Polycystic kidney disease


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Polycystic kidney disease

  1. 1. Castillo Garcia Mariela Leal Garcia Cesar Treviño Rodriguez Karen Alejandra
  2. 2. Infections are caused by microbes, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Normally, bacteria that enter the urinary tract are rapidly removed by the body before they cause symptoms. Women tend to have UTI more often than men.
  3. 3. •Urinary tract infections are the second most common type of infection in the body. -Urethra: urethritis -Bladder: cystitis -Ureters: ureteritis -Kidneys: pyelonephritis
  4. 4. Common pathogens UTI:  Proteus mirabilis Klebsiella E. coli Enterococci Enterobacter Most UTIs are caused by bacteria that live in the bowel. The bacterium Escherichia coli causes the vast majority of UTIs.
  5. 5. Symptoms  Urgency Frequency of micturition Pain in the abdomen Pain on one side of the back under the ribs. Fever Nausea Vomiting
  6. 6. UTI during pregnancy According to some reports, about 4 to 5 percent of pregnant women develop a UTI. Scientists think that hormonal changes and shifts in the position of the urinary tract during pregnancy make it easier for bacteria to travel up the ureters to the kidneys and cause infection. -routinely screen pregnant women for bacteria in the urine.
  7. 7. Diagnosis To find out whether a person has a UTI, the health care provider will ask about urinary symptoms and then test a sample of urine for the presence of bacteria and white blood cells.
  8. 8. Is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys 50% Autosomal dominant PKD + : Symptoms usually develop between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can begin earlier even in childhood. (90%) Autosomal recessive PKD - : Symptoms can begin in the earliest months of life, even in the womb. 25%
  9. 9. Pain in the back and the sides between the ribs and hips Headaches The pain can be temporary or persistent, mild or severe.  Urinary tract infections  Hematuria  Liver and pancreatic cysts  Abnormal heart valves  High blood pressure  Kidney stones  Aneurysms in the brain  Diverticulosis  Pregnancy complications  Loss of kidney function
  10. 10. Ultrasound examination Computerized tomography scan Magnetic resonance imaging Genetic testing
  11. 11. PKD has no cure. Treatments include:  Medicine to control high blood pressure  Medicine and surgery to reduce pain  Antibiotics to resolve infections  Dialysis to replace functions of failed kidneys  Kidney transplantation
  12. 12. Renal calculi; Stones kidney
  13. 13.  Definition A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time.  Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 of 20 people at some time in their life.
  14. 14. WHERE IS THE STONE?  kidney (nephrolithiasis)  Ureter (ureterolithiasis)  Bladder (cystolithiasis)
  15. 15.  Symptoms The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly  Pain may be felt in the belly area or side of the back  Pain may move to groin area (groin pain) Other symptoms can include:  Abnormal urine color  Blood in the urine  Chills  Fever  Nausea  Vomiting
  16. 16. Prevention If you have a history of stones, drink plenty of fluids (6 - 8 glasses of water per day) to produce enough urine. Depending on the type of stone, you might need to take medications or other measures to prevent the stones from returning.