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Human development

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Transcript

  • 1. Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue
  • 2.
    • Developmental Psychology - patterns of growth and change throughout life
    • Nature-nurture issue
  • 3. Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth
  • 4. The Basics of Genetics
    • chromosomes (body chromosomes and sex chromosomes)
    • genes
    • specialized sex cells (egg and sperm cells)
    • fertilization
    • meiosis and mitosis
    • identical and fraternal twins
    • zygote (germinal period)
    • embryo (embryonic period)
    • fetus (fetal period)
    • age of viability
    • sensitive/critical periods
  • 5.  
  • 6. Genetic Influences on the Fetus
    • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Sickle-Cell Anemia
    • Tay-Sachs Disease
    • Down Syndrome
  • 7. Teratogens: Prenatal Environmental Influences
    • mother’s nutrition
    • mother’s illness
    • mother’s emotional state
    • mother’s use of drugs
    • alcohol use
    • nicotine use
    • age (younger than 18, older than 35)
    • radiation from X rays
  • 8. Alternative Paths to Conception
    • in vitro fertilization (IVF)
    • gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
    • zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
  • 9. Parenting Style
    • Authoritarian
    • Permissive
    • Authoritative
    • Uninvolved
  • 10. Infancy
  • 11.
    • reflexes (rooting, sucking, gag, startle, Babinski)
    • limited voluntary movements
    • discriminate and imitate facial expressions
    • visual abilities grow rapidly
    • distinguish different sounds
    • recognize different tastes and smells
    • language development (6 months: babbling)
    • attachment
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Childhood
  • 16.
    • increasing growth
    • relationship of body parts sizes to one another changes
    • attachment
    • less dependent on their parents and more self-reliant
    • play with friends (from independent to cooperative)
    • school age
    • more social interactions
    • physical and emotional control
  • 17. Adolescence
  • 18.
    • physical development and maturation brought by hormonal secretion
    • sexual attraction
    • search for identity
    • seek independence
    • egocentrism
    • suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for adolescents in US
  • 19. Adulthood
  • 20.
    • early, middle, late adulthood
    • body is less efficient and more susceptible to disease
    • sense organs less sensitive
    • menopause (40 – 50)
    • more profound social development
    • careers, marriage, families
    • midlife crisis (40)
    • fluid intelligence (memory, calculations, analogies) declines
    • crystallized intelligence (skills, strategies) remain steady