Nutrition Related Information
Help detect national nutrition problem .
Identify major causes of those problems .
Information collected from a national
be used to diagnose nutrition
problems among local group.
Types of Information Used to Identify Nutrition Problem
• Information about food or nutrient intake
• Information from measurement or nutrient or their
indicators in body tissues, products or fluid .
• Information from examination or
dimensions, surfaces, and functioning of the body for
signs of poor nutritional health .
• Information on the incidence or prevalence of nutrition –
related health problems or behavior .
Figure 3.1 Level of nutritional status measured by each type of nutritional
Storage and / or circulating nutrient
Clinical / anthropometric status
Incidence or prevalence
Health disease status of health problems
U.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY
1936 was 1st national nutritional assessment was survey of
Food used in American household.
Additional surveys 1942 - 1988 This series of surveys called the
Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, measures dietary
data and is a source of food and nutrient intake information.
Beginning with the 1965-66 Information collected expanded to
include not only the food used within households , but also the
food intake of individuals living in the households.
1987 – 88 , Nationwide Food Consumption Survey illustrate the
size and the scope of the surveys.
Data collected from two samples :
Low income population
By interviews :
Person most knowledgeable about the household’s was asked
to recall :
The household food manager was contacted about one week before this
interview , was asked to keep :
And other items to aid in
recalling food used in
household during the week.
Household data are analyzed to :
Reflect the economic value of food used within American
households , NOT nutritional value.
Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys conducted about
every ten-year , Food behavior and food environment of
American can change dramatically over a ten-year period
• 1980s NOT ENOUGH
• Many congressional members and
food and nutrition professionals
became concerned thrat survey was
not enough to provide timely
information for program planning .
• 1985 – 1986
• A smaller survey , the Continuing
Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (
CSFII ) , was begun to assess the
dietary status of the population
between the larger survey.
Data from the USDA food consumption surveys are highly useful to
1 - Information on household food use is used to :
Assess demand for agriculture products.
Determine the effect of household income.
Other demographic characteristics on food expenditures.
Project the amount needed by poor families.
2 - individual food intake component provides :
information on food and nutrient intakes.
eating practices ( when , where, how often , and with whom
individuals eat ).
3 - Because these surveys have been periodically conducted over
many years , they are used to follow trends in American’s diets.
The TEN – STATE NUTRITION SURVEY and HANES
• During the 1960s , evidence mounted that hunger and
malnutrition were widespread and sever among cretin groups of
• As a result congress authorized a survey to determine the
seriousness of hunger and malnutrition in the U.S. , called the Ten –
State Nutrition Survey .
• This survey was to Determine whether undernutrition and
The Ten – State Nutrition Survey is important for community
For several reasons :
1. It document in high prevalence of undernutrition and malnutrition
among the 24,000 families surveyed → Increase federal spending for
food nutrition programs and the creation for new programs.
2. This was the first large - scale national nutrition survey to include
collection dietary, clinical / anthropometric biochemical indicators of
3. Emphasized the need for additional information on the nutritional
status of the American adults.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES
• Before Ten – State Nutrition Survey was even completed ,
President Richard Nixon authorized regular assessment of the
nutritional status of the Americans , resulted in a new
nutrition survey known as National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
• NHANES conducted periodically by the Department of Health and Human
Services (DHHS) , examines a representative sample of the civilian ,
noninstitutinalized U.S. population and measures dietary , biochemical and
clinical / anthropometric indicators of nutritional status.
• NHANES survey used to: Assess major nutrition –related problems
as obesity . related growth , and high blood cholesterol levels.
NHANES survey Invaluable for assessing the
nutritional status of Americans.
• NHANES information provide :
1. Information about dietary intakes of Americans.
2. Indication of how dietary intake affect physiological functioning and health.
OTHER NATIONAL INFORMATION :
1. The Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Survey .
- Assess level of selected contaminants and eleven nutrient in food.
- Allow levels of this compounds and elements in the diet to be tracked over time.
2. Tow nutritional assessment activities of Center of Disease Control :
Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System.
Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System.
• Collect and analyze nutritional status indicators ( weight , height , hemoglobin
and hematocrit ) from low-income pregnant women , infant and children at high
risk for nutrition-related problems.
• This type of ongoing tacking called monitoring , is important because of the
collection and analysis of information to detect problems are continues.
€ Surveillance: Activities used to monitor change and provide interventions if
problems are detected .
Subgroups at high risk for malnutrition are inadequately represented in
national nutrition surveys :
Pregnant and lactating women.
Low-income children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults.
Legal and illegal immigrants
Physically disabled and mentally impaired noninstitutionlized
Persons in mental , penal, and health care institutions.
NATIONAL NUTRITION MONITORING SYSTEME:
Term used to refer to the Nationwide Food Consumption
Survey , NHANES , and other activities of the federal
government to collect nutrition-related assessment
Allows experts to :
• Monitor the nutritional status.
• Forecast nutrition problems.
• Plan timely intervention.
Tow major national nutrition surveys are :
1. USDA’s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey :
Collect dietary data.
2. DHHS’s Health and Nutrition Examination Survey :
Collect dietary , biochemical , and clinical / anthropometric
indicators of nutritional status .