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Project 3 (1) Project 3 (1) Document Transcript

  • UNIVERSIDAD JUÁREZ DEL ESTADODE DURANGO“Escuela De Lenguas”June 3Final Project 3rd SemesterStudents: Alma Verónica Méndez Valdez, GabrielaBautista Morales, Adriana Mercedes García Alcázar
  • INSTRUMENT OF OBSERVATION1.-How does the teacher introduce the topic?2.-How does the teacher stimulate students?3.-Who controlled the class? Why?4.-Is the teaching deductive or inductive5.-Does the teacher promotes drilling or repetition activities?6.-What aspects does the teacher take in account from students?7.-Does the teacher encourage learners to produce language?8.-Does the teacher creates a good atmosphere in the class?9.-Does the teacher motivates or cheers up the students?10.-Does the teacher gave confidence to students? Why?11.-Does the teacher use technology as a learning tool?12.-Is the group organized into teams?13.-What communicative skills did she put into practice?14.-To what extent learners are able to distinguish elements about the topic, and expressthem?15.-How does the teacher enhance reflection on English knowledge?16.-How learners characteristics are considered?17.-How do students show that they have processed knowledge?18.-Are the Students exposed to the language? In what kind of activities?19.-Does the learners receive enough input?20. - Are they are able to produce within this input?
  • SummaryThe teacher presents the class asking the students if they know what a sentence was, theygave answers previous knowledge and own experience, in a more explicit way theyanswered with clue words.There was a lack of stimulus, but in some stages of the lesson the teacher applied the elicitfunction.There was a teacher- student’s role because in some stages of the lesson the teacherexplains some lesson points and in another stages students had the opportunity toparticipate.The teaching was deductive because the teacher gave a brief explanation about the topicspecifically sentence definition and the structure.The teacher does not base her lesson on drilling or repetition activities, instead sheinteracts with the students.Some aspects that the teacher took in consideration from students were theirparticipation during the class in different activities and also that students do not speak intheir mother tongue. The teacher was aware that students do not use their first language.The teacher maintained good humor, and was respectful to students but on the otherhand it was notorious the lack of enhancement, she was just focus on to teach her lesson.Treatment between teacher and students seemed to be rather routine and monotonouswith no evidence that she wanted to make them feel secure of what they were doing.She did not use technology in this stage of her class; the tools she used were theblackboard and flashcards.The group was not organized into teams the interaction pattern that she applied for thelesson was group work and the abilities that she put into practice was reading, writing,and speaking skills.Students were able to solve exercises and express what they understood about the lessonto some extent within normal attitudes with mistakes and successes like any otherstudents. As a fact the teacher did not really enhance reflection about English knowledge,she just suddenly in a few occasions suggests them not to speak their first language.Learners’ characteristic that best suits for the way they worked in class was group learningstyle because student learns best working with others. View slide
  • When learners are connected to other bits of past information when they reinforceknowledge again it will be easier for them to solve exercises or to remember languagerules.The lesson was given in the target language, so students were exposed to the languageduring the lesson through simple games and competitions.Students received the very basic input because students had previous knowledge tounderstand the topic. If the subject had been new the input would not be sufficient and asa result it had been more difficult to learners to distinguish and produce language. View slide
  • Teacher NATANAEL: SUPPORTIN INFORMATIONThe teacher introduce the topic based on “Constructivism Theory” because she askstudents questions, previous knowledge about the topic with the purpose to give them areview related to sentence structure., Students answer with key words.The role of the teacher was focus on being a guide. Student’s participation was followingteacher instructions, for example solving simple exercises distinguishing languageelements (structure) and as result they were able to construct their own knowledge.Students participate and they were involved in the activities that teacher sets in class theinteraction of both, teacher and students were active during the lesson activities.The class was also inspired in the “Cognitive Theory” because the teacher gaveinformation about the topic, and students received the elemental information, theyassimilated and on the next stage of the lesson they were able to produce basicknowledge. Students practiced different activities as games using verbs flashcards. Thedynamic of this game was that students saw a flashcard and they had to write a sentencein their notebooks that matches with verb of the flashcard, underlining with red color thesubject and with double line and blue color the predicate following the teacherinstructions as a result the students processed knowledge in a logical way.The last activity of the lesson was based on constructivism theory because the teachersupported it in students’ prior knowledge and experiences. Teacher sets a competitiongame between girls and boys, the instructions for the game were that the student had toto look to a flashcard and the student who has written the sentence in first place was thewinner.
  • Teacher: IsaiasFACTORS AFFECTING LEARNINGATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION:Teacher and students had a positive attitude, (children`s innate linguistic knowledgewhich, it is hypothesized and consists of a set of principles common to all languages), forthat reason it was easy for students to comprehend the topic acceding to the languageattitude.Intelligence:All students have different abilities to acquire for learning the target language and eachstudent have to develop skill or strategies with the help of the teacher in the classroom.Language Learning Strategies:The use of easy activities and vocabulary help students to be focus and interested duringthe class.Self Confidence:A prior knowledge and reinforcement activities enhances students to feel secure on everystage of the lesson.Personalities:Most students’ personalities were extroverted and talkative this was a good factor thathelped them to participate better in class.Gender:Both girls and boys were able to coexist in a healthy environment and as a result therewere exposed to understand in the same level.Age:Students were of the same age around 11 to 12 years old and most students are able toexpress the target language because they have prior knowledge since early age.
  • ARGUMENTATED CONCLUSION:During the process of the class the lessons were taught inspired in constructivism andconginitivism theories. The facts are the ways teacher uses with the students and how itwas developed in the different stages.Constructivism: Is a theory to explain how the learner constructs their own knowledgeusing their previous knowledge that they have been developed by experiences.Cognitivist: Is the theory that describes how information is processed to produce learning,it is a change in a learners` mental behavior. According to Paget constructivism is a needfor accommodation when current experience cannot be assimilated in exiting schema(Piaget 1977, in cognitive stage called concrete operatorial that is in the age of 6/7 to11/12 years old children who begins to think logically.We observed that the class was inspired in the communicative approach because the classwas exposed in the target language. Students and teacher interacted in the secondlanguage. This is based on the below definition of this approach.(The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfullycomes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in realcommunication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this willallow them to learn to use the language.)The students were capable to understand languages without using their mother tongue.According to Chomsky`s theory (Universal Grammar) language acquisition is based on thehypothesis that innate knowledge of the principles of Universal Grammar (UG) permits allchildren to acquire the language of their environment, during a critical period in theirdevelopment. (Critical Period is based in if a language is not learned by puberty thebiological endowment which permits successful language acquisition will not be available.It will be more difficult and incomplete after puberty.)http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/knowledge-database/communicative-approachBritish Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK© BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.
  • We observed that during the lesson there were some factors that were favorableaccording to the critical period hypothesis were:Motivation and Attitude: Positive attitude and motivation are related to success insecond language learning (Gardner 1985) Students show a good attitude although therewas lack of motivation. According to the affective filter hypothesis that arguments that ifthe filter is up the input is blocked and if the filter is down the input is positive. (StevenKrashen).Intelligence: Is important to keep in mind that “intelligence is complex” and thatindividual have different kind of abilities and straights, not all of which are measured bytraditional IQ test.Language Learning Strategies: Learning Strategy or style are terms to describe identifyindividual approach to learner situations: Specifically, Keefe(1979:4) defined them as“cognitive, affective and psychological traits that are relatively stable indicators of howlearners perceive, interact with, and respond to leaning environment”.Self Confidence: Krashen, claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, agood self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in secondlanguage acquisition.Personalities: Are the characteristics of a person as self-teem, empathy, dominance,talkativeness, and combines with other factors that contribute to second languagelearning.Age: The critical period hypothesis suggests that there is time in human developmentwhen the brain is predisposed for success in language learning. Developmental change inthe brain it is argued, affect the nature of language acquisition.Gender:Children`s innate linguistic knowledge which, it is hypothesized consists of a set ofprinciples common to all languages.How the material promotes SLLSuch a procedure can provide comprehensible input of course, but- given a meaningfulcontext, learners can comprehend the general meaning of many forms which theycertainly have not “mastered”, and indeed, may never have produce. Thus, restrictedclassroom second language material to those which contain little or nothing which is newmay have several negative consequences.
  • Also input hypothesis was applied because according to krashen assert that one acquireslanguage in only one way-by exposure to comprehensible input . (A term introduced bySteven Krashen to refer to language which a learner can understand), because during theclass the teacher gave students basic information so that students produce language).NADIA (Lesson Plan Justification)The class that we observed was inspired in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Isbased on the premise that successful language learning involves not only a knowledge ofthe structures and forms of a language, but also the functions and purpose that thelanguage serves in different communicative settings. This approach to teachingemphasizes the communication of meaning over the practice and manipulation ofgrammatical forms.In the class there was interaction between teacher and students using the targetlanguage, the teacher exposed the class speaking in English all the time.Silent Method: Silent Way is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent aspossible in the classroom in order to encourage the learner to produce as much languageas possible.The teacher was a monitor she didn`t dominate the class, learners then go on to createtheir own responses by putting together old and new informationIt also was based in communicative competence: Competence.- Chomosky used this termto refer to knowledge of language. This is contrasted with performance, which is the way aperson actually used language – whether for speaking, listening, or writing. Because wecannot observe competence directly, we have to infer its nature from performance.Communicative Competence: The ability to convey messages in speed of a lack ofgrammatical accuracy.Children tried to speak in the second language and the teacher encourages students toproduce target language.Didactic material is a useful tool for teacher to enhance and motivate students, becauserealia (puppets, flashcards, felt board, pictures, and labels) are attractive for children andit helps to identify different learning channels. (Visual, Auditive, and kinesthetic.)
  • OUR EXCELLENT REFLECTION:Language opens many doors for those who learn to employ it effectively. Nowadays in our worldare great advantages and opportunities of competition if someone speaks several languages.Without a doubt acquiring these skills even the best learners or students find it challenging.Notwithstanding there are techniques that can help to make it easier to master. Important is tounderstand that to achieve these goals we must reflect on the use of different approaches andperspectives.At the beginning we put in practice the theories, methods and strategies. We had theopportunity to observe in real situations what factors occur in a class and how affect s inclassroom teaching. We also learn to identify students’ necessities according to theirlearning style.In general there we had good experiences, we observed that is possible teach a Englishclass without use the first language to achieve it is important that the teacher has to beprepared for any circumstances that could appear during the class development. So thatthe factors that are involved the teacher could applied them in a positive way. We realizethat it is different theories and real practice, we as teachers should study and prepareabout all the theories and methods in order to apply the best according to the personalityof he students, atmosphere inside the classroom, and other factors that could be involved.We learned the responsibility of to be a teacher, we should have a good lesson plan inorder to achieve our objective and guide the students, using different theories andmethods no only one in specific because depend the situation is possible apply one orother.
  • VICKYWhat is the purpose of using didactic material?We went to watch the class; we could identify how the material didacticfavors children in their learning, also find it very fun.We made own material based on Howard Gardner’s theory multipleintelligences: that say all people have different intelligences and theycan learn in distinctive ways.As create the class we thought about different needs of students, wemade some flashcards that we already know most of the students arevisuals and they like pictures or photos, now, what better way tointroduce the topic with funny cartoons and phrases.Also made a felt board, where flash cards can stick and take off withoutany problems.
  • LESSON PLANThe first activity is inspired in the total physical response method,because teacher enhances students to participate and to introducethem to the English class. The high challenge is inspired in thecommunicative competence: Grammatical competence because wewill explain grammar about the topic. Sociolinguistic competencebecause there will be interaction between teacher and students orstudent to student in the target language. Strategic competence: wewill be using easy words, didactic material, mimic, and realia.According to discourse competence (How to achieve cohesion andcoherence); we will show students how to make a short conversationwith puppets, learners will be able to produce sentences about thelesson. At the end students work with worksheets to reinforceknowledge and general the class is inspired in the communicativelanguage teaching because it will thought in the target language.Our class is based on one of the five proposals for teaching inclassroom:Teach what is teachable:The purpose in this proposal is to choose appropriate languagefeatures to teach according to the learners’ second languagedevelopmental stages. (Developmental features). Also the class wasbased in one of the krashen`s monitor model: Input hypothesisbecause one acquires language in one only one way by exposure tocomprehensible input, because we will teach vocabulary according totheir age. The input is the source of acquisition
  • REFERENCESSpolsky, Bernard 1989. “Conditions for Second Language Learning”.Oxford. University press.Lightbown, Patsy M. and Spada. Nina. 1999.”How Languages areLearned”. Oxford. University press.Johnson, Marysia. 2004. A Philosophy of Second LanguageAcquisition”. Yale University Press.pentece theoryative language competence because students and teacher haveinteraction,