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Logical fallacies ppt[1]

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    Logical fallacies ppt[1] Logical fallacies ppt[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Logical F ll i L i l Fallacies by Dr. Karen Lee M F A Ph.D. Dr Lee, M.F.A., Ph D The Writing Center @ Vanguard University of Southern California “Faith and knowledge resting on the hope of eternal life . . .” (NIV Titus 1.2). (NIV, 1 2) Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Grateful Acknowledgments • Exercises are briefly excerpted from Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student by Corbett, Edward P.J. and Robert J. Connors. New York: Oxford University Press 1999 (This textbook is used in Press, 1999. our upper-division English course, ENG 370: Advanced Rhetoric & Composition.) • Short passages by H.L. Mencken and Herman Melville are briefly excerpted from Dora Smith’s y p anthology, American Experience: Nonfiction. New York: MacMillan, 1984. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Introduction Getting to Know Logical Fallacies Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • What’s a logical fallacy and why should you care? • It’s poor logic partly consisting of overgeneralizations and assumptions. li ti d ti • The presence of logical fallacies may weaken a writing project. Wh you’re d iti j t When ’ developing an l i argument, your points should follow in logical order and make proper conclusions conclusions. • When you’re refuting a counterargument (procatalepsis), it’s useful to point out logical it s fallacies as weak points in your opponent’s argument. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Logical Fallacies: Several Examples • non sequitor: reasoning doesn’t hold together, "doesn't follow“ • bandwagon: recommends a course of action just because “everyone else” is doing it • equivocation: ambiguity • either/or: false binaries • faulty generalization: inadequate evidence & jumps to conclusions Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Logical Fallacies: More Examples • faulty causal: cause & effect problem • faulty analogy: analogy does not hold; compared p p parts dissimilar • begging the question: circular reasoning & tautological definitions • ad hominem: argument switches to character slander Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Logical Fallacies: Still More Examples • ad populum: appeals to irrational fears & prejudices j di • red herring: dodges main issue (refers to d h i dragged across th paths t red herring d d the th of hounds to throw them off in their pursuit) • complex question: two-pronged question "When did you stop stealing?" When stealing? (combines two questions, one implied) Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Now You Try It! For the next group of slides, identify the logical fallacy at work in each. You may choose among these terms: non sequitor, equivocation, faulty generalization, bandwagon, faulty causal, faulty analogy, begging the question, ad hominem, ad populem, red herring, and complex question. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Identify Logical Fallacies • “ ‘Either they voted for the candidate or they voted for the candidate’s opponent’ ” (Corbett and Connors 67). • “Any man who is honest will not steal. Any My client is honest. Therefore, my client would not steal” (Corbett and steal Connors 69). Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Answers • “ ‘Either they voted for the candidate or they voted for the candidate’s opponent’ ” (Corbett and Connors 67). EITHER/OR FALLACY • “A man who i h “Any h is honest will not steal. My client t ill t t l M li t is honest. Therefore, my client would not steal” (Corbett and Connors 69) 69). BEGGING THE QUESTION Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Identify the Logical Fallacy • “ ‘My opponent’s arguments are very impressive, but remember, this is the man who deserted his faithful wife and family after he had won his first political victory’ ” (Corbett and Connors 70). Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Answer • “ ‘My opponent’s arguments are very impressive, but remember, this is the man who deserted his faithful wife and family after he had won his first political victory’ ” (Corbett and Connors 70). AD HOMINEM Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Identify Logical Fallacies • “ ‘You accuse me of cheating on my income tax, but doesn’t everybody cheat a little bit’ ” (Corbett and Connors 70)? • “ ‘Why did you steal the diamond ring ring’ ” (Corbett and Connors 71)? Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Answers • “ ‘You accuse me of cheating on my income tax, but doesn t doesn’t everybody cheat a little bit’ ” (Corbett and bit Connors 70)? RED HERRING OR FAULTY GENERALIZATION • “ ‘Why did you steal the diamond ring’ “ (Corbett and Connors 71)? COMPLEX QUESTION Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Detecting Logical Fallacies: Examine this Excerpt “But it is not meant that all American writers should studiously cleave t it h ld t di l l to nationality in their writings; only this, no American writer should write like an Englishman or a Frenchman; let him write like a man for then he will be sure to man, write like an American. Let us away with this leaven of literary flunkeyism towards y y England” (Melville 275). Melville, Herman. “Hawthorne and His Mosses.” American Experience: Nonfiction. Dora Smith, Gen. Ed. New York: MacMillan, 1984. 269-277. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Detecting Logical Fallacies: Examine this Excerpt “Turn, now, to politics. Consider, for example, a campaign more uproariously idiotic – a deafening, nerve-wracking battle to the death between Tweedledum and Tweedledee Tweedledee, Harlequin and Sganarelle, Gobbo and Dr. Cook – the unspeakable, with fearful snorts, gradually swallowing the inconceivable? I defy anyone to match it elsewhere on the earth. earth In other lands, at worst, there are at least intelligible lands worst issues, coherent ideas, salient personalities. Somebody says something, and somebody replies. But what did Harding say in 1920, and what did Cox reply? Who was g y , py Harding, anyhow, and who was Cox? Here, having perfected democracy, we lift the whole combat to symbolism, to transcendentalism, to metaphysics. Here we load a pair of palpably tin cannon with blank cartridges charged with talcum powder, and so let fly” (Mencken 388). Mencken, H. L. “On Being an American.” Dora Smith, Gen. Ed. American Experience: Nonfiction. New York: MacMillan, 1984. 385-389. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • Summary • A logical fallacy is simply poor logic. • The presence of logical fallacies may weaken a writing project. • It’s often useful to point out logical fallacies as weak points in your opponent’s argument. t’ t • Logical fallacies are usually forms of inaccurate assumptions, bi i t ti bias, j jumps i in thought, & overgeneralizations. Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8
    • The Writing Center For more help with logical fallacies, contact the Writing Center. g • Where: Heath 214 • What else: Thanks for your interest in our resources! “Faith and knowledge resting on the hope of eternal life . . .” (NIV, Titus 1.2). Version Date: 3.10.06, klee@vanguard.edu, Colossians 2.8