me for a moment...@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecur...
if we’re worried about viruses...@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
why not make anti-virus/anti-malware          available on the NHS?@alecmuffett              www.greenlanesecurity.com
free at the point of use@alecmuffett                      www.greenlanesecurity.com
distributed to all citizens@alecmuffett                        www.greenlanesecurity.com
pick what is suitable for your needs@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
run “flu jab”-like information campaigns@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
no huge centralised IT project@alecmuffett                    www.greenlanesecurity.com
a great idea,             to the extent limited by          bureaucracy, goals and targets@alecmuffett                   w...
ie: this specific idea would be doomed...@alecmuffett                www.greenlanesecurity.com
...and any Government project      to lead security would be likewise?@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity....
But if you could address security in a            distributed manner...@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity...
then why instead spend       all that taxpayer money centrally?@alecmuffett                   www.greenlanesecurity.com
Perhaps cybersecurity isn’t actually        about protecting the public?@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurit...
But that would mean it’s rubbish.@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
fin               @alecmuffett@alecmuffett                  www.greenlanesecurity.com
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Why Cybersecurity Is Rubbish

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Why Cybersecurity Is Rubbish

  1. 1. blank this page intentionally left blank @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  2. 2. how to think clearly about (cyber) security @alecmuffett www.alecmuffett.com green lane security www.greenlanesecurity.com@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  3. 3. how to think clearly about security@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  4. 4. how to think clearly about cybersecurity@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  5. 5. why cybersecurity is rubbish@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  6. 6. ...a bit too polemical?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  7. 7. thesis:@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  8. 8. 1 there is a word cybersecurity@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  9. 9. 2 this word is both a metaphor and a model for thinking about the challenges of information and network security@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  10. 10. 3 this model, with perhaps one exception, is unsuited to describe the challenges of information and network security@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  11. 11. 4 this model has been adopted by state actors as key to discussion and/or strategic consideration of information and network security@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  12. 12. 5 strategy based upon this model tends to be misconceived, expensive, and of an illiberal nature@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  13. 13. 6 unless diluted with other perspectives, this model provides a lever for greater state control over information and network security that will harm the evolution of the field@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  14. 14. end thesis@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  15. 15. thesis defence@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  16. 16. 1 cybersecurity: what does it mean?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  17. 17. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  18. 18. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  19. 19. a long time ago in a novel far far away...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  20. 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neuromancer_(Book).jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  21. 21. cyberspace@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  22. 22. not cybernetic@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  23. 23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sixmilliondollar1.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  24. 24. virtual reality, a real virtuality@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  25. 25. hackers movie @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  26. 26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tron_poster.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  27. 27. spinoff words@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  28. 28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet-related_prefixes@alecmuffett cyber-prefixwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  29. 29. cyberpunk@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  30. 30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wargames.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  31. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hackersposter.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  32. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Matrix_Poster.jpg@alecmuffettwww.greenlanesecurity.com
  33. 33. cypher-punk ? PGP!@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  34. 34. cyber-everything!@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  35. 35. cybercrime@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  36. 36. cybercriminals@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  37. 37. cybersex@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  38. 38. cyberchildren “digital natives”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  39. 39. cyberbullying@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  40. 40. cyberterrorists@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  41. 41. cyberattacks@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  42. 42. cyberwarfare@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  43. 43. cyberweapons@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  44. 44. cyberespionage@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  45. 45. ...and so forth@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  46. 46. AN OBSERVATION@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  47. 47. word prefixes ...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  48. 48. digital, virtual = interesting, virtuous@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  49. 49. virtual reality@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  50. 50. e-something = dull@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  51. 51. e-mail@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  52. 52. iSomething@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  53. 53. iPrefer this logo@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  54. 54. cyber = bad/profane?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  55. 55. are we meant or predisposed to dislike ‘cyber’ ?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  56. 56. “information superhighway” was always boring@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  57. 57. pop(@stack);@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  58. 58. 2 what model does it represent?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  59. 59. not cyber-space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  60. 60. but cyber-space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  61. 61. a near-tangible virtual world@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  62. 62. described as a space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  63. 63. people meet in a space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  64. 64. battles are fought in a space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  65. 65. wars are waged in a space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  66. 66. humans understand space@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  67. 67. underlying assumption is that cyberspace is sufficiently like realspace and much the same rules can apply@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  68. 68. but, alas...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  69. 69. 3 the model is a mostly-bad fit to reality?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  70. 70. cyberspace is not like realspace@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  71. 71. example 1: theft@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  72. 72. cyberspace theft is not commutative@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  73. 73. theft in realspace • if I steal your phone • you no longer have it • it is gone@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  74. 74. theft in cyberspace • if I steal your data • you still have it • unless I also destroy your copies • assuming you haven’t backed-up your data • you no longer have secrecy • not the same as “loss”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  75. 75. later debate: is intellectual property theft actually theft (ie: crime) ...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  76. 76. ... or is it like copyright infringement and/or patent infringement (ie: typically a tort)?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  77. 77. (ask a lawyer. pay him.)@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  78. 78. example 2: cybersize@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  79. 79. social media as a medium: Twitter@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  80. 80. @AlecMuffett ~ 1300 followers@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  81. 81. @MailOnline ~29,000 followers@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  82. 82. @GuardianNews ~223,000 followers@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  83. 83. Can a case for newspaper regulation to be applied to newspaper twitterers?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  84. 84. @StephenFry ~3,120,000 followers@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  85. 85. Why regulate newspapers & journalists on Twitter, yet not regulate Stephen Fry?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  86. 86. On Twitter everyone is the same size 0 = no twitter account 1 = twitter account@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  87. 87. On Twitter everyone has equal capability tweet, or not-tweet, that is the question@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  88. 88. On Twitter some have much greater reach which is not the same thing as size@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  89. 89. a maths/compsci analogy:@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  90. 90. graph theory → euclidean geometry → twitter@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  91. 91. wp:directed_graph @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  92. 92. a node/vertex/twitterer is a point and is of zero dimension; hence all twitterers are the same size@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  93. 93. a line/edge/follow is that which joins two nodes/twitterers@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  94. 94. the degree of a twitterer is the number of followers, the number of people with whom you communicate@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  95. 95. the only metrics on twitter • volume • number of tweets • indegree • number of followers • outdegree • number of people you follow@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  96. 96. so which of these three metrics should trigger state regulation of your twitterfeed - regulation of what you may say?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  97. 97. if none, perhaps regulation should pertain to the author & his message rather than the medium@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  98. 98. if the medium is irrelevant and open, why discuss regulation of the medium rather than of its users?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  99. 99. example 3: sovereignty@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  100. 100. “Where are the boundaries of British (or American, etc) Cyberspace?”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  101. 101. (we will return to this)@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  102. 102. precis society is still adjusting to the net@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  103. 103. 4 what model has the state adopted?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  104. 104. 2011 - 1984 = 27@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  105. 105. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  106. 106. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  107. 107. if it is a place, it can be policed@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  108. 108. if it is a theatre, war can be prosecuted@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  109. 109. EXPERIMENT@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  110. 110. Cyberspace lies at the heart of modern society; it impacts our personalhttp://www.cpni.gov.uk/threats/cyber-threats/ lives, our businesses and our essential services. Cyber security embraces both the public and the private sector and spans a broad range of issues related to national security, whether through terrorism, crime or industrial espionage. E-crime, or cyber-crime, whether relating to theft, hacking or denial of service to vital systems, has become a fact of life. The risk of industrial cyber espionage, in which one company makes active attacks on another, through cyberspace, to acquire high value information is also very real. Cyber terrorism presents challenges for the future. We have to be prepared for terrorists seeking to take advantage of our increasing internet dependency to attack or disable key systems. CPNI works with the Cabinet Office and lead Government departments and agencies to drive forward the UKs cyber security programme to counter these threats. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  111. 111. posit: internet → communications@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  112. 112. so replace: cyberspace → telephoneworld cyber → phone@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  113. 113. Telephoneworld lies at the heart of modern society; it impacts ourhttp://dropsafe.crypticide.com/article/4933 personal lives, our businesses and our essential services. Phone security embraces both the public and the private sector and spans a broad range of issues related to national security, whether through terrorism, crime or industrial espionage. E-crime, or phone-crime, whether relating to theft, hacking or denial of service to vital systems, has become a fact of life. The risk of industrial phone espionage, in which one company makes active attacks on another, through Telephoneworld, to acquire high value information is also very real. Phone terrorism presents challenges for the future. We have to be prepared for terrorists seeking to take advantage of our increasing communications dependency to attack or disable key systems. CPNI works with the Cabinet Office and lead Government departments and agencies to drive forward the UKs phone security programme to counter these threats. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  114. 114. The UK should dominate Telephoneworld Cyberspace!@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  115. 115. If cyberspace is communication...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  116. 116. to control communication: • you must define it • ...and/or... • you must inhibit it@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  117. 117. to define communication • propaganda • a bad word in government lingo • also marketing & public relations@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  118. 118. to inhibit communication • censorship • likewise a bad word@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  119. 119. it’s safer for government to pretend that cyberspace is a space filled with bad people@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  120. 120. metaphor drives perception@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  121. 121. land → army@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  122. 122. sea → navy@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  123. 123. sky → air force@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  124. 124. cyberspace → up for grabs@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  125. 125. to achieve dominance the internet must be widely perceived as a space which can be policed, as a battleground in which war may be prosecuted...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  126. 126. ...but what are its boundaries?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  127. 127. “Where are the boundaries of British (etc) Cyberspace?”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  128. 128. depends on what you mean by: “Boundary” “British”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  129. 129. is British Cyberspace the union of every Briton’s ability to communicate?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  130. 130. ...then Stephen Fry is very large indeed.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  131. 131. is cyberspace the boundary of storage of every and all Britons’ data?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  132. 132. ...then British Cyberspace extends into GMail and Facebook servers in the USA.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  133. 133. is British Cyberspace the sum over digital/cyberactivities of all Britons?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  134. 134. ...then the State seeks to constrain legal (or, non-criminal) activities and amend/remove civil rights.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  135. 135. Government is curiously unwilling to clarify this matter.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  136. 136. 5 “expensive, misconceived and illiberal”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  137. 137. key, critical, strategic quotes:@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  138. 138. http://goo.gl/MXCsG - computerworld The cost of cybercrime to the global economy is estimated at $1 trillion [US General Keith] Alexander stated and malware is being introduced at a rate of 55,000 pieces per day, or one per second. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  139. 139. http://goo.gl/nGPvW - computerworld The annual cost of cybercrime is about $388 billion, including money and time lost, said Brian Tillett, chief security strategist at Symantec. That’s about $100 billion more than the global black market trade in heroin, cocaine and marijuana combined, he said. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  140. 140. http://goo.gl/A14px - symantec Symantec Sums • $388bn = • $114bn “cost” + • $274bn “lost time” @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  141. 141. http://goo.gl/qrmDn - detica In our most-likely scenario, we estimate the cost of cyber crime to the UK to be £27bn per annum. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  142. 142. http://goo.gl/eQcVS - itpro Cyber criminals will cost the UK economy an estimated £1.9 billion in 2011, according to a Symantec report. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  143. 143. $1000bn vs: $388bn vs: $114bn? £27bn vs: £1.9bn ?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  144. 144. wtf?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  145. 145. http://goo.gl/AJMMX - cabinet office @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  146. 146. “the £27bn report”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  147. 147. http://goo.gl/vKk3S - detica The theft of Intellectual Property (IP) from business, which has the greatest economic impact of any type of cyber crime is estimated to be £9.2bn per annum. p18 @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  148. 148. This gave an overall figure for fiscal fraud by cyber criminals of £2.2bn. p19@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  149. 149. Our total estimate for industrial espionage is £7.6bn p20@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  150. 150. Overall, we estimate the most likely impact [of online theft is] £1.3bn per annum, with the best and worst case estimates £1.0bn and £2.7bn respectively. p21@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  151. 151. Cyber crime Economic impact Identity theft £1.7bn Online fraud £1.4bn Scareware & fake AV £30m p18@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  152. 152. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  153. 153. but...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  154. 154. “The proportion of IP actually stolen cannot at present be measured with any degree of confidence”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  155. 155. “It is very hard to determine what proportion of industrial espionage is due to cybercrime”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  156. 156. “Our assessments are necessarily basedon assumptions and informed judgements rather than specific examples of cybercrime, or from data of a classified or commercially sensitive origin”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  157. 157. also, do you remember...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  158. 158. “malware is being introduced at a rate of 55,000 pieces per day”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  159. 159. Compare...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  160. 160. http://goo.gl/YwjT0 You just have to look at some of the figures, in fact over 50%, just about 51% of the malicious software threats that have been ever identified, were identified in 2009. Theresa May, Today Programme, Oct 2010 @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  161. 161. http://goo.gl/vK331 Symantec “Global Internet Security Threat Report - Trends for 2009” @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  162. 162. In 2009, Symantec created 2,895,802 new malicious code signatures (figure 10). This is a 71 percent increase over 2008, when 1,691,323 new malicious code signatures wereadded. Although the percentage increase in signatures addedis less than the 139 percent increase from 2007 to 2008, the overall number of malicious code signatures by the end of 2009 grew to 5,724,106. This means that of all the malicious code signatures created by Symantec, 51 percent of that total was created in 2009. This is slightly less than 2008, when approximately 60 percent of all signatures at the time were created.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  163. 163. “code signatures” up 51% therefore “malware” up 51% ?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  164. 164. it doesn’t work like that.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  165. 165. (“polymorphic” malware)@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  166. 166. So: 55,000/day ?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  167. 167. http://goo.gl/M09Ik McAfee Threat Report: Fourth Quarter 2010 @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  168. 168. Malware Reaches Record NumbersMalicious code, in its seemingly infinite forms and ever expanding targets, is the largest threat that McAfee Labs combats daily. We have seen its functionality increase everyyear. We have seen its sophistication increase every year. We have seen the platforms it targets evolve every year with increasingly clever ways of stealing data. In 2010 McAfee Labs identified more than 20 million new pieces of malware. Stop. We’ll repeat that figure. More than 20 million new pieces of malware appearing last year means that weidentify nearly 55,000 malware threats every day. That figure is up from 2009. That figure is up from 2008. That figure is way up from 2007. Of the almost 55 million pieces of malware McAfee Labs has identified and protected against, 36 percent of it was written in 2010!@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  169. 169. politicians & generals are using glossy marketing reports to bolster strategy@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  170. 170. government response ?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  171. 171. “£640m over 4 years”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  172. 172. OCSIA Office of Cyber Security and Information Assurance@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  173. 173. £640m • cyberinvestment breakdown • operational capabilities 65% • critical infrastructure 20% • cybercrime 9% • reserve and baseline 5%@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  174. 174. “...but the US is spending $9bn* on cybersecurity; are we spending enough?” - Audience Member, BCS Meeting Cyber Challenges of 2012 * Actually closer to $11bn@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  175. 175. Of the £640m 9% (£58m) goes to cybercrime 65% (£416m) goes to operational capabilities@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  176. 176. maybe the proportions reflect the actually perceived threats?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  177. 177. 6 harmful to evolution of network security@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  178. 178. there is clearly some reality to cybersecurity@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  179. 179. CNI: Critical National Infrastructure@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  180. 180. CNI Events@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  181. 181. 1941: Battle of the Atlantic@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  182. 182. 1943: Dambusters@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  183. 183. Gulf Wars: Iraq Power Stations@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  184. 184. ...pursuant to an invasion, or with a kinetic component@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  185. 185. The [Enemy] will crash our systems and then bomb us.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  186. 186. @alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  187. 187. Maybe-CNI Events • 2007: Estonia • no banks, services, food • 2009: Russia/Ukraine Gas • people freezing@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  188. 188. Non-CNI Events • 2011: Aurora/GMail • espionage • who died?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  189. 189. Nonetheless there is clearly some risk of being blindsided@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  190. 190. there is land-war@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  191. 191. there is sea-war@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  192. 192. there is air-war@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  193. 193. so there is cyber-war, but it should not dominate all strategy@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  194. 194. compare: air supremacy@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  195. 195. You might ask: where’s the harm in cyber/space/security philosophy?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  196. 196. If not to the exclusion of all others?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  197. 197. 1) expansion of the state@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  198. 198. What’s a politician more likely to tell the public? 1) “you’re on your own” 2) “we’re sorting it out for you”@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  199. 199. Who is better to be responsible for a family’s cybersecurity? 1) the family members 2) state cyber-police@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  200. 200. 2) interference in evolution/education@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  201. 201. karmic cycle • technologies change • people complain • problems arise • people complain • problems get fixed • people complain@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  202. 202. people always complain, but they use and learn.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  203. 203. 3) tunnel vision@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  204. 204. let me present an alternative spending model@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  205. 205. ...it’s actually a terrible idea - but bear with me for a moment...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  206. 206. if we’re worried about viruses...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  207. 207. why not make anti-virus/anti-malware available on the NHS?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  208. 208. free at the point of use@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  209. 209. distributed to all citizens@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  210. 210. pick what is suitable for your needs@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  211. 211. run “flu jab”-like information campaigns@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  212. 212. no huge centralised IT project@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  213. 213. a great idea, to the extent limited by bureaucracy, goals and targets@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  214. 214. ie: this specific idea would be doomed...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  215. 215. ...and any Government project to lead security would be likewise?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  216. 216. But if you could address security in a distributed manner...@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  217. 217. then why instead spend all that taxpayer money centrally?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  218. 218. Perhaps cybersecurity isn’t actually about protecting the public?@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  219. 219. But that would mean it’s rubbish.@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
  220. 220. fin @alecmuffett@alecmuffett www.greenlanesecurity.com
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