Steps of scientific research

  • 412 views
Uploaded on

By. Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway

By. Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
412
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Scientific Research Steps By Dr. Amin Al-Ashtal PhD Candidate at University of Bergen - Norway
  • 2. The scientific method is a process by which scientific information is collected, analyzed, and reported in order to produce unbiased and replicable results in an effort to provide an accurate representation of observable phenomena.
  • 3. To reach this goal, the following scientific steps must be followed: 1- Making an observation:- - Observation of a phenomenon, examples: - Exercise decrease weight. - Thalidomide causes congenital missing of ribs. - Persistent force can cause tooth movement.
  • 4. 1- Making an observation Continued, - Formulating of research question: - Does persistent force cause tooth movement?
  • 5. 2- Formulating a hypothesis: - Literature review ( original articles and books) - Hypothesis: “Persistent tooth movement appears to cause tooth movement”
  • 6. 3- Designing an Experiment: - Design an experiment that will yield the data necessary to validly test a hypothesis. - Depend on data that you want to collect.
  • 7. 4- Determine your research type: A- Observational Research: 1- Cross-sectional study, ex. Prevalence of dental caries in Yemen or Sana’a city or UST. 2- Case-Control study (backward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis. 3- Cohort study (forward), ex. Causes of cancer or periodontitis.
  • 8. 4- Determine your research type: B- Experimental Research: 1- Randomized clinical trials 2- Non-randomized clinical trials Ex. Zinc supplements can prevent or reduce severe diarrhea in children Ex. MTA has less micro-leakage than gutta-percha
  • 9. 5- Proposal: 1- Introduction ( Justify the study (rationale) + aim) 2- Methods ( Study design and type ) 3- Statistical analysis plan 6- Ethical Clearance: Any research involving humans or animals must be conducted according to Helsinki declaration to avoid violation of human rights.
  • 10. 7- Data collection: - Design a good case sheet for any type of research. - Make it easy to transfer to Spss. 8- Data transfer: - From case sheets to Spss. - Start the process early during data collection. - Must be done by the researcher to avoid mistakes.
  • 11. 9- Data Analysis: - Requires good knowledge of biostatistics & Spss. - Statistician may be consulted in difficult analysis types, but not for the whole process. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Good proposal saves time. - Scientific writing ( IMRAD )
  • 12. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Introduction: (same as proposal) - Use up to date references - Take the advantage of endnote software ( it saves a lot of time and effort) - Methods: ( same as proposal unless certain modifications were necessary during data collection) - Results: - Explain your results without making any interpretation or comparisons with other studies. - Use tables and figures where necessary.
  • 13. 10- Writing the article(manuscript) or thesis: - Discussion: - Justify your methods. - Interpret your results, try to show why these results are important. - Compare with other researches and show the difference or compliance. - Mention the limitations of the study. - Make summary of conclusions. - Recommend future investigations if needed.
  • 14. 11- Publishing: - A well-designed and conducted study MUST be published. - Try to publish in a Pubmed indexed journal. - Read the Author guidelines carefully and follow them. - May require slight modification of your ready manuscript.
  • 15. Tosen Takk ‫بالنرويجي‬ ‫شكر‬ ‫الف‬ 