Dreikurs TheoryAccording to Dreikurs all misbehaviour reflects childrens decision about how they can mosteffectively belong to, or be recognised by the group. Students who are confident of theirability to find a place - to belong through constructive activity - will tend not to be a problem.Such individuals have developed feelings of equality and worth and are interested in co-operating with others and in participating usefully within a group. They face each schooldemand, be it intellectual, social, physical, or emotional, with confidence in their ability tocope with the demand. There is no need for them to misbehave because they know that theycan function constructively and co-operatively in the class.In contrast, there are discouraged children who feel that they cannot cope with thevarious school demands and decide to adopt unacceptable ways of behaving which theybelieve will gain them status and a sense of group recognition.Teachers need constantly to remind themselves that they are the targets of disturbingclassroom behaviour and that their reactions tend to sustain and strengthen undesirablebehaviour. Before teachers can begin to assist individual children, they must stop givingundue attention, fighting, retaliating, or accepting students display of inability. That is the firstand necessary step in any corrective program. Students who constantly disturb, disrupt, fail tolearn, invite attention, rebel, or violate orders are discouraged individuals who feel that theycannot find a place in the class through constructive and co-operative behaviours andconsequently turn to more destructive and inadequate behaviour in their attempt to find asense of significance.There are a number of processes designed to help pupils to develop more adequate ways ofbehaving but, before these approaches can be used, teachers must stop responding tounacceptable behaviours. As a first step teachers should train themselves to go against theirfirst impulse and, consequently, break the detrimental cycle whereby a student acts andteachers react.
IDENTIFYING THE GOALS OF CHILDREN’S MISBEHAVIOUR USEFUL/SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR GOALS BEHAVIOUR ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE GOAL I CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION DESTRUCTIVE DESTRUCTIVE “SUCCESS” "CHARM" "NUISANCE" "LAZINESS" "ATTENTION GETTING"Performing for attention Excessively pleasant Show off Bashful Seeks proof of status Cute remarks Model child The Clown Self -Indulgent Will cease when Industrious Bright sayings Enfant terrible Eating problems reprimanded or given Reliable Excess charm Acts tough attention Especially good Princess/Prince charming Minor mischief Self elevation or cooperation A REBEL "STUBBORN" GOAL II Argues Lazy "POWER" Respects rights of others Contradicts Disobedient Similar to destructive all. - Tolerant of others Temper Forgetful More intense Interested in others Untruthful Reprimand/intensifies Encourages others Dawdling Risk taker "VICIOUS" "VIOLENT" GOAL III Genuine efforts Stealing Passive "REVENGE" We rather than I Bed wetting Sullen Retaliates Sense of competence Violent Defiant Hurts others Sense of usefulness Brutal Sense of belonging "HOPELESS" GOAL IV Indolence Inadequacy Inaptitude Imagine or real Complex Deficiency
Consider each of the classroom incidents below:According to Dreikurs theory what mistaken goal appears to be operating in each of the followingscenarios.1. You are in the middle of talking to the class when you realise that someone is clicking a biro.You see that it is Cleo. You are aware that she has often done it before and you have alreadycommented on it twice this lesson.2. You have to repeatedly interrupt a class discussion because of the need to stop Sue and Karlyfrom chattering noisily about the weekends activities. A student, Roma, is in the middle of arelevant point when the noise coming from Sue and Karly once again becomes quite loud.3. You are in the middle of conducting some groupwork when Kerrin comes to you and complainsthat Barbara, a member of a different group, pushed her without justification. When you approachBarbara she says that Kerrin broke her ruler. In defense Kerrin argues that no one ever lets her jointheir group, in class, or in the yard.4. One student, Sara, is consistently unable to comprehend instructions and directions. She nearlyalways asks for clarification before getting on with it. On this occasion you have just very slowlyand carefully explained what students are to do. Sara, as usual, looks bewildered whereas all theother students get to it.5. It is the second last period of the day. You are having considerable difficulty with the class whichcontains a few trouble-makers. Perhaps the most insolent member of the class is Kylie. Today whenyou attempt to get her to stop throwing things, you hear her mutter "Who the hell do you think youare!"
EncouragementPhrases that show acceptance of the studentI like the way you.....It seems that you are satisfied with...Since youre not satisfied with…..what do you think you can do about it?It seems that you enjoy....How do you feel about what youve produced...Phrases that show confidence in the childKnowing you Im sure that you will do it all right.Thats the way, youll be able to..........I know youll make a choice you’ll be happy with.Thats hard but Im sure you will figure it out.Youll figure out how to do it.Phrases that focus on contributions, assets and appreciationThanks, you helped me a lot.It was good of you to help... Thanks, I really appreciate you,...it makes my job much easier.I need your help to…..so that....The way you…..is really quite impressive.Phrases that recognise efforts and achievementsIt looks as if you have worked really hard on....Youve worked hard. It seems like you like to...That was difficult but I can see you figured it out.I see that you are making progress with... youre already able to...
Dreikurs discussionGain involvement I think I know why you……..talked while I was talking……made noises my class... stole money….lied….etc. Do you want me to tell you what I think?Confront motivationCould it be that you want special attention?Could it be that you want to be boss and get your own way?Could it be that you want to get even and hurt people as much as you feel they have hurt you?Deny "Rational" excusesThats not it. Its not that youre bored, confused, tired etc You just want to be noticed, showpeople that they cant make you do stuff. You can do want YOU want! get even witheveryone. You figure they hurt you so why not They deserve itDefuse MotivationYoure right If you act silly enough people cant help but notice you.Absolutely, no one can make you do anything.EncourageYou are a terrific kid.I like you very much.Confront belief about not being "likable"I know you think I dont like you but I do.I think that you feel that no-one likes you but you are wrong, I like you a lot.I understand that you feel that no-one likes you and maybe you even think youre not likable,no matter how you well you try to behave. Youre wrong!Theres nothing you can do that will make me stop liking you. Give it your best shot.I even think that at times you think your parents dont like you, Youre wrong. We do like you.Youre a great kid.Provide choiceDo you want to be noticed or do you want to be liked (to have friends), you cant have both.Do you want to be boss or do you want to be liked, you cant have both.Do you want to get even or do you want to be liked, you cant have both.Separate child and behaviourI think you want people to like you but you dont think they could. Youre wrong!If you changed the way you behaved people would find it easier to like you.Its hard to like someone who steals, hits etc....The only thing about you that is hard to like is the way you are choosing to behave. If youchoose to behave differently the other kids would think differently about you.Continually expose motivationI know why you….and ….Why your behaviour is getting worse. Youre saying to me"Like me do you? Ill show you Im not likable ". It won’t work. I do like you.Apply Logical consequencesBecause you…..we will now have to ......
Silly Shoes Eduardo could hardly wait to get to school. He was wearing his new shoes. He thought they were wonderful. The left shoe was half red and half blue. The right shoe was half yellow and half green. There were little triangles and squares and circles all over them. Best of all, they had shiny gold shoelaces. Josie saw the shoes first. She pointed at them and laughed. "Hey, everybody!" she said. "Look at Eduardos silly shoes!" Eduardos face got red. Soon everybody was saying it. "Look at those silly shoes" Eduardo didnt know which way to look. He wished he could disappear. He began to get angry. "Josie started all this." he thought. "She didnt have to make fun of my new shoes. Im going to get her for this" When the class went to gym, Eduardo saw his chance. He waited until everyones shoes were lined up against the wall. He quickly grabbed Josies shoes and threw them in an empty locker. As the class filed out of the gym, Eduardo saw Josie. She was hunting everywhere for her shoes. Eduardo smirked and kept on walking. 1. What do you think of Josie and Eduardo? 2. How did Eduardo feel when Josie made fun of his shoes? 3. Eduardo wanted to get back at Josie. Whats another word that means getting back at someone? 4. How did Eduardo get revenge on Josie? 5. Would Eduardo have hidden Josies shoes anyway or did he only do it because he felt hurt? Why do you think so? 6. Did you ever want to get even with someone? What was it like? 7. What do you think about Josie making fun of Eduardo? 8. Have people ever wanted to get revenge on you when you teased them? What happened? 9. Right after Josie teased Eduardo. What could he have said or done? What other things could he have done besides getting back at Josie? 10. Does it sound as though Eduardo thought of any of those things? Why, or why not? 11. What are some examples of being teased and no taking revenge? Story for Group Discussion (K-3) Guidance topic: Power (passive)Purpose -To help the class see how young people can defeat adults by resisting adults efforts to makethem do what they dont want to do. To help students see alternatives to this kind of behavior. Stubborn StanStan was very stubborn. When his mother told him to do something, he paid no attention toher. "Make your bed," Mother said, but Stan just did what he wanted and not what Motherwanted. "Clean your room," ordered Mother. Stan didnt listen. Mother couldnt make Stan dowhat she wanted him to do. Even if she stood over him, he wouldnt do it. Sometimes Mothergave up and threatened to tell Stans father. But Father couldnt make Stan do things either.Nobody could make Stubborn Stan do what he didnt want to do!1. What do you think of Stans stubborn behavior?2. Why does he refuse to do what his parents ask him to do?3. Does this happen in school? What are some ways students try to prove no one can makethem do anything in school?4. If this happens in our class. What do you suggest I do?From Systematic Training for Effective Teaching. Dinkmeyer at al A.G.S 1980 (from A.C.E.R)
3 Components influencing Self EsteemCOMPETENCEThe student believes that she is able to do something wellUSEFULNESSThe student believes that some of the things that she can do are valued by the school community.BELONGINGThe student feels that she "has a place" in the school communityKEY QUESTIONS1. What goes on in the school that promotes difficult students feelings of Competence, Usefulnessand/or Belonging?2. What goes on in the school that undermines difficult students feelings of Competence,Usefulness and/or Belonging?In answering this question consider aspects of schooling such ascurriculum contentthe process of instructionAssess-mentCo-curricular activitiesSchool OrganisationStudent Responsibility*These notes were reproduced by the University of Ballarat with the permission of Dr. RamonLewis Associate Professor Latrobe University 2004