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also known as carbolic acid , is a toxic, white crystalline solid. Its chemical formula is C6H5OH and its structure is that of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to a phenyl ring, making it an aromatic compound.
Electrophilic aromatic substitutions as the hydroxyl group is activating, for example synthesis of calixarenes.
Reaction of naphtols and hydrazines and sodium bisulfite in the Bucherer carbazole synthesis.
Oxidative cleavage, for instance cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene to the monomethylester of 2,4 hexadienedioic acid with oxygen, copper chloride in pyridine.
Oxidative de-aromatization to quinones also known as the Teuber reaction. Oxidizing reagents are Fremy's salt and oxone. In reaction depicted below 3,4,5-trimethylphenol reacts with singlet oxygen generated from oxone/sodium carbonate in an acetonitrile/water mixture to a para-peroxyquinole. This hydroperoxide is reduced to the quinole with sodium thiosulfate.
Phenols are oxidized to phediols in the Elbs persulfate oxidation.
Phenolate anions (deriving from phenols by the loss of H+) can act as ligands towards metal cations
MEDICINALS a plant hormone used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties, also a precursor compound to Aspirin Salicylic acid a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent Propofol the major constituent of the essential oil of wintergreen Methyl salicylate a dopamine prodrug L-DOPA a synthetic estrogen with a stilbene structure Diethylstilbestrol the active constituents of cannabis Cannabinoids