1<br />Introduction<br />2<br />Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression<br />Studies Review <br />3<br />Conclusion and Recommendations<br />4<br />Contents<br />
Genes are important in determining a function, but nutrition is able to modify the degree of gene expression.1<br />
Archibald Garrod1857-1936<br /><ul><li>Diet would influence disease differently in different individuals.2</li></li></ul><li>Human Genome Project (HGP)<br /><ul><li>On Monday 26thof July 2000 was the launch of the initial version of the human gene map, which contains 90% of the symbols of the map with the participation of former U.S. President Bill Clinton and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. 3</li></li></ul><li>IntroductionNutritional Genomics2<br />Nutrigenetics:<br />Is about genes acting on diet and other environmental factors.<br />Nutrigenomics:<br />Is diet and other environmental factors acting on genes, changing expression.<br />Nutritional Genomics<br />+<br />Nutrigenomics<br />Nutrigenetics<br />
Common dietary chemicals act on the human genome, either directly or indirectly, to alter gene expression or structure.<br />1<br />Under certain circumstances and in some individuals, diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of diseases.<br />2<br />Cont Nutrigenomics4<br />
Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) are likely to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases.<br />3<br />The degree to which diet influences the balance between healthy and disease states may depend on an individual’s genetic makeup.<br />4<br />Dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional requirement, nutritional status, and genotype (i.e., “personalized nutrition”) can be used to prevent, mitigate, or cure chronic disease.<br />5<br />Cont Nutrigenomics4<br />
Cont Hypothesize that all diseases can be reduced to imbalances in four overarching processes: 5<br />Inflammatory Stress<br />Psychological stress<br />Metabolic Stress<br />Oxidative Stress<br />Diseases arise because of genetic predispositions to one or more of these stressors. Nutrigenomics represents a major effort to improve our understanding of the role of nutrition and genomic interactions in at least the first three of these areas.<br />
Cont Dietitian? What will this offer you?6<br /><ul><li>Diet plans and foods tailored to people genetic makeup.
Increased confidence that a particular food recommendation will actually work.
Accurate counseling that will modify and reduce personal risk.</li></li></ul><li>A chemical made up of 3 components:<br />Phosphorus<br />A,T,C,G<br />Nitrogenous base<br />Ribose<br />Gene, Nutrient and Gene ExpressionDNA, Chromosomes, and Genes4<br />
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression DNA, Chromosomes, and Genes 4<br /><ul><li>Make up 4 different nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
Nucleotides are connected –end to end- to create a very long linear molecule (“strand”)
DNA has two strands held together by weak binding between pairs of bases (A A-T, C-G)
The structure resembles a twisted rope ladder, a structure called a “double helix”</li></li></ul><li>Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression What is a gene?4<br /><ul><li>The nucleotide sequence of DNA holds information for making proteins; this information is in code.
A gene is a linear sequence of nucleotides whose encoded information results in a protein (enzyme, receptor, hormone, transporter, communicator, etc.)
The total genetic code of all of the DNA on all the chromosomes is the genome
The human genome is composed of 23 distinct pairs of chromosomes (22 autosomal + X + Y) with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 20,000–25,000 genes.</li></li></ul><li>Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Decoding Genetic Information4<br />The nucleotide sequence must be decoded before it is useful to the cells<br />Decoding occurs in stages:<br />Post -translational processing<br />Transcription<br />Translation<br />- From DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).<br />- Extra bases “introns” are removed, polyAtail added.<br />- From mRNA into amino acid sequence of the protein.<br /><ul><li> Protein may be modified </li></ul>( eg, glycosylated), cleaved.<br />
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Genotype VS Phenotype?4<br />Genotype is the sum total of the information in our genes.<br />Genotype<br />Phenotype is the expression of that information.<br />Phenotype<br />
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Genotype VS Phenotype?4<br />Phenotype<br />Genotype<br />The expression of that score - the music - which varies depending on the conductor.<br />Analogy<br />Is like a musical score<br />
GeneChanges in the Genetic Material7<br /><ul><li>It is a simple change in one base of the gene sequence.</li></ul>Point mutation<br /><ul><li>There is one or more bases are inserted or deleted. This type of mutation can make the DNA meaningless & often results in a shortened protein.</li></ul>Frame-shift <br />mutation <br /><ul><li>Result in missing DNA. It can be small or longer deletions that affect a large number of genes on the chromosome.
Deletions can also cause frame-shift mutations.</li></ul>Deletion<br />
Gene, Nutrient and Gene Expression Changes in the Genetic Material7<br /><ul><li>It result in the addition of extra DNA .
It can cause frame-shift mutations & general result in a nonfunctional protein.</li></ul>Insertion<br /><ul><li>An entire section of DNA is reversed.
A small inversion may involve only a few bases within a gene, while longer inversions involve large regions of a chromosome containing several genes.</li></ul>Inversion<br />
Studies ReviewFolic acid, B12, B-68<br /><ul><li>Folic acid, B12, B-6: important for proper methylation, gene stability and cancer inhibition.</li></ul>Folic acid deficiency breaks your chromosomes in the same way that radiation does. <br />Many people have a vitamin B12 deficiency, which damages DNA in the same way and has the same effect. <br />Folic acid and B12 protect against chromosome damage. <br />Sadeghian S, et al . BMC CardiovascDisord. 2006 <br />
Studies ReviewCaffeine9<br /><ul><li>Eligible study subjects included women who were currently alive and were known to be carriers of deleterious mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.</li></ul>Coffee consumption may ⬇ breast cancer risk among women with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 gene mutations.<br />The protective effect associated with coffee consumption may be due to the ability of caffeine to influence estrogen metabolism.<br /> Wiley. Int. J. Cancer. 2006<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Olive oil10<br /><ul><li>Exogenous supplementation of cultured breast cancer cells with physiological concentrations of OA was found to:</li></ul>Suppress the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erbB-2), a well-characterized oncogene playing a key role in the etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas.<br />Unrecognized molecular mechanism.<br />Colomer R, et al. ClinTranslOncol. 2006<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Omega 611<br /><ul><li>Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the essential omega-6 fat that is found in most vegetable oils.</li></ul>Can inhibit the action of the cancer gene Her-2/neu.<br />This gene is responsible for almost 30% of all breast cancers. When cancer cells, that over-express the Her-2/neu gene, are treated with GLA.<br />Menendez JA, et al. Journal of the National Cancer. 2005<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Omega 3 12<br /><ul><li>Data derived from epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that alphalinolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), the main omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) presents mainly in flaxseed, may have protective effects in breast cancer risk and metastatic progression.</li></ul>Flaxseed on tumor biological markers in postmenopausal patients with primary breast cancer demonstrated significant reductions in tumor growth and in HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene expression. <br />Menendez JA et al. ClinTranslOncol. 2006<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Flavonoids13<br /><ul><li>Dietary flavonoids which found mostly in citrus, tea and dark chocholates can inhibit cancer development by protecting tissues against free oxygen radicals and inhibiting cell proliferation.</li></ul>Italian case-control study, including 1,953 cases of colorectal cancers (1,225 colon cancers and 728 rectal cancers) and 4,154 hospital controls admitted for acute nonneoplastic diseases. <br />A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for increasing intake of isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols.<br />Rossi M,et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Flavonoids<br /><ul><li>Catechins, for example, belong to the flavonoid family, which are polyphenolic compounds available in foods of plant origin, and there is much research into their beneficial affects as well as multi-mechanisms. 14</li></ul>Studies in animal models of carcinogenesis have shown that green tea and Catechins can inhibit tumorigenesis during the initiation, promotion and progression stages. 15<br />Mariappan D, et al. Curr Med Chem. 200614<br />Lambert JD, et al Arch BiochemBiophys. 2010 15<br />
Studies ReviewPhytochemicals; Flavonoids<br />A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, protects a woman from the BRCA gene becoming activated. 16<br />Also, that smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating a poor diet each of these alone cause an increase in cancer but the combination is deadly increasing the risk 3-4 fold. 17<br />Nkondjock, et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 16<br />Asakage T. Carcinogenesis. 2006 17<br />
Conclusion<br />Nutrition<br />Nutrition has the most important life-long environmental impact on human health.<br />Nutrigenetics VS. Nutrigenomic<br />While Nutrigenetics addresses how an individual's genetic makeup predisposes for dietary susceptibility, Nutrigenomic seeks how nutrition influences the expression of the genome.<br />
Conclusion18<br />Bioactive food components may also regulate gene expression at the transcriptome, protein abundance, and/or protein turnover levels.<br /><ul><li>These genetic changes may lead to alterations in absorption, metabolism, and functional responses to bioactive nutritional factors.</li></ul>Diet can affect the expression levels of genes by acting on transcription factors or by causing structural changes.<br />
Conclusion19<br /><ul><li>It is serving dietetics professionals to:</li></ul> Recognize that an individual's response to dietary intervention will depend on his or her genetic background & may be used to promote human health & disease prevention.<br /><ul><li>Nutrigenomics is still a very young science!</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br />At Present …<br />Public health recommendations on diet are<br />generally based on what is good for the greatest number of people<br />In Future …<br />Response to dietary changes may depend on your genes<br />
Recommendations<br /><ul><li>In future its expected that Nutrigenomics will be the basic for individual intake.
More research & Scientist in this filed needed.
Conferences need to focus Nutrigenomics and update.
May all this increase our knowledge in this field & discover the nutrition according to genetic.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Miggiano GA, De Sanctis R. Nutritional genomics: toward a personalized diet, Clin Ter. 2006 Jul-Aug;157(4):355-61<br />Kaput J, Raymond L . Nutritional genomics: Discovering the Path to Personalized Nutrition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006 Hoboken, New Jersey. <br />Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Human Genome Project.<br />DeBusk R. Nutritional Genomics: Practical Applications. 2006; Waltham, MA <br />AndreuPalou. From nutrigenomicstopersonalisednutrition. Genes Nutr. 2007 October; 2(1): 5–7.<br />Maria Ricupero, RD, CDE ,Toronto Rehabilitation Institute ,Cardiac Program<br />Amanda EwartToland, PhD, Karen Hales, PhD. DNA Mutations. January 3, 2001.http://www.genetichealth.com/g101_changes_in_dna.shtml http://nutrigenomics.ucdavis.edu/nutrigenomics/index.cfm?objectid=967B505E-65B3-C1E7-0B248ED4F1545543.<br />Sadeghian S, Fallahi F, Salarifar M, Davoodi G, Mahmoodian M, Fallah N, Darvish S, Karimi A; Tehran Heart Center. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease., BMC CardiovascDisord. 2006 Sep 26;6:38.<br /> Wiley-Liss , Inc. Coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Int. J. Cancer. 2006; 118: 103–107. Site : International Journal of Cancer.<br />Colomer R, Menendez JA. Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer. ClinTranslOncol. 2006 Jan;8(1):15-21.<br />Menendez JA, Vellon L, Colomer R, Lupu R. Effect of gamma-linolenic acid on the transcriptional activity of the Her-2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. Journal of the National Cancer Institute November 2, 2005; 97(21): 1611-1615.<br />Menendez JA, Vazquez-Martin A, Ropero S, Colomer R, Lupu R. HER2 (erbB-2)-targeted effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated. Fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) in breast cancer cells: the <<fat features>> of the <<Mediterranean diet>> as an <<anti-HER2 cocktail>>. ClinTranslOncol. 2006 Nov;8(11):812-20.<br />Rossi M, Negri E, Talamini R, Bosetti C, Parpinel M, Gnagnarella P, Franceschi S, DalMaso L, Montella M, Giacosa A, La Vecchia C. Flavonoids and colorectal cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Aug;15(8):1555-8.<br />Mariappan D, Winkler J, Parthiban V, Doss MX, Hescheler J, Sachinidis A. Dietary small molecules and large-scale gene expression studies: an experimental approach for understanding their beneficial effects on the development of malignant and non-malignant proliferative diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(13):1481-9<br />Lambert JD, Elias RJ. The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: A role in cancer prevention. Arch BiochemBiophys. 2010<br />Nkondjock A, Ghadirian P. Diet quality and BRCA-associated breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Oct 25<br />Asakage T, Yokoyama A, Haneda T, Yamazaki M, Muto M, Yokoyama T, Kato H, Igaki H, Tsujinaka T, Kumagai Y, Yokoyama M, Omori T, Watanabe H. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehydedehydrogenases and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Oct 27<br />The science of nutrigenomics. El-Sohemy, Ahmed <br />http://www.articlearchives.com/medicine-health/diseases-disorders-musculoskeletal/378431-1.html<br />Elaine Trujillo, Cindy Davis, John Milner. Nutrigenomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics, and the Practice of Dietetics. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2006.<br />