II. Hazard vulnerability
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II. Hazard vulnerability

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II. Hazard vulnerability Presentation Transcript

  • 1. VENN DIAGRAMS: NATURAL HAZARD EVENTS AND VULNERABILITY No disaster EXTREME Ex: Earthquake VULNERABLE NATURAL EVENT POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone Ex: Drought Limited disaster EXTREME Ex: Earthquake VULNERABLE NATURAL EVENT POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone Ex: Drought Major disaster Ex: Earthquake EXTREME VULNERABLE NATURAL POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone EVENT Ex: DroughtDisaster = major hazard event increased by poor human preparedness and response
  • 2. VULNERABILITY1. Suggest factors which may explain why people live in hazardous areas • Earthquakes: San Francisco Bay • Tropical Cyclones: Irrawady or Mississippi Delta • Droughts: Sahel • Flooding: Delta of the Ganges • Volcanoes: Bali2. Referring to named examples, explain how the following factors impact the vulnerability of a population to a hazardous event: • Population density • Understanding/knowledge of the area • Public education/awareness • Existence of an early warning system • Effective lines of communication • Availability and preparedness of emergency responders • Insurance coverage • Building codes • Efficiency/coordination of local/regional/national authorities • Cultural factors3. Referring to named examples, explain why certain social groups of a population may be more vulnerable than others
  • 3. VULNERABILITY: COSTA RICASee also Haiti, p.215 DroughtsNatural hazards in Costa Rica: Volcanoes• Volcanoes (central mountain range)• Earthquakes (West coast) Flooding• Tropical cyclones (both coasts) Earthquakes• Droughts (North West) Hurricanes• Floods (Caribbean floodplain)Economic Social vulnerability Educational Environmentalvulnerability vulnerability vulnerabilityPoverty: High hazard acceptance (survey): • Few emergency preparedness • Deforestation + Poor land• 46% of pop makes less than local • 27% believe hazards are “natural” programs in schools, and usually management = increase risk of minimum wage • 11% believe hazards are “wrath of relate to seismic/volcanic activity flooding, landslides• 28% live in poverty God” rather than flooding • Urbanization of slopes andPoor urban planning • 24% do not know the cause of • Hazard zoning are ignored and hilltops = increased runoff and• 63% of homes in Limon are not hazards high-risk areas are populated with vulnerability of low-lying elevated • Most people believe that risk help of government! populations (often poor)• 99% of homes are not anti- reduction is beyond their control • Warning systems are general seismic (radio/TV), not targeted to• Many public buildings also lack specific communities preparednessThree main needs for change in Costa Rica1. Improve government organization: less centralization, more focus on local scale2. Shift priorities: hazards should not be viewed as “inevitable” and “unpredictable” and “uncontrollable”3. Increase local participation: all-inclusive disaster preparedness programs tailored to local needs, environmental managementA recent string of hurricanes in Central America since 1997 has led to improved collective awareness for disasterprevention and strategic planning
  • 4. VULNERABILITY: NEW ORLEANS (p.214) • Median household income in Lower Ninth Ward: $32k ($10k less than national average) • 20% of households had no car (10% nationwide) • 25% of people in flooded areas below poverty level (twice national average) • 60% of people affected came from minorities (30% national average) • Levees not designed to withstand 6m+ surge • Pumping stations not designed to handle massive flood • No mandatory evacuation until 24hrs earlier, no buses/alternate lodging provided for people with no cars • Poor communication between city/state/federal authorities • Poor organization of relief efforts (Superdome, looting)
  • 5. VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE-RELATED HAZARDS IN AFRICA(related to population density, development level, government, civil unrest)
  • 6. PROGRESSION OF VULNERABILITY – CRUNCH MODEL