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Sports Nutrition Lecture containing general information about sports nutrition for Health Professionals, Athletes and the public. Enjoy ! ...

Sports Nutrition Lecture containing general information about sports nutrition for Health Professionals, Athletes and the public. Enjoy !

At Prince Faisal Bin Fahd Sports Medicine Hospital March 18, 2010

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Sports Nutrition Sports Nutrition Presentation Transcript

  • Suprvised by: RD , Haifa Al- Suleiteen
    Samar Ali AlDhamadiSports Nutrition
  • Contents
    Sports Nutrition Lecture containing general information about sports nutrition for Health Professionals, Athletes and the public. Enjoy !
    1
    INTRODUCTION(History & ENERGY METABOLISM)
    2
    DAILY REQIURMENTS
    NUTRITION; BEFORE, DURING & AFTER
    3
    4
    DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS
  • History 532 - 516 B.C [2]
    Greeks and Romans started the Olympic games, the athletes had their own special regimen for great performance which included diet and nutrition.
    9 kg (20 pounds) of meat.
    9 kg (20 pounds) of bread.
    Alcohol was commonly drunk as an Ergogenic aid.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Sports Nutrition [1]
    Sports Nutrition requires an understanding of both exercise physiology and nutrition.
    Proper nutrition [supports] training and can improve performance, whereas improper nutrition can be detrimental to performance. Similarly, can be detrimental to both short-term and long-term health.
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
  • ENERGY METABOLISM
  • Energy Metabolism [1]
    Storage
    Energy
    Transfer
    • Energy is stored in the body in the form of CP,CHO (blood glucose, liver, muscle glycogen) Fat (serum FFA and TG, muscle triglycerides, adipose tissue) Protein (muscle).
    • CHO, fat, Protein supply energy, with fats and CHO being primary source.
    • 3 systems to transfer stored energy to form ATP
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
  • Energy Metabolism [2]
    Energy expenditure =Energy intake ►Energy balance
    Phosphagen
    Energy Systems used during exercise for muscular work
    Glycolytic
    Oxidative
    Aerobic
    Anaerobic
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • All system work simultaneously,
    but one system may predominate.
    ATP-CP provides rapid energy, anaerobic, seconds
    Glycolysis uses only glucose, anaerobic, high intensity activity 1-3 min
    Aerobic uses CHO, Fat, protein, longer periods
    Energy Metabolism[1]
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
  • The Phospagen System [2]
    Used
    Energy
    Amount
    • Events lasting no longer than a few seconds
    and of high intensity.
    • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and
    creatine phosphate provide the readily
    available energy present within the muscle.
    • The amount of ATP present in skeletal muscles (5 mmol/kg wet weight) is not sufficient to provide a continuous supply of energy, especially at high exercise intensities.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • The Phospagen System [2]
    Reserve
    Primary
    • Creatine phosphate is an ATP reserve in
    muscle that can be readily converted to
    sustain activity for 3 to 5 minutes.
    • The amount of creatine phosphate
    available in skeletal muscle is 4 times greater
    than ATP, and therefore, is the primary fuel
    used for high intensity, short duration activities
    such as the clean and jerk in weight lifting, or
    fast break in basketball.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • The Anaerobic Glycolytic Pathway [2]
    • Uses muscle glycogen and glucose that are rapidly metabolized anaerobically through the glycolytic cascade.
    • This pathway supports events lasting 60 to 180 seconds.
    • Approximately 25% to 35% of total muscle glycogen stores are used during a single 30- second sprint or resistance exercise bout.
    • Neither the phosphagen nor the glycolytic pathway can sustain the rapid provision of energy to allow muscles to contract at a very high rate for events lasting greater than 2 to 3 minutes.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • The oxidative pathway fuels events lasting longer than 2 to 3 minutes.
    The major substrates include muscle and liver glycogen, intramuscular, blood, and adipose tissue triglycerides, and negligible amounts of amino acids from muscle, blood, liver, and the gut.
    Examples of events for which the major fuel pathway is the oxidative pathway include a 1,500-meter run, marathon, half-marathon, and endurance cycling or 500 meter swimming events.
    The Oxidative Pathway [2]
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • As oxygen becomes more available to the working muscle, the body uses more of the aerobic (oxidative) pathways and less of the anaerobic (phosphagen and glycolytic) pathways.
    Only the aerobic pathway can produce large amounts of ATP over time via the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport system.
    The Oxidative Pathway [2]
    The greater dependence upon aerobic pathways does not occur abruptly, nor is one pathway ever relied on exclusively.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • The Oxidative Pathway [2]
    Primarily aerobic
    crossover
    5. Sex
    6. Fitness
    Level of the
    individual
    7. Prior
    nutrient intake
    8. Energy
    stores
    1.The intensity
    2.Duration
    3. Frequency
    4.Type of activity
    Anaerobic pathways
    Determine when the crossover from primarily aerobic to anaerobic pathways occurs.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Athletes need to consume adequate energy during periods of high-intensity and/or long-duration training to:
    body weight and health
    Maintain
    training effects
    Maximize
    Energy ? Why ? [2]
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Can result in:
    • Loss of muscle mass.
    • Menstrual dysfunction.
    • Loss of or failure to gain bone density.
    • Increased risk of fatigue, injury, and illness.
    • Prolonged recovery process.
    Low Energy Intakes [2]
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • DAILY REQIURMENTS
  • Carbohydrate [2]
    Carbohydrates
    • Maintain blood glucose levels during exercise.
    • Replace muscle glycogen.
    The amount required
    • Depends upon:
    • The athlete’s total daily energy expenditure.
    • Type of sport.
    • Sex, and environmental conditions.
    Recommendations
    Athletes
    6 to 10 g/kg
    (2.7 to 4.5 g/lb) body weight per day
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Protein [2]
    Recommended protein intakes
    • Can generally be met through diet alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements.
    Energy intake
    • Sufficient to maintain body weight is necessary for optimal protein use and performance.
    Recommendations
    Endurance and strength-trained athletes
    1.2 to 1.7 g/kg
    (0.5 to 0.8 g/lb) body weight per day.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Fat [2]
    20 %
    • Consuming 20% of energy from fat does not benefit performance.
    Fat
    • Source of energy,
    • Fat-soluble vitamins,
    • Essential fatty acids.
    High-fat
    High-fat diets are not recommended for athletes.
    Recommendations
    20% to 35%
    of total energy intake.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • NUTRITION; BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER
  • Dehydration [2]
    Dehydration
    450 - 675 mL
    for every pound (0.5 kg) of body weight lost during exercise.
    16 - 24 oz
    (water deficit in excess of 2% to 3% body mass) decreases exercise performance
    Prevent dehydration from occurring during exercise and individuals should not drink in excess of sweating rate.
    After
    The goal of drinking
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Hydration [1]
    Every 15 min during
    2 hours Before
    15 min Before
    After activity
    2-3 cups
    1-2 cups
    ½-1 cup
    At least 2 cups for each pound of body weight lose
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
  • Nutrition [2]
    After
    Before
    During
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Before [2]
    Before
    • Meal or snack should provide sufficient fluid to maintain hydration.
    • ↓Fat and fiber to facilitate gastric emptying and minimize gastrointestinal distress.
    • ↑Carbohydrate to maximize maintenance of blood glucose.
    • Moderate in protein.
    • Composed of familiar foods.
    • Well tolerated by the athlete.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Carbohydrate Before [1]
    1
    2
    1
    2
    3
    4
    3
    4-4.5
    G/kg Body wt
    Time
    Prior
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
  • Why ?
    • Replace fluid losses.
    • Provide carbohydrates for maintenance of blood glucose levels.
    During [2]
    CHO
    (approximately 30 to 60 g per hour)
    Important for endurance events lasting longer than an hour when an athlete has not consumed adequate food or fluid before exercise, orif an athlete is exercising in an extreme environment (eg, heat, cold, or high altitude).
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • After [2]
    • Why?
    Provide adequate fluids, electrolytes, energy, and carbohydrates ->Replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery.
    • Carbohydrate:
    • 1.0 - 1.5 g/kg
    (0.5 - 0.7 g/lb) body weight.During the 1st 30 minutes.
    • Again every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours.
    • Replace glycogen stores.
    • Protein:
    Provide amino acids for building and repair of muscle tissue.
    After
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS
  • Vitamin and Mineral Supplements [2]
    • Dieting, habitually eliminating foods.
    • Ill or recovering from injury.
    • Specific micronutrient deficiency
    Consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods to maintain body weight
    No
    May
    Single
    Un
    Specific medical
    or nutritional reason
    (eg, iron supplements to correct iron deficiency anemia)
    Folic acid for women of childbearing potential, should be followed
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Efficacy
    Not to use
    Gain attention
    Claimed
    Banned, or illegal
    Insufficient
    DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS [2]
    May claimed
    Not
    Dangerous
    Claimed
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Ergogenic Aids [3]
    ?
    Any training technique, mechanical device, nutritional practice,
    pharmacological method, or psychological technique that can improve exercise performance
    capacity and/or enhance training adaptations
    [3] Kreider R. , Wilborn C., Taylor L. (2010) Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7:7: 1-3.
  • [2]
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Ergogenic Aids that May Perform as Claimed, but for which there Is Insufficient Evidence [2]
    Colostrums
    Glutamine
    Claimed as health
    &
    Performance enhancers
    Beta hydroxymethylbutyrate
    Ribose
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Ergogenic Aids that Do Not Perform as Claimed [2]
    The majority of ergogenic aids currently on the market are in this category includes:
    • Amino acids.
    • Bee pollen.
    • Branched chain amino acids.
    • Carnitine.
    • Chromium picolinate.
    • Cordyceps.
    • Coenzyme Q10.
    • Conjugated linoleic acid.
    • Cytochrome C.
    • Dihydroxyacetone.
    • Gamma oryzanol.
    • Ginseng.
    • Inosine.
    • Medium chain triglycerides.
    • Pyruvate.
    • Oxygenated water.
    • Vanadium.
    It is possible for any of these compounds to eventually move from this to another category subsequent to appropriate scientific inquiry and evaluation.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • Ergogenic Aids that Are Dangerous, Banned, or Illegal [2]
    The ergogenic aids in this category should not be used and are banned.
    Examples
    Androstenedione.
    Dehydroepiandrosterone.
    19-norandrostenedione.
    19-norandrostenediol.
    Other anabolic, androgenic steroids,
    Tribulisterrestris.
    Ephedra.
    Strychnine.
    Human growth hormone.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  • References :
    [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.
    [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
    [3]Kreider R. , Wilborn C., Taylor L. (2010) Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7:7: 1-3.
  • Thank You!
    Intern Clinical Dietitian: Samar Ali AlDhamadi