Community Nutrition


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Community Nutrition

  1. 1. CHS 345 Community Nutrition National Nutritional Assessment Information Chapter 3 Supervised by: Dr . May Muammar Presented by : Samar Al Dhamadi ©
  2. 2. Nutrition Related Information Help detect national nutrition problem . Identify major causes of those problems .
  3. 3. Information collected from a national sample generally be used to diagnose nutrition problems among local group.
  4. 4. Types of Information Used to Identify Nutrition Problem • Information about food or nutrient intake Dietary information • Information from measurement or nutrient or their indicators in body tissues, products or fluid . Biochemical information • Information from examination or dimensions, surfaces, and functioning of the body for Clinical / signs of poor nutritional health . anthropometr ic information • Information on the incidence or prevalence of nutrition – related health problems or behavior . Incidence / prevalence
  5. 5. Figure 3.1 Level of nutritional status measured by each type of nutritional assessment information Food intake Dietary information Nutrient intake Storage and / or circulating nutrient Biochemical level information Intracellular level Physiological functioning Clinical / anthropometric Clinical / anthropometric status information Incidence or prevalence Health disease status of health problems
  6. 6. U.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY  1936 was 1st national nutritional assessment was survey of Food used in American household.  Additional surveys 1942 - 1988 This series of surveys called the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, measures dietary data and is a source of food and nutrient intake information.  Beginning with the 1965-66 Information collected expanded to include not only the food used within households , but also the food intake of individuals living in the households.  1987 – 88 , Nationwide Food Consumption Survey illustrate the size and the scope of the surveys.
  7. 7. Data collected from two samples :  General population  Low income population By interviews : Person most knowledgeable about the household’s was asked to recall : Kinds Prices Amount
  8. 8. The household food manager was contacted about one week before this interview , was asked to keep : Store receipts Menu And other items to aid in recalling food used in household during the week.
  9. 9.  Household data are analyzed to : Reflect the economic value of food used within American households , NOT nutritional value.  Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys conducted about every ten-year , Food behavior and food environment of American can change dramatically over a ten-year period
  10. 10. • 1980s NOT ENOUGH • Many congressional members and food and nutrition professionals became concerned thrat survey was not enough to provide timely information for program planning . • 1985 – 1986 • A smaller survey , the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals ( CSFII ) , was begun to assess the dietary status of the population between the larger survey.
  11. 11. Data from the USDA food consumption surveys are highly useful to community nutritionist. - E.g. 1 - Information on household food use is used to :  Assess demand for agriculture products.  Determine the effect of household income.  Other demographic characteristics on food expenditures.  Project the amount needed by poor families. 2 - individual food intake component provides :  information on food and nutrient intakes.  eating practices ( when , where, how often , and with whom individuals eat ). 3 - Because these surveys have been periodically conducted over many years , they are used to follow trends in American’s diets.
  12. 12. The TEN – STATE NUTRITION SURVEY and HANES • During the 1960s , evidence mounted that hunger and malnutrition were widespread and sever among cretin groups of Americans. • As a result congress authorized a survey to determine the seriousness of hunger and malnutrition in the U.S. , called the Ten – State Nutrition Survey . • This survey was to Determine whether undernutrition and malnutrition existed.
  13. 13. The Ten – State Nutrition Survey is important for community nutritionist For several reasons : 1. It document in high prevalence of undernutrition and malnutrition among the 24,000 families surveyed → Increase federal spending for food nutrition programs and the creation for new programs. 2. This was the first large - scale national nutrition survey to include collection dietary, clinical / anthropometric biochemical indicators of nutritional status. 3. Emphasized the need for additional information on the nutritional status of the American adults.
  14. 14. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES • Before Ten – State Nutrition Survey was even completed , President Richard Nixon authorized regular assessment of the nutritional status of the Americans , resulted in a new nutrition survey known as National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES. • NHANES conducted periodically by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) , examines a representative sample of the civilian , noninstitutinalized U.S. population and measures dietary , biochemical and clinical / anthropometric indicators of nutritional status.
  15. 15. • NHANES survey used to: Assess major nutrition –related problems as obesity . related growth , and high blood cholesterol levels. NHANES survey Invaluable for assessing the nutritional status of Americans. • NHANES information provide : 1. Information about dietary intakes of Americans. 2. Indication of how dietary intake affect physiological functioning and health.
  16. 16. OTHER NATIONAL INFORMATION : 1. The Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Survey . - Assess level of selected contaminants and eleven nutrient in food. - Allow levels of this compounds and elements in the diet to be tracked over time. 2. Tow nutritional assessment activities of Center of Disease Control :  Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System.  Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. • Collect and analyze nutritional status indicators ( weight , height , hemoglobin and hematocrit ) from low-income pregnant women , infant and children at high risk for nutrition-related problems. • This type of ongoing tacking called monitoring , is important because of the collection and analysis of information to detect problems are continues. € Surveillance: Activities used to monitor change and provide interventions if problems are detected .
  17. 17. Subgroups at high risk for malnutrition are inadequately represented in national nutrition surveys :  Pregnant and lactating women.  Infants.  Low-income children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults.  Legal and illegal immigrants  Physically disabled and mentally impaired noninstitutionlized individuals.  Substance abusers.  Persons in mental , penal, and health care institutions.  Native Americans.  Migrant workers.  Homeless individuals.
  18. 18. NATIONAL NUTRITION MONITORING SYSTEME: Term used to refer to the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey , NHANES , and other activities of the federal government to collect nutrition-related assessment information. Allows experts to : • Monitor the nutritional status. • Forecast nutrition problems. • Plan timely intervention.
  19. 19. Remember  Tow major national nutrition surveys are : 1. USDA’s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey : Collect dietary data. 2. DHHS’s Health and Nutrition Examination Survey : Collect dietary , biochemical , and clinical / anthropometric indicators of nutritional status .