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Steps of scientific research
 

Steps of scientific research

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By. Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway

By. Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway

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    Steps of scientific research Steps of scientific research Presentation Transcript

    • Scientific Research Steps By Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway
    • The scientific method is a process by which scientific information is collected, analyzed, and reported in order to produce unbiased and replicable results in an effort to provide an accurate representation of observable phenomena.
    • To reach this goal, the following scientific steps must be followed: 1- Making an observation:- - Observation of a phenomenon, examples: - Exercise decrease weight. - Thalidomide causes congenital missing of ribs. - Persistent force can cause tooth movement.
    • 1- Making an observation Continued, - Formulating of research question: - Does persistent force cause tooth movement?
    • 2- Formulating a hypothesis: - Literature review ( original articles and books) - Hypothesis: “Persistent tooth movement appears to cause tooth movement”
    • 3- Designing an Experiment: - Design an experiment that will yield the data necessary to validly test a hypothesis. - Depend on data that you want to collect.
    • 4- Determine your research type: A- Observational Research: 1- Cross-sectional study, ex. Prevalence of dental caries in Yemen or Sana’a city or UST. 2- Case-Control study (backward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis. 3- Cohort study (forward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis.
    • 4- Determine your research type: B- Experimental Research: 1- Randomized clinical trials 2- Non-randomized clinical trials Ex. Zinc supplements can prevent or reduce severe diarrhea in children Ex. MTA has less micro-leakage than gutta-percha
    • 5- Proposal: 1- Introduction ( Justify the study (rationale) + aim) 2- Methods ( Study design and type ) 3- Statistical analysis plan 6- Ethical Clearance: Any research involving humans or animals must be conducted according to Helsinki declaration to avoid violation of human rights.
    • 7- Data collection: - Design a good case sheet for any type of research. - Make it easy to transfer to Spss. 8- Data transfer: - From case sheets to Spss. - Start the process early during data collection. - Must be done by the researcher to avoid mistakes.
    • 9- Data Analysis: - Requires good knowledge of biostatistics & Spss. - Statistician may be consulted in difficult analysis types, but not for the whole process. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Good proposal saves time. - Scientific writing ( IMRAD )
    • 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Introduction: (same as proposal) - Use up to date references - Take the advantage of endnote software ( it saves a lot of time and effort) - Methods: ( same as proposal unless certain modifications were necessary during data collection) - Results: - Explain your results without making any interpretation or comparisons with other studies. - Use tables and figures where necessary.
    • 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Discussion: - Justify your methods. - Interpret your results, try to show why these results are important. - Compare with other researches and show the difference or compliance. - Mention the limitations of the study. - Make summary of conclusions. - Recommend future investigations if needed.
    • 11- Publishing: - A well-designed and conducted study MUST be published. - Try to publish in a Pubmed indexed journal. - Read the Author guidelines carefully and follow them. - May require slight modification of your ready manuscript.
    • Tosen Takk ‫بالنرويجي‬ ‫شكر‬ ‫الف‬ 