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Health psychology

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  • 1. Health Psychology
  • 2. Health Psychology
    • investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems
  • 3. Stress
    • a person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging
    • pleasant or unpleasant events
    • varies from one person to another, depending on the person’s interpretation of events
    • stress is greatest when important goals are threatened, the threat is immediate, or the anticipation of a threatening event extends over a long period
  • 4. Categorizing Stressors
    • cataclysmic events (strong, sudden, many people at once)
    • personal stressors (major life events, immediate consequences, fade with time)
    • background stressors (daily hassles, minor irritations, have long-term ill effects if continuous)
  • 5. Uplifts
    • minor positive events that make us feel good - even if only temporarily
    • the greater the number of uplifts experienced, the fewer the psychological symptoms people report
  • 6. The High Cost of Stress
    • increase in hormone secretion by adrenal glands
    • increase in heart rate and blood pressure
    • deterioration of body tissues (blood vessels and heart)
    • immune system becomes weak
    • psychophysiological disorders (formerly psychosomatic disorders; high blood pressure, headaches, backaches, skin rashes, indigestion, fatigue, constipation)
    • less able to recover from illness
    • reduce ability to cope with future stress
    • change attitude and perception
    • irritability, inability to concentrate
  • 7.  
  • 8. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    • a theory developed by Hans Selye (sell – yay) that suggests that a person’s response to a stressor consists of three stages:
      • alarm and mobilization (awareness of stressor)
      • resistance (coping)
      • exhaustion (inadequate resistance, negative effects of stress)
  • 9.  
  • 10. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    • the study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
    • focuses on the outcomes of stress
  • 11.
    • Direct physiological effects
      • elevated blood pressure
      • decrease in immune system functioning
      • increased hormonal activity
      • psychophysiological conditions
    • Harmful behaviors
      • increased smoking, alcohol, drug use
      • decreased nutrition, sleep
    • Indirect health-related behaviors
      • decreased compliance with medical advice
      • increase in delays in seeking medical advice
  • 12.  
  • 13. Coping with Stress
    • Coping (the efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress)
    • 2 main categories:
      • emotion-focused coping
      • problem-focused coping
  • 14.
    • avoidant coping – wishful thinking to reduce stress or use more direct escape ways
    • defense mechanisms
    • emotional insulation – person stops experiencing any emotions at all
    • proactive coping – anticipating and preparing for stress before it is encountered
  • 15. Learned Helplessness
    • a state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled- a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence
    • elderly persons in nursing home or hospital
  • 16. Hardy Personality
    • Commitment – activities are important and meaningful
    • Challenge – change, rather than stability, is the standard condition of life
    • Control – perception that people can influence the events in their lives
  • 17. Effective Coping Strategies
    • Turn threat into challenge.
    • Make a threatening situation less threatening.
    • Change your goals.
    • Take physical action.
    • Prepare for stress before it happens.
  • 18. Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being
  • 19. Coronary Heart Disease
    • Type A behavior pattern (cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven)
    • Type B behavior pattern (cluster of behaviors characterized by a patient, cooperative, non-competitive, and nonaggressive manner)
  • 20. Cancer
    • Emotional responses of cancer patients to their disease may have critical effect on its course.
  • 21. Smoking
    • Why people smoke?
    • Quitting smoking
  • 22. Characteristics of Happy People
    • Happy people have high self-esteem.
    • Happy people have a firm sense of control.
    • Happy people are optimistic.
    • Happy people like to be around other people.