Ionic Bonding Notes

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Notes on ionic bonding.

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  • i thought chlorine is in group 7? not 17?
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  • hi there. i am a high school science teacher and uploaded my own ionic bonds .ppt (look for user 'tufdaawg') and found yours. can i download this, or have you send it to me?<br /><br/>
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Ionic Bonding Notes

  1. 1. Ionic Compounds are formed from a metallic cation, and a non-metallic anion
  2. 2. Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic compounds are called salts . </li></ul><ul><li>The bond is formed through the transfer of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are transferred to achieve a noble gas configuration. (very stable) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Example 1 . . . . . . . . Na + Cl Na + + . . . . . . . Cl . - Na has 1 valence electron because it is in Group 1 Cl has 7 valence electrons because it is in Group 17
  4. 4. Example 1 Na + Cl - Na gives his one valence electron to Cl. Now both atoms are happy. They each have a stable set-up of electrons like noble gases. How many do they need in their valence shell to be stable?
  5. 5. Ionic Bonding <ul><li>All the electrons must be accounted for! </li></ul>Ca P
  6. 6. Ionic Bonding Ca P Sometimes atoms can’t satisfy each other in a one to one ratio
  7. 7. Making Formulas Ca +2 P Notice Ca is happy but P still needs one more electron. So watch what happens.
  8. 8. Making Formulas Ca +2 P Ca
  9. 9. Making Formulas Ca +2 P -3 Ca But what about the 2nd Ca?
  10. 10. Making Formulas Ca +2 P -3 Ca P
  11. 11. Making Formulas Ca +2 P -3 Ca +2 P OK, 2nd Ca is Happy but 2nd P is not now!
  12. 12. Making Formulas Ca +2 Ca +2 Ca P -3 P
  13. 13. Making Formulas Ca +2 Ca +2 Ca +2 Finally everyone’s happy! P -3 P -3
  14. 14. Making Formulas Ca 3 P 2 So what’s the formula for this Compound? Now complete your Ionic Formulas Worksheet.
  15. 15. Steps to remember 1)Get charges for the cation and anion.(Look at the Periodic Table) Cation always comes first! 2)Put polyatomics in parenthesis. 3)Balance the charges so that they add up to zero by using subscripts. (Cross method)
  16. 16. Writing Formulas: The Cross-Out Method <ul><li>Steps to Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Get charges for the cation and anion. Cation always comes first! </li></ul><ul><li>2)Balance the charges so that they add up to zero by using subscripts. (cross-out method) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reminder: Get charges from the Periodic Table +2 +1 +3 -3 -2 -1
  18. 18. Example: Ba and Br Cation? Anion? Ba +2 Br -1 BaBr 2 (The one is understood) Now complete your ionic cross-out worksheet.
  19. 19. Polyatomic Ions <ul><li>Groups of atoms that stay together and have a charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Found on p. 7 of your Chemistry Reference Tables </li></ul>Name Charge Formula
  20. 20. How Do We Use Polyatomic Ions? <ul><li>When writing them as either cation or anion we ... </li></ul><ul><li>... put parenthesis around the ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ammonium becomes (NH 4 ) + </li></ul><ul><li>So ammonium chloride would become (NH 4 )Cl </li></ul>
  21. 21. Example with Polyatomic Ions Calcium and nitrate Cation Anion Ca +2 NO 3 -1 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Remember: Polyatomic ion goes in parentheses.
  22. 22. Writing Names <ul><li>Step 1 – Separate cation and anion from formula </li></ul><ul><li>CuBr 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cu 2+ Br - </li></ul>
  23. 23. Step 2 – Name Check for the need for a roman numeral in the name. Transition element? Yes “Special Case” on stair-step? Yes
  24. 24. Step 2 – Name <ul><li>Ex : Cu 2+ Br - </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) Bromide </li></ul>
  25. 25. Things to look for <ul><li>If cations have (), the number is their charge. </li></ul><ul><li>If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>If anion ends in -ate or -ite it is polyatomic </li></ul>
  26. 26. Properties of Ionic Solids High lattice energy   high melting T 3D ionic lattice  brittleness Ions   electrical conductivity (when molten) solubility in polar solvents (eg H 2 O)
  27. 27. Properties of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Crystalline structure. </li></ul><ul><li>A regular repeating arrangement of ions in the solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are strongly bonded. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure is rigid. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Crystalline structure
  29. 29. Do they Conduct? <ul><li>Conducting electricity is allowing charges to move. </li></ul><ul><li>In a solid, the ions are locked in place. Ionic solids are insulators. </li></ul><ul><li>When melted, the ions can move around. Melted ionic compounds conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved in water they conduct. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ionic solids are brittle + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + -
  31. 31. Ionic solids are brittle <ul><li>Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart. </li></ul>+ - + - + - + - + - + - + - + -

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