Diet would influence disease differently in different individuals.2
Human Genome Project (HGP)
On Monday 26thof July 2000 was the launch of the initial version of the human gene map, which contains 90% of the symbols of the map with the participation of former U.S. President Bill Clinton and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. 3
IntroductionNutritional Genomics2 Nutrigenetics: Is about genes acting on diet and other environmental factors. Nutrigenomics: Is diet and other environmental factors acting on genes, changing expression. Nutritional Genomics + Nutrigenomics Nutrigenetics
Common dietary chemicals act on the human genome, either directly or indirectly, to alter gene expression or structure. 1 Under certain circumstances and in some individuals, diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of diseases. 2 Cont Nutrigenomics4
Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) are likely to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases. 3 The degree to which diet influences the balance between healthy and disease states may depend on an individual’s genetic makeup. 4 Dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional requirement, nutritional status, and genotype (i.e., “personalized nutrition”) can be used to prevent, mitigate, or cure chronic disease. 5 Cont Nutrigenomics4
Cont Hypothesize that all diseases can be reduced to imbalances in four overarching processes: 5 Inflammatory Stress Psychological stress Metabolic Stress Oxidative Stress Diseases arise because of genetic predispositions to one or more of these stressors. Nutrigenomics represents a major effort to improve our understanding of the role of nutrition and genomic interactions in at least the first three of these areas.
Diet plans and foods tailored to people genetic makeup.
Increased confidence that a particular food recommendation will actually work.
Accurate counseling that will modify and reduce personal risk.
A chemical made up of 3 components: Phosphorus A,T,C,G Nitrogenous base Ribose Gene, Nutrient and Gene ExpressionDNA, Chromosomes, and Genes4
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression DNA, Chromosomes, and Genes 4
Make up 4 different nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
Nucleotides are connected –end to end- to create a very long linear molecule (“strand”)
DNA has two strands held together by weak binding between pairs of bases (A A-T, C-G)
The structure resembles a twisted rope ladder, a structure called a “double helix”
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression What is a gene?4
The nucleotide sequence of DNA holds information for making proteins; this information is in code.
A gene is a linear sequence of nucleotides whose encoded information results in a protein (enzyme, receptor, hormone, transporter, communicator, etc.)
The total genetic code of all of the DNA on all the chromosomes is the genome
The human genome is composed of 23 distinct pairs of chromosomes (22 autosomal + X + Y) with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 20,000–25,000 genes.
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Decoding Genetic Information4 The nucleotide sequence must be decoded before it is useful to the cells Decoding occurs in stages: Post -translational processing Transcription Translation - From DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). - Extra bases “introns” are removed, polyAtail added. - From mRNA into amino acid sequence of the protein.
Protein may be modified
( eg, glycosylated), cleaved.
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Genotype VS Phenotype?4 Genotype is the sum total of the information in our genes. Genotype Phenotype is the expression of that information. Phenotype
Folic acid, B12, B-6: important for proper methylation, gene stability and cancer inhibition.
Folic acid deficiency breaks your chromosomes in the same way that radiation does. Many people have a vitamin B12 deficiency, which damages DNA in the same way and has the same effect. Folic acid and B12 protect against chromosome damage. Sadeghian S, et al . BMC CardiovascDisord. 2006
Eligible study subjects included women who were currently alive and were known to be carriers of deleterious mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.
Coffee consumption may ⬇ breast cancer risk among women with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 gene mutations. The protective effect associated with coffee consumption may be due to the ability of caffeine to influence estrogen metabolism. Wiley. Int. J. Cancer. 2006
Exogenous supplementation of cultured breast cancer cells with physiological concentrations of OA was found to:
Suppress the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erbB-2), a well-characterized oncogene playing a key role in the etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas. Unrecognized molecular mechanism. Colomer R, et al. ClinTranslOncol. 2006
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the essential omega-6 fat that is found in most vegetable oils.
Can inhibit the action of the cancer gene Her-2/neu. This gene is responsible for almost 30% of all breast cancers. When cancer cells, that over-express the Her-2/neu gene, are treated with GLA. Menendez JA, et al. Journal of the National Cancer. 2005
Data derived from epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that alphalinolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), the main omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) presents mainly in flaxseed, may have protective effects in breast cancer risk and metastatic progression.
Flaxseed on tumor biological markers in postmenopausal patients with primary breast cancer demonstrated significant reductions in tumor growth and in HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene expression. Menendez JA et al. ClinTranslOncol. 2006
Dietary flavonoids which found mostly in citrus, tea and dark chocholates can inhibit cancer development by protecting tissues against free oxygen radicals and inhibiting cell proliferation.
Italian case-control study, including 1,953 cases of colorectal cancers (1,225 colon cancers and 728 rectal cancers) and 4,154 hospital controls admitted for acute nonneoplastic diseases. A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for increasing intake of isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols. Rossi M,et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006
Catechins, for example, belong to the flavonoid family, which are polyphenolic compounds available in foods of plant origin, and there is much research into their beneficial affects as well as multi-mechanisms. 14
Studies in animal models of carcinogenesis have shown that green tea and Catechins can inhibit tumorigenesis during the initiation, promotion and progression stages. 15 Mariappan D, et al. Curr Med Chem. 200614 Lambert JD, et al Arch BiochemBiophys. 2010 15
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Flavonoids A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, protects a woman from the BRCA gene becoming activated. 16 Also, that smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating a poor diet each of these alone cause an increase in cancer but the combination is deadly increasing the risk 3-4 fold. 17 Nkondjock, et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 16 Asakage T. Carcinogenesis. 2006 17
Conclusion Nutrition Nutrition has the most important life-long environmental impact on human health. Nutrigenetics VS. Nutrigenomic While Nutrigenetics addresses how an individual's genetic makeup predisposes for dietary susceptibility, Nutrigenomic seeks how nutrition influences the expression of the genome.
Conclusion18 Bioactive food components may also regulate gene expression at the transcriptome, protein abundance, and/or protein turnover levels.
These genetic changes may lead to alterations in absorption, metabolism, and functional responses to bioactive nutritional factors.
Diet can affect the expression levels of genes by acting on transcription factors or by causing structural changes.
In future its expected that Nutrigenomics will be the basic for individual intake.
More research & Scientist in this filed needed.
Conferences need to focus Nutrigenomics and update.
May all this increase our knowledge in this field & discover the nutrition according to genetic.
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