Managingtripleconstraint aam

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Presentacion para Alumnos de distintas Universidades del Capitulo del PMI Lima en la Universdad del Pacifico

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Managingtripleconstraint aam

  1. 1. Managing Triple Constraint Project Scope Management Project Cost Management Project Time Management Aldo Arecco Mayo Senior Project Manager
  2. 2. Triple Constraint
  3. 3. Quadruple Constraint
  4. 4. Triple Constraint Process
  5. 5. Top five reasons why project management fails  TOP FIVE REASONS- TECH PROJECT  Failure to Manage Culture Change  Lack of Commitment  Pass Failures  Inadecuate Planning  Is not about the tools!
  6. 6. Project Scope Management  The processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully  Why Do We Manage Scope?  Can’t manage schedule and budget if scope is out of control (Triple Constraint)  Scope docs are used to manage expectations
  7. 7. Scope Management Key Points  What is scope management  Checking to ensure that one is completing work  Saying No to additional work not in the charter  Preventing extra work  Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  Foundation of the project, all planning and controlling is based on the WBS  Identifies all work to be performed, if it is not in the WBS it does not need to be done  Graphical picture of work
  8. 8. Scope Management Key Points TIME COSTSCOPE Quality WBS Estimating Network Diagrams Staffing Risk
  9. 9. How Do We Manage Scope?  Five processes  Scope Planning  Scope Definition  Create WBS  Scope Verification  Scope Control Scope Planning Scope Definition Create WBS Scope Verification Scope Control
  10. 10. Scope Definition • Change Control System • Documentation, tracking, and approvals required to change project scope • Configuration Management System • Documentation, tracking, and approvals required to change product scope • Management by Objectives (MBO) • Establish unambiguous and realistic objectives • Periodically evaluate if objectives are being met • Take corrective action
  11. 11. Project Time Management • “The processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project” • Why Time Management? 1. Part of triple constraint, can’t manage one without the others (scope, time, and quality) 2. Second hardest section on the test behind integration
  12. 12. How Do We Manage Time? • Six processes • Activity Definition • Activity Sequencing • Activity Resource Estimating • Activity Duration Estimating • Schedule Development • Schedule Control Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  13. 13. Activity Definition Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement Decomposition Templates Rolling wave planning Expert judgment Planning component Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Requested Changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  14. 14. Activity Definition • Rolling Wave Planning – Progressive planning where near term work is broken down in detail and distant work is kept at a higher WBS level • Planning Component – WBS items that cannot be broken down into work packages are put in a: • Control Account – High level planning dates for the scope to be defined • Planning Package – Package includes scope to be completed but no activities
  15. 15. Activity Sequencing Project Scope Statement Activity List Activity Attributes Precedence diagramming method (PDM) Arrow diagramming method (ADM) Schedule network templates Dependency determination Applying leads and lags Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Milestone List Approved Change Requests Project Schedule Network Diagrams Activity List Updates Activity Attributes Updates Requested Changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  16. 16. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) • Commonly called Activity on Node (AON), most commonly used sequencing method • Boxes are used to represent tasks with arrows used for dependencies • Four types of dependencies  Finish to Start – Task must finish before next one can start  Finish to Finish – One task must finish before the other can finish  Start to Start – One task must start before the other can start  Start to Finish – One task must start before the other can finish Activity A Activity B NodeDependency
  17. 17. Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) • Commonly called Activity on Arrow (AOA) • Boxes are used to represent dependencies with arrows used for tasks • Only Finish to Start relationships • Can use “dummy” activities • Used for CPM and PERT estimating methods Task Dependency Activity A Method Comparison Start Build Foundation Build Walls Install Grass Build Roof Finish Start Build Foundation Build Walls Build Roof Finish Install Grass PDM (AON) Method ADM (AOA) Method
  18. 18. Activity Resource Estimating Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Activity List Expert judgment Alternatives analysis Published estimating data Project management software Bottom-up estimating Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Activity Attributes Resource Availability Activity Resource Requirements Activity Attributes Updates Resource Breakdown Structure Resource Calendar Updates Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Project Management Plan Requested Changes
  19. 19. Activity Duration Estimating Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement Expert judgment Analogous estimating Parametric estimating Three-point estimates Reserve Analysis Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Activity List Activity Resource Requirements Activity Duration Estimates Activity attributes updates Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Resource Calendar Activity Attributes Project Management Plan •Risk Register •Activity Cost Estimates
  20. 20. Schedule Development Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement Schedule network analysis Critical path method Schedule compression What-if analysis Resource leveling Critical chain method Project management software Applying calendars Adjustable leads and lags Schedule model Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Activity List Activity Resource Requirements Schedule baseline Activity attributes updates Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Resource Calendar Activity Attributes Project Management Plan •Risk Register •Activity Cost Estimates Project schedule Schedule model data Resource requirements updates Requested changes Project management plan updates •Schedule management plan updates Project calendar updates
  21. 21. Schedule Control Schedule Management Plan Schedule Baseline Schedule network analysis Critical path method Schedule compression What-if analysis Resource leveling Critical chain method Project management software Applying calendars Adjustable leads and lags Schedule model Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Performance reports Schedule baseline updates Requested changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Approved Change Requests Schedule model data updates Performance measurements Organizational process assets updates Activity list updates Recommended corrective actions Activity attribute updates Project Management Plan updates
  22. 22. Other Important Terms • Lag – Inserted waiting time between tasks • Free Slack – Available delay time without impacting start of successor • Total Slack – Amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying project completion date • Project Slack – Amount of time a project can be delayed without impacting completion dates imposed by client • Crashing – Adding resources to critical path items to shorten schedule • Fast Tracking – Performing critical path tasks in parallel rather than series • Resource Leveling – Adjusting completion dates of tasks
  23. 23. Project Cost Management Cost is a resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective, or something given up in exchange. Costs are usually measured in monetary units, such as dollars or Taka’s. Project Cost Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget. Project Cost Management Processes Cost estimating: Developing an approximation or estimate of the costs of the resources needed to complete a project. Cost budgeting: Allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance. Cost control: Controlling changes to the project budget.
  24. 24. Basic Principles of Cost Management Most members of an executive board have a better understanding and are more interested in financial terms than IT terms, so IT project managers must speak their language. Profits are revenues minus expenses. Life cycle costing considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a project. Cash flow analysis determines the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow. Tangible costs or benefits are those costs or benefits that an organization can easily measure in dollars. Intangible costs or benefits are costs or benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms. Direct costs are costs that can be directly related to producing the products and services of the project. Indirect costs are costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project. Sunk cost is money that has been spent in the past; when deciding what projects to invest in or continue, you should not include sunk costs.
  25. 25. Earned value Management The earned value Management involves developing these key values for each schedule activity, work package, or control account: Planned value (PV). PV is the budgeted cost for the work scheduled to be completed on an activity or WBS component up to a given point in time. Earned value (EV). EV is the budgeted amount for the work actually completed on the schedule activity or WBS component during a given time period. Actual cost (AC). AC is the total cost incurred in accomplishing work on the schedule activity or WBS component during a given time period. This AC must correspond in definition and coverage to whatever was budgeted for the PV and the EV (e.g., direct hours only, direct costs only, or all costs including indirect costs). Cost variance (CV). CV equals earned value (EV) minus actual cost (AC). The cost variance at the end of the project will be the difference between the budget at completion (BAC) and the actual amount spent. Formula: CV= EV - AC Schedule variance (SV). SV equals earned value (EV) minus planned value (PV). Schedule variance will ultimately equal zero when the project is completed because all of the planned values will have been earned. Formula: SV = EV - PV These two values, the CV and SV, can be converted to efficiency indicators to reflect the cost and schedule performance of any project. Cost performance index (CPI). A CPI value less than 1.0 indicates a cost overrun of the estimates. A CPI value greater than 1.0 indicates a cost underrun of the estimates. CPI equals the ratio of the EV to the AC. The CPI is the most commonly used cost-efficiency indicator. Formula: CPI = EV/AC Schedule performance index (SPI). The SPI is used, in addition to the schedule status to predict the completion date and is sometimes used in conjunction with the CPI to forecast the project completion estimates. SPI equals the ratio of the EV to the PV. Formula: SPI = EV/PV
  26. 26. Questions ?

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