Humanities_ Medium of Music: The Instrumental Medium


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My very first reporting in college. The Instrumental Medium of Music. Art Appreciation/Humanities topic. With add on "The Ensemble Medium" with short descriptions.

P.S. I've added notes and reference links/books on the 'notes' section of the .pptx. Just download the presentation to see.

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  • We hear this media of music almost every day—from grocery stores; when telephones are on hold; background music score in most television shows; karaoke machines; and backing music for speeches.***Introduction to the Humanities: A Holistic Approach by Jesus Z. Menoy, p. 145
  • -- Not to be confused with the “Sachs-Hornbostel Classification”. IdiophonesMembranophonesChordophonesAerophones5) Electrophones
  • -- (L) Guitar, (U) Banjo, (D) Lute
  • -- Distinguishing features: Violins and violas are “under the chin”, whereas the cello and double bass are “from the rear”.-- Violins have the longest bow, and produces the highest pitch, the double bass otherwise.
  • -- Note: Not all woodwindinstruments are made of wood, and brass instruments are made of metal or brass.
  • -- (L-R) Flute, Clarinet, Oboe-- Note: Flute is longer than an oboe and has no reed, while an oboe has two. In terms of structure, flutes are cylindrical while oboes are conical.Comparing oboes and clarinets, clarinets are longer and has only one reed.-- What is a reed? It is a very thin piece of wood or plastic attached to the mouthpiece and causes the instrument to produce sound.
  • -- (L) Piccolo, (U) Trumpet, (D) Serpent-- In spite of being made of brass, the saxophone is considered a woodwind instrument.
  • -- (UL) Glockenspiel, (DL) Xylophone, (UR) Cymbals, (DR) Maracas-- Glockenspiel is a German word literally meaning ‘bells play’.
  • -- Examples of Keyboard Instruments under Hornbostel-Sachs:Chordophones: Piano, Clavinet, PianetAerophones: Accordion and Pipe Organ
  • -- (UL) Accordion, Aerophone (DL) Celesta, Idiophone, (UR) Piano, Chordophone, (LR) Synthesizer, Electrophone
  • Humanities_ Medium of Music: The Instrumental Medium

    1. 1. MEDIUM OF MUSIC: THE INSTRUMENTAL MEDIUM by P. A. Encina University of the East, Manila ZHU 111 – NCP 1
    2. 2. WHAT IS AN “INSTRUMENTAL”?  An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics or vocals. With origins in tribal music, instrumental music is now associated with recorded music.*  Also known as „minus one,‟ „hybrids,‟ and „score.‟  Instrumental medium pertains to the different instruments played by musicians.**
    3. 3. MINUS ONE‟S, HYBRIDS, AND SCORES Minus one‟s are musical compositions that were originally recorded with vocals but later had the vocals removed to become an instrumental work.  Hybrids are musical works that are all instrumental works with brief vocals. (The Hustle, Tequila)  Scores, with the film score and sheet music as its kind, are musical pieces that serves as accompaniment; say, sheet music is used in operas and live theatrical shows. 
    4. 4. THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS – have strings which are either plucked or bowed.  Wind – require wind to produce sound, with brass and woodwind as its types.  Percussion – are instruments beaten or struck.  Keyboard – have keys which are pressed to produce desired sounds.  String
    5. 5. THE STRING INSTRUMENTS     String instruments are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification, they are called chordophones. Two classifications are bowed and plucked. Bowing – method used in some string instruments, including the violin, viola, cello, and the double bass. The bow consists of a stick with many hairs stretched between its ends and causes a stick-slip phenomenon that makes the string vibrate. Plucking – method used in playing string instruments, such as the banjo, ukulele, guitar, harp, lute, using a finger or a plastic plectrum (pl. plectra) to pluck the strings.
    6. 6. PLUCKED STRINGS Banjo Guitar Lute
    8. 8. THE WIND INSTRUMENTS     Wind instruments are musical instruments that contain a resonator (usually tube) in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into a mouthpiece. Two classifications are brass and woodwind. Woodwind instruments change their pitch by changing where the air escapes. They use a wooden reed to form the mouthpiece. Brass instruments change their pitch by changing the length of the tubing which the air passes through. They do not having any moving parts that vibrate to produce the sound, and they are also called labrosones, meaning “lip-vibrated instruments.”
    9. 9. WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS Clarinet Oboe Flute
    10. 10. BRASS INSTRUMENTS Trumpet Piccolo Trumpet Serpent
    11. 11. THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS Percussion instruments are musical instruments sounded by being struck or beaten.  Two classifications are pitched percussion and unpitched percussion.  Pitched percussion have definite pitch, such as xylophones and glockenspiels, while unpitched percussion have indeterminate pitch and maintained rhythm, such as cymbals and maracas. Most drums, or membranophones belong under the pitched category. 
    12. 12. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS  Pitched  Unpitched Glockenspiel Cymbals Xylophones Maracas
    13. 13. THE KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS  Keyboard instruments are musical instruments played using a keyboard.  Keyboard instruments have categories that fall under with the Hornbostel-Sachs classification: Chordophones, Aerophones, Idiophones, an d Electrophones.
    14. 14. KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS Piano Accordion Celesta Synthesizer
    15. 15. THE ENSEMBLE MEDIUM Ensemble medium is produced when two or more performers equally sing or play a piece of music.
    16. 16. ENSEMBLE MEDIA Orchestra – any group of instrumentalists  Symphony Orchestra – large ensemble where all types of principal instruments are involved.  Concerto – one sole instrument is dominant  Band – uses wind and percussion instruments  Rondalla – ensemble of stringed instruments  Chamber Orchestra – consists of small instrument ensembles 