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VENN DIAGRAMS: NATURAL HAZARD EVENTS AND VULNERABILITY No disaster EXTREME Ex: Earthquake VULNERABLE NATURAL EVENT POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone Ex: Drought Limited disaster EXTREME Ex: Earthquake VULNERABLE NATURAL EVENT POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone Ex: Drought Major disaster Ex: Earthquake EXTREME VULNERABLE NATURAL POPULATION Ex: Tropical cyclone EVENT Ex: DroughtDisaster = major hazard event increased by poor human preparedness and response
VULNERABILITY1. Suggest factors which may explain why people live in hazardous areas • Earthquakes: San Francisco Bay • Tropical Cyclones: Irrawady or Mississippi Delta • Droughts: Sahel • Flooding: Delta of the Ganges • Volcanoes: Bali2. Referring to named examples, explain how the following factors impact the vulnerability of a population to a hazardous event: • Population density • Understanding/knowledge of the area • Public education/awareness • Existence of an early warning system • Effective lines of communication • Availability and preparedness of emergency responders • Insurance coverage • Building codes • Efficiency/coordination of local/regional/national authorities • Cultural factors3. Referring to named examples, explain why certain social groups of a population may be more vulnerable than others
VULNERABILITY: COSTA RICASee also Haiti, p.215 DroughtsNatural hazards in Costa Rica: Volcanoes• Volcanoes (central mountain range)• Earthquakes (West coast) Flooding• Tropical cyclones (both coasts) Earthquakes• Droughts (North West) Hurricanes• Floods (Caribbean floodplain)Economic Social vulnerability Educational Environmentalvulnerability vulnerability vulnerabilityPoverty: High hazard acceptance (survey): • Few emergency preparedness • Deforestation + Poor land• 46% of pop makes less than local • 27% believe hazards are “natural” programs in schools, and usually management = increase risk of minimum wage • 11% believe hazards are “wrath of relate to seismic/volcanic activity flooding, landslides• 28% live in poverty God” rather than flooding • Urbanization of slopes andPoor urban planning • 24% do not know the cause of • Hazard zoning are ignored and hilltops = increased runoff and• 63% of homes in Limon are not hazards high-risk areas are populated with vulnerability of low-lying elevated • Most people believe that risk help of government! populations (often poor)• 99% of homes are not anti- reduction is beyond their control • Warning systems are general seismic (radio/TV), not targeted to• Many public buildings also lack specific communities preparednessThree main needs for change in Costa Rica1. Improve government organization: less centralization, more focus on local scale2. Shift priorities: hazards should not be viewed as “inevitable” and “unpredictable” and “uncontrollable”3. Increase local participation: all-inclusive disaster preparedness programs tailored to local needs, environmental managementA recent string of hurricanes in Central America since 1997 has led to improved collective awareness for disasterprevention and strategic planning
VULNERABILITY: NEW ORLEANS (p.214) • Median household income in Lower Ninth Ward: $32k ($10k less than national average) • 20% of households had no car (10% nationwide) • 25% of people in flooded areas below poverty level (twice national average) • 60% of people affected came from minorities (30% national average) • Levees not designed to withstand 6m+ surge • Pumping stations not designed to handle massive flood • No mandatory evacuation until 24hrs earlier, no buses/alternate lodging provided for people with no cars • Poor communication between city/state/federal authorities • Poor organization of relief efforts (Superdome, looting)
VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE-RELATED HAZARDS IN AFRICA(related to population density, development level, government, civil unrest)