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II. Government responses
 

II. Government responses

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    II. Government responses II. Government responses Presentation Transcript

    • Country Type of policy Ex of measures Result Long-Term Consequences • Goal = 1 child/woman Huge success • Population expected to stabilize • Marriage: higher legal age, easier divorce CBR: around 1.3 billion (2030) CHINA Anti-natalist • Birth control easy/free 37 (1960) • Unbalanced sex ratio“One-Child” (very strict) • Incentives for one-child families 21 (1988) • Spoiled single children (“little • Punishments for 2+ children 13 (2010) emperors”) • Exceptions allowed in villages (2+) • Rapid aging • Goal = 4 children/woman Little success • Population explosion from 33M • Campaigns to promote family planning and CBR: (1950) to 150M (2010)! Anti-natalist contraception 46 (1975) NIGERIA (voluntary basis) • Age of marriage: 18 (girls) 43 (2010) • Elimination of legal discrimination against women (employment, education) • The anti-natalist policy (“Stop at 2”) of the Sharp decline • TFR still below replacement rate 1960s-70s was so successful (TFR = 1.4 in in TFR until today Anti-natalist 1987) that it lead to a reversal -> pro-natalist 1987, slow • Rapid agingSINGAPORE Then policy increase since Pro-natalist • “Love cruises” organized • Targets primarily educated/rich people • Goal = 2 children/woman Modest • India has reached 1B people, and • Sterilization encouraged in 1970s (-> abuse) success (except expected to surpass China in 2030 • Contraception encouraged in Kerala) • Increasing regional and social • Information campaigns CBR: differences (ex: Kerala vs Utta Anti-natalist INDIA • Kerala: emphasis on rural female education 38 (1975) Pradesh) (lenient) and gender equality -> huge success 29 (1995) 24 (2010) • Goal = respect individual freedom Low TFR but • TFR has increased slightly in the last No formal • 1970: “National Family Planning” created in immigration 20 years, but mainly due to the influx population policy USA 1970 to provide services for teenagers of young immigrants except migration • Birth control/abortion still debate in some • Aging of population laws 1 conservative states
    • “One child encourages the Four modernizations (industry, agriculture, defense, technology)” (China, 1978)China in 2000 Projection for 2050 2
    • India:“For a healthy family,Wait 3 years beforeplanning a 2nd child” India: “big family” vs “small family”India:“Why only a boy: arethere not girls?” USA: Family planning website of the State of Pennsylvania 3