2010 05-21, object-relational mapping using hibernate v2

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  • Speaker’s notes: First level cache takes care of giving the application the same java object each time the corresponding persistent object is accessed Cache strategy may be typically read-only, read-write etc. It can be set per class. Second-level cache can be per JVM, on disc or clustered (ip-multicast)
  • 2010 05-21, object-relational mapping using hibernate v2

    1. 1. Object / Relational Mapping Using HibernateCopyright © 2007 Accenture. All rights reserved. Accenture, its logo, and High Performance Delivered are trademarks of Accenture.
    2. 2. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 2
    3. 3. Introduction• This presentation will consist of some background information on Hibernate and some examples that show the basic functionality of Hibernate.• Obviously, there is more than one way to use Hibernate. 3
    4. 4. Introduction: O / R MismatchO / R Mismatch• The correlation between object types to database tables is not usually one to one. In examining the differences and mismatches between object and relational systems, explore the simple object model below. 4
    5. 5. Introduction: O / R Mismatch• How should instances of objects in this model be persisted?• Normalized for flexibility or denormalized for performance?• How do you decide?• What if the Customer database table existed before the object model? What would you have to do to your class/object design? 5
    6. 6. Introduction: O / R Mismatch• When working with object-oriented systems, there’s a mismatch between the object model and the relational database.• How do we map one to the other? 6
    7. 7. Introduction: O / R Mismatch• How to map associations between objects? – References are directional, foreign keys are not. – Foreign keys can’t represent many-to-many associations. 7
    8. 8. Introduction: Approaches to ORM• Why relational databases? – Flexible and robust approach to data management. – De-facto standard in software development.• Why object-oriented models? – Business logic can be implemented in Java (opposed to stored procedures). – Allows for use of design patterns and concepts like polymorphism. – Improves code reuse and maintainability.• Demand for mapping interaction! 8
    9. 9. Introduction: Approaches to ORM• Use Java serialization – Write application state to a file – Can only be accessed as a whole – Not possible to access single objects• Object-oriented database systems – No complete query language implementation exists – Lacks necessary features 9
    10. 10. Introduction: Preferred Solution• Use a Object-Relational Mapping System (e.g. Hibernate): Provides a simple API for storing and retrieving Java objects directly to and from the database.• Non-intrusive: No need to follow specific rules or design patterns.• Transparent: Your object model is unaware. 10
    11. 11. Introduction: Persistent Framework• What’s a persistent framework? - An ORM service that stores and retrieves objects into a relational database.• So why do we need a persistence framework? - To avoid hard coding SQL into our Java applications.• JDBC and SQL require Java programmers to be familiar with relational database details.• Java programs are object-oriented (or at least should be) in nature whereas relational databases are tabular in nature.• Persistent frameworks help alleviate the ORM “impedance mismatch.”. 11
    12. 12. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 12
    13. 13. Why Hibernate?Hibernate is considered a persistent framework for Java!• Introduced to address the issues of Entity Beans.• Built on top of JNDI, JDBC, JTA.• Uses XML based configuration files for mapping.• Supports many databases like Sybase, Oracle, MySQL,other Object- Oriented Databases etc.• Makes for easy migration from one vendor database to another.• Generates the JDBC Code based on the underlying vendor database.• Hibernate APIs are very simple to learn and use.• Provides a powerful object query language known as Hibernate Query Language (HQL). 13
    14. 14. Why Hibernate?: Features• Inheritance, polymorphism support• Custom data types• Collections• Uni and bi-directional entity associations• Transactions and concurrency• Caching• Connection pooling• HQL – Advanced Object Query Language etc. 14
    15. 15. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 15
    16. 16. Architecture• Middleware that manages persistence.• Provides an abstraction layer between the Persistence Layer and the database. 16
    17. 17. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 17
    18. 18. Hibernate BasicsSessionFactory• A threadsafe (immutable) cache of compiled mappings for a single database.• A factory for Session.• Expensive to create. 18
    19. 19. Hibernate BasicsSession• A single-threaded, short-lived object representing a conversation between the application and the persistent store.• Wraps a JDBC connection.• Factory for Transaction.• Holds a mandatory (first-level) cache of persistent objects; used when navigating the object graph or looking up objects by identifier. 19
    20. 20. Hibernate BasicsPersistent Objects and Collections• Short-lived, single-threaded objects containing persistent state and business function.• These might be ordinary JavaBeans/POJOs. The only special thing about them is that they are currently associated with (exactly one) Session.• As soon as the Session is closed, they will be detached and free to use in Any application layer. 20
    21. 21. Hibernate BasicsTransient Objects and Collections• Instances of persistent classes that are not currently associated with a Session.• They may have been instantiated by the application and not (yet) persisted or they may have been instantiated by a closed Session. 21
    22. 22. Hibernate BasicsTransaction• A single-threaded, short-lived object used by the application to specify atomic units of work.• Abstracts application from underlying JDBC, JTA or CORBA transaction.• Multiple transactions per Session. 22
    23. 23. Hibernate Basics: Architecture APIConfiguration : Session :•Is the first Hibernate object to be used. •Main interface to accomplish work with the database.•Created once during application initialization •objects are saved and retrieved through a Session.•A Configuration object is used to create a •Is lightweight and inexpensive to create.SessionFactory •Is not thread safe. •Used to create a Transaction object Session Factory : • It is a factory for Session objects •created during application start up •Is a thread safe object Transaction : •Is created per database •Represents a unit of work with the database (and potentially other systems). •Handled by an underlying transaction managerQuery and Criteria objects are used to retrieve (and recreate)persistent objects. 23
    24. 24. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 24
    25. 25. Example Application: The StudentManager 25
    26. 26. Java Object 26
    27. 27. Example Application: The StudentManager 27
    28. 28. Hibernate Mapping Files• Tells Hibernate which tables and columns to use to load and store objects. 28
    29. 29. Example Application: The StudentManager 29
    30. 30. Configuration: Config File 30
    31. 31. Example Application: The StudentManager 31
    32. 32. The Configuration Object• Represents a set of mapping files.• Mapping files can be specified programmatically or through the Hibernate configuration file.• Intended as a start-up time object. 32
    33. 33. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 33
    34. 34. Transactions• A set of database operations which must be executed in entirety or not at all.• Should end either with a commit or a rollback.• All communication with a database has to occur inside a transaction! 34
    35. 35. Transactions• Most common pattern is session-per-request. 35
    36. 36. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 36
    37. 37. Object States: Transient & PersistentTransient :•An object is transient if it has just been instantiated using thenew operator.•It is not associated with a Hibernate Session.•Use the Hibernate Session to make an object persistent.Persistent :•A persistent instance has a representation in thedatabase and an identifier value.•It might just have been saved or loaded.•Definied in the scope of a Session. 37
    38. 38. Object States: DetachedDetached :•A detached instance is an object that has beenpersistent, but its Session has been closed.•The reference to the object is still valid, of course, andthe detached instance might even be modified in thisstate.•A detached instance can be reattached to a new Sessionat a later point in time, making it (and all themodifications) persistent again. Sample Code : Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); Transaction transaction = session.beginTransaction(); BallPlayer p = (BallPlayer)session.get(BallPlayer.class, 1L); transaction.commit(); session.close(); //p is now Detached p.setNickname("Bambino"); //change is unsynchronized session = sessionFactory.openSession(); //again open new session transaction = session.beginTransaction(); //can also use session.saveOrUpdate() in method call below session.update(p); //now new nickname is applied transaction.commit(); session.close(); 38
    39. 39. Object States: Complete Lifecycle• A complete diagram of the lifecycle, given a description of the states and methods that transition the objects between states. 39
    40. 40. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 40
    41. 41. O / R Mapping: Collection Mapping• Collection properties must be declared as an interface type (Set, not HashSet).• Hibernate provides built-in mapping for Set, Map, List, and more.• May contain basic types, custom types and references to other Hibernate objects.• Collections are represented by a collection table in the database: – Collection key: foreign key of owning object – Collection element: object in the collection 41
    42. 42. O / R Mapping: Collection Mapping 42
    43. 43. OR Mapping: Association Mapping• Hibernate lets you easily specify all kinds of associations between objects: – Unidirectional one-to-many – Unidirectional many-to-many – Bi-directional one-to-many – Bi-directional many-to-many• Representing associations with join tables makes the database schema cleaner.• Nullable foreign keys is bad practice. 43
    44. 44. O / R Mapping: Unidirectional (One-to-Many) 44
    45. 45. O / R Mapping: Unidirectional (Many-to-Many) 45
    46. 46. O / R Mapping: Bi-directional (One-to-Many) 46
    47. 47. O / R Mapping: Bi-directional (Many-to-Many) 47
    48. 48. O / R Mapping: The Inverse Property Explained• Bi-directional associations must be updated on both sides in the Java code!• Hibernate maps many-relationships with a join table.• Hibernate must ignore one side to avoid constraint violations!• Must be the many side for one-to-many, but doesn’t matter for many-to- many. 48
    49. 49. O / R Mapping: Component Mapping• A component is an object saved as a value, not as a reference.• Saved directly – no need to declare interfaces or identifiers.• Required to define an empty constructor.• Shared references not supported. 49
    50. 50. O / R Mapping: Component Mapping 50
    51. 51. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 51
    52. 52. Hibernate Query Language (HQL): The Query Interface• You need a query when you don’t know the identifiers of the objects you are looking for.• Used mainly to execute Hibernate Query Language queries.• Obtained from a Hibernate Session instance.• Provides functionality for: – Parameter binding to named query parameters – Retrieving lists of objects or unique objects – Limiting the number of retrieved objects 52
    53. 53. Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• HQL is an object-oriented query language – Syntax has similarities to SQL – Not working against tables and columns, but objects!• Understands object-oriented concepts like inheritance• Has advanced features like: – Associations and joins – Polymorphic queries – Sub-queries – Expressions• Reduces the size of queries 53
    54. 54. Hibernate Query Language (HQL) 54
    55. 55. Hibernate Query Language (HQL) 55
    56. 56. Hibernate Query Language (HQL):Where Clause 56
    57. 57. Hibernate Query Language (HQL):Query Example 57
    58. 58. Hibernate Query Language (HQL):Query Example 58
    59. 59. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 59
    60. 60. Improving PerformanceFetching strategies: Hibernate uses a fetching strategy to retrieveassociated objects if the application needs to navigate the association.Fetch strategies can be declared in the O / R mapping metadata, oroverridden by a particular HQL or criteria query. – Join fetching – Select fetching – Sub-select fetching – Batch fetching 60
    61. 61. Improving Performance 61
    62. 62. Improving Performance 62
    63. 63. Improving PerformanceAbout Caching:• All objects that are passed to methods save(), update() or saveOrUpdate() or those you get from load(), get(), list(), iterate() or scroll() will be saved into cache.• Flush() is used to synchronize the object with database and evict() is used to delete it from cache.• Contains() used to find whether the object belongs to the cache or not.• Session.clear() used to delete all objects from the cache.• Suppose the query wants to force a refresh of its query cache region, we should call Query.setCacheMode(CacheMode.REFRESH). 63
    64. 64. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 64
    65. 65. Alternatives to Hibernate• Other popular ORMs are: – iBatis – JPA – TopLink• iBatis – You want to create your own SQLs and are willing to maintain them – Your environment is driven by relational data model – Needs SQL Statements to be coded in its Mapping files – Good when developer needs control over the SQL• TopLink – Very similar and quite powerful but costs – Vendor lock-in 65
    66. 66. Alternatives to Hibernate• JPA – Java Persistence API – Java EE 5 ORM Solution – Part of EJB 3 Specification – Supported by all Java EE vendors – Designed based on popular ORM solutions like iBatis,JDO, TopLink including Hibernate – Replaces Entity Beans – It’s more of a specification; you can use any provider like TopLink, etc. – Depends on provider which may implement more than standard specification – JPA lags in defining Caching and other advanced features – Useful in case of standard Java based solution using Java EE platform 66
    67. 67. Session Structure• Introduction• Why Hibernate?• Architecture• Hibernate Basics• Example Application• Transactions• Object States• O / R Mappings• Hibernate Query Language (HQL)• Improving Performance• Alternatives to Hibernate• Q&A 67
    68. 68. Q&A Questions? 68
    69. 69. References• Christian Bauer and Gavin King: Hibernate in Action• James Elliot: Hibernate – A Developer’s notebook• Justin Gehtland, Bruce A. Tate: Better, Faster, Lighter Java• http://www.hibernate.org• http://www.hibernate-training-guide.com 69
    70. 70. Thanks Thanks eveybody for attending this session. 70

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